Abstract

A hybrid ZnO micro-mesh and nanorod arrays (MMNR) was fabricated as a light output window for GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to enhance the light extraction efficiency. The light output power of GaN-based LEDs with the ZnO MMNR is improved by 95% compared to the original planar LEDs. The ZnO MMNR is manufactured by photolithography techniques and a two-step wet chemical growth process. The incident angle-resolved light transmission of the ZnO MMNR beyond the critical angle of total internal reflection is greatly enhanced. The light diffraction pattern of the ZnO MMNR shows that it possesses both the two-dimensional diffraction grating effect of a ZnO micro-mesh and the light scattering effect of a ZnO nanorod array. LEDs with the ZnO MMNR have greater light extraction efficiency than those with only a ZnO micro-mesh or a ZnO nanorod array. The local optical field patterns of the ZnO micro-mesh and the ZnO MMNR are investigated using confocal scanning electroluminescence microscopy. The microscopic light extraction mechanism of the ZnO MMNR is analyzed in-depth.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Holonyak, “Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?” Am. J. Phys.68(9), 864–866 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B.-U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J.-L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(3), 632–639 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2006).
  8. A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4–5), 189–241 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J.-H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K.-D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S.-K. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. H. Kang, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, N. Han, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Comparison of various surface textured layer in InGaN LEDs for high light extraction efficiency,” Opt. Express19(4), 3637–3647 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Wei, Q. Kong, J. Wang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, G. Wang, J. Li, Y. Liao, and F. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. J. Huber, B. Deutsch, L. Novotny, and R. Hillenbrand, “Focusing of surface phonon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(20), 203104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Zhao and H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express20(S5), A765–A776 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. C. Yang, J.-K. Sheu, M.-L. Lee, C. H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, S. J. Hon, and T. K. Ko, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diode with a retained patterned sapphire layer,” Opt. Express20(S6), A1019–A1025 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X.-H. Huang, J.-P. Liu, J.-J. Kong, H. Yang, and H.-B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express19(S4), A949–A955 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y.-C. Lee, C.-H. Ni, and C.-Y. Chen, “Enhancing light extraction mechanisms of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes through the integration of imprinting microstructures, patterned sapphire substrates, and surface roughness,” Opt. Express18(S4), A489–A498 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C.-F. Lin, C.-M. Lin, K.-T. Chen, M.-S. Lin, and J.-J. Dai, “Green light-emitting diodes with a photoelectrochemically treated microhole-array pattern,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett.13(3), H90–H93 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. H. Kim, H. H. Park, Y. H. Song, H. J. Park, J. B. Kim, S. R. Jeon, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. M. Yang, “An improvement of light extraction efficiency for GaN-based light emitting diodes by selective etched nanorods in periodic microholes,” Opt. Express21(6), 7125–7130 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Z. Yin, X. Liu, Y. Wu, X. Hao, and X. Xu, “Enhancement of light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using rough beveled ZnO nanocone arrays,” Opt. Express20(2), 1013–1021 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J. C. Park, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, S. J. Park, and S. W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071118 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 083110 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. S. Kang, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Low temperature (<100 °C) patterned growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 083104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. Yuan, R. Guo, Y. Wei, W. Wu, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and S. Das, “Heteroepitaxial patterned growth of vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on GaN using laser interference ablation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3484–3489 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. X.-X. Fu, X.-N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X.-Z. Jiang, D.-S. Xu, W.-M. Du, and G.-Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. X. L. Nguyen, T. N. N. Nguyen, V. T. Chau, and M. C. Dang, “The fabrication of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs),” Adv. Nat. Sci. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.1(2), 025015 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Xu, Y. Shen, Y. Ding, and Z. L. Wang, “Growth and transfer of monolithic horizontal ZnO nanowire superstructures onto flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(9), 1493–1497 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, C. Sone, and J. K. Kim, “Optically functional surface composed of patterned graded-refractive-index coatings to enhance light-extraction of GaInN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 054510 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, and P. C. Chen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED by liquid-phase-deposited ZnO rods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.20(4), 252–254 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

2011 (8)

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4–5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 083110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-X. Fu, X.-N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X.-Z. Jiang, D.-S. Xu, W.-M. Du, and G.-Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, C. Sone, and J. K. Kim, “Optically functional surface composed of patterned graded-refractive-index coatings to enhance light-extraction of GaInN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 054510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Wei, Q. Kong, J. Wang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, G. Wang, J. Li, Y. Liao, and F. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kang, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, N. Han, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Comparison of various surface textured layer in InGaN LEDs for high light extraction efficiency,” Opt. Express19(4), 3637–3647 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-H. Huang, J.-P. Liu, J.-J. Kong, H. Yang, and H.-B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express19(S4), A949–A955 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

