Abstract

Direct band gap optical transition in compressively strained Ge film is demonstrated for the first time under current injection through a metal-insulator-semiconductor diode structure. The compressively strained Ge layer is grown on the relaxed Si0.5Ge0.5 substrate by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. The electroluminescence of direct band gap emission from strained Ge film and TO phonon assisted transition in Si and SiGe from the virtual substrate is observed under different current injections. The signature of heavy hole and light hole splitting in valence band is observed in the electroluminescence spectra from strained Ge layer. The temperature dependent electroluminescence characteristics have been studied over a temperature range of 10–300 K. AC frequency modulation for the Ge direct band electroluminescence has been studied to improve the emission efficiency over the DC bias.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (2)

S. K. Ray, S. Maikap, W. Banerjee, and S. Das, “Nanocrystals for silicon-based light-emitting and memory devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.46(15), 153001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, R. Aluguri, and S. K. Ray, “Effect of growth temperature and post-growth annealing on luminescence properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown single layer Ge quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.113(6), 063101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

A. Giorgioni, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and M. Guzzi, “Photoluminescence decay of direct and indirect transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, and J. L. Hoyt, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B85(205308), 356 (2012).

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Schulze, M. Oehme, and J. Werner, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3259–3261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (7)

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Yakimov, A. I. Nikiforov, V. A. Timofeev, A. A. Bloshkin, V. V. Kirienko, and A. V. Dvurechenskii, “Midinfrared photoresponse of Ge quantum dots on a strained Si0.65Ge0.35 layer,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(8), 085018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, K. Das, R. K. Singha, S. Manna, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, and A. K. Raychaudhuri, “Improved infrared photoluminescence characteristics from circularly ordered self-assembled Ge islands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Light emission and floating gate memory characteristics of germanium nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.208(3), 635–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, R. K. Singha, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, and L. Pavesi, “Electroluminescence and charge storage characteristics of quantum confined germanium nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 024310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

R. K. Singha, S. Manna, S. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Room temperature infrared photoresponse of self assembled Ge/Si (001) quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 233113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Cheng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, K.-L. Peng, G.-L. Luo, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Competitiveness between direct and indirect radiative transitions of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(9), 091105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

E. Finkman, N. Shuall, A. Vardi, V. L. Thanh, and S. E. Schacham, “Interlevel transitions and two-photon processes in Ge/Si quantum dot photocurrent,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sawano, A. Fukumoto, Y. Hoshi, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Shiraki, “Strained-Si nMOSFET formed on very thin SiGe buffer layer fabricated by ion implantation technique,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 353–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. V. Känel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 041407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Yamane, K. Fujiwara, and J. K. Sheu, “Largely variable electroluminescence efficiency with current and temperature in a blue (In, Ga)N multiple-quantum-well diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 073501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. H. Liao, T.-H. Cheng, and C. W. Liu, “Infrared emission from Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(26), 261913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained Si, SiGe, and Ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. W. Liu, M. H. Lee, M.-J. Chen, and C.-F. Lin, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from electron-hole plasmas in the metal–oxide–silicon tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(12), 1516 (2000).

1997 (1)

F. Schaffler, “High-mobility Si and Ge structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.12(12), 1515–1549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. Engvall, J. Olajos, H. G. Grimmeiss, H. Presting, H. Kibbel, and E. Kasper, “Electroluminescence at room temperature of a SinGem, strained-layer superllattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(4), 491 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si1-xGex alloys on Si1-yGey substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

P. Lautenschlager, P. B. Allen, and M. Cardona, “Temperature dependence of band gaps in Si and Ge,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter31(4), 2163–2171 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abrosimov, N. V.

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allen, P. B.

P. Lautenschlager, P. B. Allen, and M. Cardona, “Temperature dependence of band gaps in Si and Ge,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter31(4), 2163–2171 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aluguri, R.

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, R. Aluguri, and S. K. Ray, “Effect of growth temperature and post-growth annealing on luminescence properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown single layer Ge quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.113(6), 063101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Aniel, F.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anopchenko, A.