Y.-C. Lee, C.-H. Ni, and C.-Y. Chen, “Enhancing light extraction mechanisms of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes through the integration of imprinting microstructures, patterned sapphire substrates, and surface roughness,” Opt. Express18(S4), A489–A498 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yuan, R. Guo, Y. Wei, W. Wu, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and S. Das, “Heteroepitaxial patterned growth of vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on GaN using laser interference ablation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3484–3489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Nguyen, T. N. N. Nguyen, V. T. Chau, and M. C. Dang, “The fabrication of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs),” Adv. Nat. Sci. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.1(2), 025015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. Shen, Y. Ding, and Z. L. Wang, “Growth and transfer of monolithic horizontal ZnO nanowire superstructures onto flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(9), 1493–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Lin, C.-M. Lin, K.-T. Chen, M.-S. Lin, and J.-J. Dai, “Green light-emitting diodes with a photoelectrochemically treated microhole-array pattern,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett.13(3), H90–H93 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J. C. Park, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, S. J. Park, and S. W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, and P. C. Chen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED by liquid-phase-deposited ZnO rods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.20(4), 252–254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Huber, B. Deutsch, L. Novotny, and R. Hillenbrand, “Focusing of surface phonon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(20), 203104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Kang, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Low temperature (<100 °C) patterned growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 083104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Holonyak, “Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?” Am. J. Phys.68(9), 864–866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

An, S. J.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baik, J. M.

B.-U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J.-L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chae, J. H.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chau, V. T.

X. L. Nguyen, T. N. N. Nguyen, V. T. Chau, and M. C. Dang, “The fabrication of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs),” Adv. Nat. Sci. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.1(2), 025015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

Chen, H.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.-T.

C.-F. Lin, C.-M. Lin, K.-T. Chen, M.-S. Lin, and J.-J. Dai, “Green light-emitting diodes with a photoelectrochemically treated microhole-array pattern,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett.13(3), H90–H93 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. C.

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, and P. C. Chen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED by liquid-phase-deposited ZnO rods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.20(4), 252–254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

Cho, J.

A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, C. Sone, and J. K. Kim, “Optically functional surface composed of patterned graded-refractive-index coatings to enhance light-extraction of GaInN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 054510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, C. K.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

Choi, J.-H.

Chua, S. J.

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 083110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.-J.

C.-F. Lin, C.-M. Lin, K.-T. Chen, M.-S. Lin, and J.-J. Dai, “Green light-emitting diodes with a photoelectrochemically treated microhole-array pattern,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett.13(3), H90–H93 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, K.

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 083110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dang, M. C.

X. L. Nguyen, T. N. N. Nguyen, V. T. Chau, and M. C. Dang, “The fabrication of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs),” Adv. Nat. Sci. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.1(2), 025015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Das, S.

D. Yuan, R. Guo, Y. Wei, W. Wu, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and S. Das, “Heteroepitaxial patterned growth of vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on GaN using laser interference ablation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3484–3489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, B.

A. J. Huber, B. Deutsch, L. Novotny, and R. Hillenbrand, “Focusing of surface phonon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(20), 203104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

S. Xu, Y. Shen, Y. Ding, and Z. L. Wang, “Growth and transfer of monolithic horizontal ZnO nanowire superstructures onto flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(9), 1493–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Yuan, R. Guo, Y. Wei, W. Wu, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and S. Das, “Heteroepitaxial patterned growth of vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on GaN using laser interference ablation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3484–3489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Du, W.-M.

X.-X. Fu, X.-N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X.-Z. Jiang, D.-S. Xu, W.-M. Du, and G.-Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, X.-X.

X.-X. Fu, X.-N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X.-Z. Jiang, D.-S. Xu, W.-M. Du, and G.-Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, R.

D. Yuan, R. Guo, Y. Wei, W. Wu, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and S. Das, “Heteroepitaxial patterned growth of vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on GaN using laser interference ablation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3484–3489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, N.

Hao, X.

Hašcík, Š.

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

A. J. Huber, B. Deutsch, L. Novotny, and R. Hillenbrand, “Focusing of surface phonon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(20), 203104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. L.

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, and P. C. Chen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED by liquid-phase-deposited ZnO rods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.20(4), 252–254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holonyak, N.

N. Holonyak, “Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?” Am. J. Phys.68(9), 864–866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hon, S. J.

Hong, C.-H.

Huang, D.

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 083110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.-H.