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Light emission and floating gate memory characteristics of germanium nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.208(3), 635–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, R. K. Singha, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, and L. Pavesi, “Electroluminescence and charge storage characteristics of quantum confined germanium nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 024310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Antoniadis, D. A.

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, and J. L. Hoyt, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B85(205308), 356 (2012).

Arguirov, T.

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T. M.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, W.

S. K. Ray, S. Maikap, W. Banerjee, and S. Das, “Nanocrystals for silicon-based light-emitting and memory devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.46(15), 153001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, G.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaudoin, G.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J. T.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Birner, S.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloshkin, A. A.

A. I. Yakimov, A. I. Nikiforov, V. A. Timofeev, A. A. Bloshkin, V. V. Kirienko, and A. V. Dvurechenskii, “Midinfrared photoresponse of Ge quantum dots on a strained Si0.65Ge0.35 layer,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(8), 085018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonfanti, M.

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. V. Känel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 041407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boztug, C.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bulsara, M. T.

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained Si, SiGe, and Ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

P. Lautenschlager, P. B. Allen, and M. Cardona, “Temperature dependence of band gaps in Si and Ge,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter31(4), 2163–2171 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatterjee, S.

A. Giorgioni, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and M. Guzzi, “Photoluminescence decay of direct and indirect transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

T.-H. Cheng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, K.-L. Peng, G.-L. Luo, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Competitiveness between direct and indirect radiative transitions of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(9), 091105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-J.

C. W. Liu, M. H. Lee, M.-J. Chen, and C.-F. Lin, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from electron-hole plasmas in the metal–oxide–silicon tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(12), 1516 (2000).

Chen, R.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.-L.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, T.-H.

T.-H. Cheng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, K.-L. Peng, G.-L. Luo, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Competitiveness between direct and indirect radiative transitions of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(9), 091105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Liao, T.-H. Cheng, and C. W. Liu, “Infrared emission from Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(26), 261913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chern, W.

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, and J. L. Hoyt, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B85(205308), 356 (2012).

Chernikov, A.

A. Giorgioni, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and M. Guzzi, “Photoluminescence decay of direct and indirect transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chrastina, D.

A. Giorgioni, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and M. Guzzi, “Photoluminescence decay of direct and indirect transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. V. Känel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 041407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M. T.

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained Si, SiGe, and Ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dais, C.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daldosso, N.

S. Das, R. K. Singha, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, and L. Pavesi, “Electroluminescence and charge storage characteristics of quantum confined germanium nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 024310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Light emission and floating gate memory characteristics of germanium nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.208(3), 635–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Das, K.

S. Das, K. Das, R. K. Singha, S. Manna, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, and A. K. Raychaudhuri, “Improved infrared photoluminescence characteristics from circularly ordered self-assembled Ge islands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, S.

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, R. Aluguri, and S. K. Ray, “Effect of growth temperature and post-growth annealing on luminescence properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown single layer Ge quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.113(6), 063101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Ray, S. Maikap, W. Banerjee, and S. Das, “Nanocrystals for silicon-based light-emitting and memory devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.46(15), 153001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Light emission and floating gate memory characteristics of germanium nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.208(3), 635–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, R. K. Singha, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, and L. Pavesi, “Electroluminescence and charge storage characteristics of quantum confined germanium nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 024310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, K. Das, R. K. Singha, S. Manna, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, and A. K. Raychaudhuri, “Improved infrared photoluminescence characteristics from circularly ordered self-assembled Ge islands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Singha, S. Manna, S. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Room temperature infrared photoresponse of self assembled Ge/Si (001) quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 233113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Kersauson, M.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, A.

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Light emission and floating gate memory characteristics of germanium nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.208(3), 635–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, R. K. Singha, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, and L. Pavesi, “Electroluminescence and charge storage characteristics of quantum confined germanium nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 024310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, K. Das, R. K. Singha, S. Manna, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, and A. K. Raychaudhuri, “Improved infrared photoluminescence characteristics from circularly ordered self-assembled Ge islands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Singha, S. Manna, S. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Room temperature infrared photoresponse of self assembled Ge/Si (001) quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 233113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dvurechenskii, A. V.

A. I. Yakimov, A. I. Nikiforov, V. A. Timofeev, A. A. Bloshkin, V. V. Kirienko, and A. V. Dvurechenskii, “Midinfrared photoresponse of Ge quantum dots on a strained Si0.65Ge0.35 layer,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(8), 085018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ekinci, Y.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El Kurdi, M.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Engvall, J.

J. Engvall, J. Olajos, H. G. Grimmeiss, H. Presting, H. Kibbel, and E. Kasper, “Electroluminescence at room temperature of a SinGem, strained-layer superllattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(4), 491 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Finkman, E.

E. Finkman, N. Shuall, A. Vardi, V. L. Thanh, and S. E. Schacham, “Interlevel transitions and two-photon processes in Ge/Si quantum dot photocurrent,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained Si, SiGe, and Ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fromherz, T.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujiwara, K.

Y. Yamane, K. Fujiwara, and J. K. Sheu, “Largely variable electroluminescence efficiency with current and temperature in a blue (In, Ga)N multiple-quantum-well diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 073501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fukumoto, A.

K. Sawano, A. Fukumoto, Y. Hoshi, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Shiraki, “Strained-Si nMOSFET formed on very thin SiGe buffer layer fabricated by ion implantation technique,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 353–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gatti, E.

A. Giorgioni, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and M. Guzzi, “Photoluminescence decay of direct and indirect transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giorgioni, A.

A. Giorgioni, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and M. Guzzi, “Photoluminescence decay of direct and indirect transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, E.

A. Giorgioni, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and M. Guzzi, “Photoluminescence decay of direct and indirect transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. V. Känel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 041407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grimmeiss, H. G.

J. Engvall, J. Olajos, H. G. Grimmeiss, H. Presting, H. Kibbel, and E. Kasper, “Electroluminescence at room temperature of a SinGem, strained-layer superllattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(4), 491 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grosso, G.

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. V. Känel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 041407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grützmacher, D.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guzzi, M.

A. Giorgioni, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and M. Guzzi, “Photoluminescence decay of direct and indirect transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. V. Känel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 041407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holý, V.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoshi, Y.

K. Sawano, A. Fukumoto, Y. Hoshi, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Shiraki, “Strained-Si nMOSFET formed on very thin SiGe buffer layer fabricated by ion implantation technique,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 353–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Howe, R. T.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hoyt, J. L.

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, and J. L. Hoyt, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B85(205308), 356 (2012).

Hryciw, A.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. C.-Y.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Isella, G.

A. Giorgioni, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, and M. Guzzi, “Photoluminescence decay of direct and indirect transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. V. Känel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 041407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, R. B.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, J. R.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jakomin, R.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Känel, H. V.

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. V. Känel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 041407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, E.

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Engvall, J. Olajos, H. G. Grimmeiss, H. Presting, H. Kibbel, and E. Kasper, “Electroluminescence at room temperature of a SinGem, strained-layer superllattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(4), 491 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kibbel, H.

J. Engvall, J. Olajos, H. G. Grimmeiss, H. Presting, H. Kibbel, and E. Kasper, “Electroluminescence at room temperature of a SinGem, strained-layer superllattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(4), 491 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirienko, V. V.

A. I. Yakimov, A. I. Nikiforov, V. A. Timofeev, A. A. Bloshkin, V. V. Kirienko, and A. V. Dvurechenskii, “Midinfrared photoresponse of Ge quantum dots on a strained Si0.65Ge0.35 layer,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(8), 085018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kittler, M.

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ko, C.-Y.

T.-H. Cheng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, K.-L. Peng, G.-L. Luo, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Competitiveness between direct and indirect radiative transitions of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(9), 091105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lagally, M. G.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lautenschlager, P.

P. Lautenschlager, P. B. Allen, and M. Cardona, “Temperature dependence of band gaps in Si and Ge,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter31(4), 2163–2171 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lechner, R. T.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. H.