Huber, A. J.

A. J. Huber, B. Deutsch, L. Novotny, and R. Hillenbrand, “Focusing of surface phonon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(20), 203104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

Jeon, S. R.

Jeong, H.

S. H. Kim, H. H. Park, Y. H. Song, H. J. Park, J. B. Kim, S. R. Jeon, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. M. Yang, “An improvement of light extraction efficiency for GaN-based light emitting diodes by selective etched nanorods in periodic microholes,” Opt. Express21(6), 7125–7130 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. S.

S. H. Kim, H. H. Park, Y. H. Song, H. J. Park, J. B. Kim, S. R. Jeon, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. M. Yang, “An improvement of light extraction efficiency for GaN-based light emitting diodes by selective etched nanorods in periodic microholes,” Opt. Express21(6), 7125–7130 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.-Z.

X.-X. Fu, X.-N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X.-Z. Jiang, D.-S. Xu, W.-M. Du, and G.-Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, G. Y.

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, B. S.

B. S. Kang, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Low temperature (<100 °C) patterned growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 083104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

Kang, X.-N.

X.-X. Fu, X.-N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X.-Z. Jiang, D.-S. Xu, W.-M. Du, and G.-Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

B.-U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J.-L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. B.

A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, C. Sone, and J. K. Kim, “Optically functional surface composed of patterned graded-refractive-index coatings to enhance light-extraction of GaInN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 054510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

K. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J. C. Park, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, S. J. Park, and S. W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Kim, H. Y.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. B.

Kim, J. K.

A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, C. Sone, and J. K. Kim, “Optically functional surface composed of patterned graded-refractive-index coatings to enhance light-extraction of GaInN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 054510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. K.

K. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J. C. Park, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, S. J. Park, and S. W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

B.-U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J.-L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. M.

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

K. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J. C. Park, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, S. J. Park, and S. W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-K.

Ko, T. K.

Kobayashi, N.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.-J.

Kong, Q.

Kovác, J.

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kubicová, I.

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W.-C.

Lee, B.

Lee, J. S.

Lee, J.-L.

B.-U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J.-L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Lee, K.-D.

Lee, M. K.

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, and P. C. Chen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED by liquid-phase-deposited ZnO rods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.20(4), 252–254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-L.

Lee, S. D.

K. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J. C. Park, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, S. J. Park, and S. W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. N.

K. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J. C. Park, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, S. J. Park, and S. W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-C.

Lee, Y.-H.

Li, J.

Liao, Y.

Lin, C.-F.

C.-F. Lin, C.-M. Lin, K.-T. Chen, M.-S. Lin, and J.-J. Dai, “Green light-emitting diodes with a photoelectrochemically treated microhole-array pattern,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett.13(3), H90–H93 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-M.

C.-F. Lin, C.-M. Lin, K.-T. Chen, M.-S. Lin, and J.-J. Dai, “Green light-emitting diodes with a photoelectrochemically treated microhole-array pattern,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett.13(3), H90–H93 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-B.

A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, C. Sone, and J. K. Kim, “Optically functional surface composed of patterned graded-refractive-index coatings to enhance light-extraction of GaInN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 054510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M.-S.

C.-F. Lin, C.-M. Lin, K.-T. Chen, M.-S. Lin, and J.-J. Dai, “Green light-emitting diodes with a photoelectrochemically treated microhole-array pattern,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett.13(3), H90–H93 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.-P.

Liu, X.

Lu, Y.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mackie, D. M.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martincek, I.

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mont, F. W.

A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, C. Sone, and J. K. Kim, “Optically functional surface composed of patterned graded-refractive-index coatings to enhance light-extraction of GaInN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 054510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T. N. N.

X. L. Nguyen, T. N. N. Nguyen, V. T. Chau, and M. C. Dang, “The fabrication of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs),” Adv. Nat. Sci. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.1(2), 025015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, X. L.

X. L. Nguyen, T. N. N. Nguyen, V. T. Chau, and M. C. Dang, “The fabrication of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs),” Adv. Nat. Sci. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.1(2), 025015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ni, C.-H.

Nishida, T.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noemaun, A. N.

A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, C. Sone, and J. K. Kim, “Optically functional surface composed of patterned graded-refractive-index coatings to enhance light-extraction of GaInN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 054510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Novák, J.

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

A. J. Huber, B. Deutsch, L. Novotny, and R. Hillenbrand, “Focusing of surface phonon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(20), 203104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, G. H.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. H.

Park, H. J.

Park, J. C.

K. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J. C. Park, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, S. J. Park, and S. W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

K. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J. C. Park, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, S. J. Park, and S. W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

K. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J. C. Park, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, S. J. Park, and S. W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

Pearton, S. J.

B. S. Kang, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Low temperature (<100 °C) patterned growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 083104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pudiš, D.

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

B. S. Kang, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Low temperature (<100 °C) patterned growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 083104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

Saito, H.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, G.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, C. Sone, and J. K. Kim, “Optically functional surface composed of patterned graded-refractive-index coatings to enhance light-extraction of GaInN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 054510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

S. Xu, Y. Shen, Y. Ding, and Z. L. Wang, “Growth and transfer of monolithic horizontal ZnO nanowire superstructures onto flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(9), 1493–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J.-K.

Škriniarová, J.

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soh, C. B.

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 083110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

B.-U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J.-L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, C. Sone, and J. K. Kim, “Optically functional surface composed of patterned graded-refractive-index coatings to enhance light-extraction of GaInN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 054510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. J.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

S. H. Kim, H. H. Park, Y. H. Song, H. J. Park, J. B. Kim, S. R. Jeon, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. M. Yang, “An improvement of light extraction efficiency for GaN-based light emitting diodes by selective etched nanorods in periodic microholes,” Opt. Express21(6), 7125–7130 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J.-L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Šušlik, L.

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uthirakumar, P.

Veselý, M.

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Wang, H.-B.

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 083110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

D. Yuan, R. Guo, Y. Wei, W. Wu, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and S. Das, “Heteroepitaxial patterned growth of vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on GaN using laser interference ablation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3484–3489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. Shen, Y. Ding, and Z. L. Wang, “Growth and transfer of monolithic horizontal ZnO nanowire superstructures onto flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(9), 1493–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

Wei, Y.

D. Yuan, R. Guo, Y. Wei, W. Wu, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and S. Das, “Heteroepitaxial patterned growth of vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on GaN using laser interference ablation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3484–3489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

D. Yuan, R. Guo, Y. Wei, W. Wu, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and S. Das, “Heteroepitaxial patterned growth of vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on GaN using laser interference ablation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3484–3489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Xiong, C.

X.-X. Fu, X.-N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X.-Z. Jiang, D.-S. Xu, W.-M. Du, and G.-Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-S.

X.-X. Fu, X.-N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X.-Z. Jiang, D.-S. Xu, W.-M. Du, and G.-Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, Y. Shen, Y. Ding, and Z. L. Wang, “Growth and transfer of monolithic horizontal ZnO nanowire superstructures onto flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(9), 1493–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Yang, G. M.

Yang, H.

Yang, Y. C.

Ye, B.-U.

B.-U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J.-L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yen, C. H.

Yi, F.

Yi, G. C.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Z.

Yu, H. K.

B.-U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J.-L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, D.

D. Yuan, R. Guo, Y. Wei, W. Wu, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and S. Das, “Heteroepitaxial patterned growth of vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on GaN using laser interference ablation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3484–3489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Y.

Zhang, B.

X.-X. Fu, X.-N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X.-Z. Jiang, D.-S. Xu, W.-M. Du, and G.-Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.-Y.

X.-X. Fu, X.-N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X.-Z. Jiang, D.-S. Xu, W.-M. Du, and G.-Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, P.

Zhmakin, A. I.

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4–5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, J.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (4)

B.-U. Ye, B. J. Kim, Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, H. K. Yu, M. H. Kim, J.-L. Lee, and J. M. Baik, “Enhancing light emission of nanostructured vertical light-emitting diodes by minimizing total internal reflection,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(3), 632–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Yuan, R. Guo, Y. Wei, W. Wu, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and S. Das, “Heteroepitaxial patterned growth of vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on GaN using laser interference ablation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3484–3489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. Shen, Y. Ding, and Z. L. Wang, “Growth and transfer of monolithic horizontal ZnO nanowire superstructures onto flexible substrates,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(9), 1493–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Nat. Sci. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

X. L. Nguyen, T. N. N. Nguyen, V. T. Chau, and M. C. Dang, “The fabrication of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs),” Adv. Nat. Sci. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.1(2), 025015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

N. Holonyak, “Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?” Am. J. Phys.68(9), 864–866 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Kang, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Low temperature (<100 °C) patterned growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 083104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Huber, B. Deutsch, L. Novotny, and R. Hillenbrand, “Focusing of surface phonon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(20), 203104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J. C. Park, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, S. J. Park, and S. W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid State Lett. (1)