C. W. Liu, M. H. Lee, M.-J. Chen, and C.-F. Lin, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from electron-hole plasmas in the metal–oxide–silicon tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(12), 1516 (2000).

Lee, M. L.

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained Si, SiGe, and Ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, M. H.

M. H. Liao, T.-H. Cheng, and C. W. Liu, “Infrared emission from Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(26), 261913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-F.

C. W. Liu, M. H. Lee, M.-J. Chen, and C.-F. Lin, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from electron-hole plasmas in the metal–oxide–silicon tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(12), 1516 (2000).

Lin, H.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. W.

T.-H. Cheng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, K.-L. Peng, G.-L. Luo, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Competitiveness between direct and indirect radiative transitions of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(9), 091105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Liao, T.-H. Cheng, and C. W. Liu, “Infrared emission from Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(26), 261913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Liu, M. H. Lee, M.-J. Chen, and C.-F. Lin, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from electron-hole plasmas in the metal–oxide–silicon tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(12), 1516 (2000).

Liu, J.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lochtefeld, A.

M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. T. Bulsara, M. T. Currie, and A. Lochtefeld, “Strained Si, SiGe, and Ge channels for high-mobility metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.97(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Luo, G.-L.

T.-H. Cheng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, K.-L. Peng, G.-L. Luo, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Competitiveness between direct and indirect radiative transitions of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(9), 091105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maikap, S.

S. K. Ray, S. Maikap, W. Banerjee, and S. Das, “Nanocrystals for silicon-based light-emitting and memory devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.46(15), 153001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Makarova, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Manna, S.

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, R. Aluguri, and S. K. Ray, “Effect of growth temperature and post-growth annealing on luminescence properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown single layer Ge quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.113(6), 063101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Light emission and floating gate memory characteristics of germanium nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.208(3), 635–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, K. Das, R. K. Singha, S. Manna, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, and A. K. Raychaudhuri, “Improved infrared photoluminescence characteristics from circularly ordered self-assembled Ge islands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Singha, S. Manna, S. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Room temperature infrared photoresponse of self assembled Ge/Si (001) quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 233113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A. B.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Müller, E.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, K.

K. Sawano, A. Fukumoto, Y. Hoshi, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Shiraki, “Strained-Si nMOSFET formed on very thin SiGe buffer layer fabricated by ion implantation technique,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 353–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nam, D.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neels, A.

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. V. Känel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 041407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nikiforov, A. I.

A. I. Yakimov, A. I. Nikiforov, V. A. Timofeev, A. A. Bloshkin, V. V. Kirienko, and A. V. Dvurechenskii, “Midinfrared photoresponse of Ge quantum dots on a strained Si0.65Ge0.35 layer,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(8), 085018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, Y.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oehme, M.

J. Schulze, M. Oehme, and J. Werner, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3259–3261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Olajos, J.

J. Engvall, J. Olajos, H. G. Grimmeiss, H. Presting, H. Kibbel, and E. Kasper, “Electroluminescence at room temperature of a SinGem, strained-layer superllattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(4), 491 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paskiewicz, D. M.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavesi, L.

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Light emission and floating gate memory characteristics of germanium nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.208(3), 635–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, R. K. Singha, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, and L. Pavesi, “Electroluminescence and charge storage characteristics of quantum confined germanium nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 024310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K.-L.

T.-H. Cheng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, K.-L. Peng, G.-L. Luo, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Competitiveness between direct and indirect radiative transitions of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(9), 091105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Presting, H.

J. Engvall, J. Olajos, H. G. Grimmeiss, H. Presting, H. Kibbel, and E. Kasper, “Electroluminescence at room temperature of a SinGem, strained-layer superllattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(4), 491 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ray, S. K.