C.-F. Lin, C.-M. Lin, K.-T. Chen, M.-S. Lin, and J.-J. Dai, “Green light-emitting diodes with a photoelectrochemically treated microhole-array pattern,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett.13(3), H90–H93 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, and P. C. Chen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED by liquid-phase-deposited ZnO rods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.20(4), 252–254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, G. B. Kim, C. Sone, and J. K. Kim, “Optically functional surface composed of patterned graded-refractive-index coatings to enhance light-extraction of GaInN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 054510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Dai, C. B. Soh, S. J. Chua, L. Wang, and D. Huang, “Influence of the alignment of ZnO nanorod arrays on light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 083110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

X.-X. Fu, X.-N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X.-Z. Jiang, D.-S. Xu, W.-M. Du, and G.-Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J.-H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K.-D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S.-K. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Lee, C.-H. Ni, and C.-Y. Chen, “Enhancing light extraction mechanisms of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes through the integration of imprinting microstructures, patterned sapphire substrates, and surface roughness,” Opt. Express18(S4), A489–A498 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wei, Q. Kong, J. Wang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, G. Wang, J. Li, Y. Liao, and F. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kang, J. H. Ryu, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, N. Han, Y. J. Park, P. Uthirakumar, and C.-H. Hong, “Comparison of various surface textured layer in InGaN LEDs for high light extraction efficiency,” Opt. Express19(4), 3637–3647 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-H. Huang, J.-P. Liu, J.-J. Kong, H. Yang, and H.-B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express19(S4), A949–A955 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, X. Liu, Y. Wu, X. Hao, and X. Xu, “Enhancement of light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using rough beveled ZnO nanocone arrays,” Opt. Express20(2), 1013–1021 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zhao and H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express20(S5), A765–A776 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Yang, J.-K. Sheu, M.-L. Lee, C. H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, S. J. Hon, and T. K. Ko, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diode with a retained patterned sapphire layer,” Opt. Express20(S6), A1019–A1025 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kim, H. H. Park, Y. H. Song, H. J. Park, J. B. Kim, S. R. Jeon, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. M. Yang, “An improvement of light extraction efficiency for GaN-based light emitting diodes by selective etched nanorods in periodic microholes,” Opt. Express21(6), 7125–7130 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

D. Pudiš, L. Šušlik, J. Škriniarová, J. Kováč, I. Martinček, J. Kováč, Š. Haščík, I. Kubicová, J. Novák, and M. Veselý, “Light extraction from a light emitting diode with photonic structure in the surface layer investigated by NSOM,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(5), 917–921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4–5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication procedure of ZnO MMNR on silica glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of incident angle-resolved light transmission measuring system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D AFM morphology of (a) photoresist-1 micro-cylinders, (b) ZnO micro-mesh, and (c) ZnO MMNR. SEM images of (d) ZnO micro-mesh and (e) ZnO MMNR.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light diffraction patterns of (a) blank glass, (b) glass with ZnO micro-mesh, (c) glass with ZnO nanorods and (d) glass with ZnO MMNR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental light transmittance curves vs. incident angle for the blank glass, glass with ZnO micro-mesh, glass with ZnO nanorods and glass with ZnO MMNR.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of GaN-based LED with ZnO MMNR.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) LOP-I curves and (b) I-V curves of the blank LED, LED with ZnO micro-mesh (MM-LED), LED with ZnO nanorods (NR-LED) and LED with ZnO MMNR (MMNR-LED). Inset shows EL spectra at 350 mA.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Far-field radiation patterns of blank LED, LED with ZnO micro-mesh (MM-LED), LED with ZnO nanorods (NR-LED) and LED with ZnO MMNR (MMNR-LED).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) A LED chip set on the LED base plate. The light emitting photographs of (b) blank LED, (c) LED with ZnO micro-mesh, (d) LED with ZnO nanorods and (e) LED with ZnO MMNR at 10 mA.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

CSEM images of LEDs with (a) ZnO micro-mesh and (c) ZnO MMNR; (b) The cross sectional intensity of green line in CSEM images (a) and (d) cross sectional intensity of blue line in CSEM images (c).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Light escape mechanism of (a) blank-LED, (b) LED with ZnO micro-mesh and (c) LED with ZnO MMNR.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Light output power (LOP) of blank LED, LED with ZnO micro-mesh (MM-LED), LED with ZnO nanorods (NR-LED) and LED with ZnO MMNR (MMNR-LED) at 350 and 700 mA.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Light output power (LOP) of encapsulated blank LEDs, LEDs with ZnO micro-mesh (MM-LEDs), LEDs with ZnO nanorods (NR-LEDs) and LEDs with ZnO MMNR (MMNR-LEDs) at 350 mA.

Metrics