S. K. Ray, S. Maikap, W. Banerjee, and S. Das, “Nanocrystals for silicon-based light-emitting and memory devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.46(15), 153001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, R. Aluguri, and S. K. Ray, “Effect of growth temperature and post-growth annealing on luminescence properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown single layer Ge quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.113(6), 063101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Light emission and floating gate memory characteristics of germanium nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.208(3), 635–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, R. K. Singha, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, and L. Pavesi, “Electroluminescence and charge storage characteristics of quantum confined germanium nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 024310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, K. Das, R. K. Singha, S. Manna, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, and A. K. Raychaudhuri, “Improved infrared photoluminescence characteristics from circularly ordered self-assembled Ge islands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Singha, S. Manna, S. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Room temperature infrared photoresponse of self assembled Ge/Si (001) quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 233113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raychaudhuri, A. K.

S. Das, K. Das, R. K. Singha, S. Manna, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, and A. K. Raychaudhuri, “Improved infrared photoluminescence characteristics from circularly ordered self-assembled Ge islands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rieger, M. M.

M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si1-xGex alloys on Si1-yGey substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, Y.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Pérez, J. R.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauvage, S.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sawano, K.

K. Sawano, A. Fukumoto, Y. Hoshi, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Shiraki, “Strained-Si nMOSFET formed on very thin SiGe buffer layer fabricated by ion implantation technique,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 353–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schacham, S. E.

E. Finkman, N. Shuall, A. Vardi, V. L. Thanh, and S. E. Schacham, “Interlevel transitions and two-photon processes in Ge/Si quantum dot photocurrent,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaffler, F.

F. Schaffler, “High-mobility Si and Ge structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.12(12), 1515–1549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, J.

J. Schulze, M. Oehme, and J. Werner, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3259–3261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Arguirov, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, N. V. Abrosimov, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Room temperature direct band-gap emission from an unstrained Ge p-i-n LED on Si,” Solid State Phenomena178–179, 25–30 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shambat, G.

Sheu, J. K.

Y. Yamane, K. Fujiwara, and J. K. Sheu, “Largely variable electroluminescence efficiency with current and temperature in a blue (In, Ga)N multiple-quantum-well diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 073501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shiraki, Y.

K. Sawano, A. Fukumoto, Y. Hoshi, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Shiraki, “Strained-Si nMOSFET formed on very thin SiGe buffer layer fabricated by ion implantation technique,” Thin Solid Films517(1), 353–355 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shuall, N.

E. Finkman, N. Shuall, A. Vardi, V. L. Thanh, and S. E. Schacham, “Interlevel transitions and two-photon processes in Ge/Si quantum dot photocurrent,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singha, R. K.

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, R. Aluguri, and S. K. Ray, “Effect of growth temperature and post-growth annealing on luminescence properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown single layer Ge quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys.113(6), 063101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, S. Manna, R. K. Singha, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Light emission and floating gate memory characteristics of germanium nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.208(3), 635–638 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, R. K. Singha, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, A. Anopchenko, N. Daldosso, and L. Pavesi, “Electroluminescence and charge storage characteristics of quantum confined germanium nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.110(2), 024310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das, K. Das, R. K. Singha, S. Manna, A. Dhar, S. K. Ray, and A. K. Raychaudhuri, “Improved infrared photoluminescence characteristics from circularly ordered self-assembled Ge islands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(1), 416 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Singha, S. Manna, S. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Room temperature infrared photoresponse of self assembled Ge/Si (001) quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 233113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solak, H. H.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stangl, J.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudradjat, F. F.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukhdeo, D.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.34(8), 1198–1200 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teherani, J. T.

J. T. Teherani, W. Chern, D. A. Antoniadis, and J. L. Hoyt, “Extraction of large valence-band energy offsets and comparison to theoretical values for strained-Si/strained-Ge type-II heterostructures on relaxed SiGe substrates,” Phys. Rev. B85(205308), 356 (2012).

Thanh, V. L.

E. Finkman, N. Shuall, A. Vardi, V. L. Thanh, and S. E. Schacham, “Interlevel transitions and two-photon processes in Ge/Si quantum dot photocurrent,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Timofeev, V. A.

A. I. Yakimov, A. I. Nikiforov, V. A. Timofeev, A. A. Bloshkin, V. V. Kirienko, and A. V. Dvurechenskii, “Midinfrared photoresponse of Ge quantum dots on a strained Si0.65Ge0.35 layer,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(8), 085018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, H.-H.

T.-H. Cheng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, K.-L. Peng, G.-L. Luo, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Competitiveness between direct and indirect radiative transitions of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(9), 091105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vardi, A.

E. Finkman, N. Shuall, A. Vardi, V. L. Thanh, and S. E. Schacham, “Interlevel transitions and two-photon processes in Ge/Si quantum dot photocurrent,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Varshni, Y. P.

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Virgilio, M.

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. V. Känel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 041407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vogl, P.

M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si1-xGex alloys on Si1-yGey substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuckovic, J.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J.

J. Schulze, M. Oehme, and J. Werner, “Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices,” Thin Solid Films520(8), 3259–3261 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wintersberger, E.

D. Grützmacher, T. Fromherz, C. Dais, J. Stangl, E. Müller, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, H. Sigg, R. T. Lechner, E. Wintersberger, S. Birner, V. Holý, and G. Bauer, “Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Quantum Dot Crystals,” Nano Lett.7(10), 3150–3156 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakimov, A. I.

A. I. Yakimov, A. I. Nikiforov, V. A. Timofeev, A. A. Bloshkin, V. V. Kirienko, and A. V. Dvurechenskii, “Midinfrared photoresponse of Ge quantum dots on a strained Si0.65Ge0.35 layer,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(8), 085018 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamane, Y.

Y. Yamane, K. Fujiwara, and J. K. Sheu, “Largely variable electroluminescence efficiency with current and temperature in a blue (In, Ga)N multiple-quantum-well diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 073501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.-Y.

Zerounian, N.

M. de Kersauson, R. Jakomin, M. El Kurdi, G. Beaudoin, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, S. Sauvage, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Direct and indirect band gap room temperature electroluminescence of Ge diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.108(2), 023105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

J. Engvall, J. Olajos, H. G. Grimmeiss, H. Presting, H. Kibbel, and E. Kasper, “Electroluminescence at room temperature of a SinGem, strained-layer superllattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(4), 491 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Cheng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, K.-L. Peng, G.-L. Luo, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Competitiveness between direct and indirect radiative transitions of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(9), 091105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 011911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(13), 131112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Liu, M. H. Lee, M.-J. Chen, and C.-F. Lin, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from electron-hole plasmas in the metal–oxide–silicon tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(12), 1516 (2000).

M. H. Liao, T.-H. Cheng, and C. W. Liu, “Infrared emission from Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(26), 261913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Singha, S. Manna, S. Das, A. Dhar, and S. K. Ray, “Room temperature infrared photoresponse of self assembled Ge/Si (001) quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 233113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamane, K. Fujiwara, and J. K. Sheu, “Largely variable electroluminescence efficiency with current and temperature in a blue (In, Ga)N multiple-quantum-well diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 073501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

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R. Aluguri, Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302, S. Manna and S. K. Ray are preparing a manuscript to be called “Direct band gap optical emission from compressively strained Ge films grown on relaxed Si0.5Ge0.5 substrate,”

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the strained Ge/Si0.5Ge0.5 MISLED device and (b) SIMS depth profile analysis of relaxed Si0.5Ge0.5 graded virtual substrate

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Current-voltage characteristics of the strained Ge based MIS device at 10 K and 300 K with virtual substrate being grounded

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electroluminescence spectra as a function of current density at 10 K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical electroluminescence spectrum (at J = 14 mA/cm2) from compressively the strained Ge MIS device at 10 K

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy band diagram for the MIS tunneling device with strained Ge active layer at the (a) zero and (b) accumulation bias.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photoluminescence spectrum of the strained Ge at 10 K deconvoluted into three peaks, due to Γ-HH, Γ-LH transitions in Ge and TO phonon emission in Si0.5Ge0.5. The corresponding PL spectrum for 120 nm relaxed Ge on virtual substrate yields two peaks as shown in the inset.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Integrated electroluminescence intensity as a function of current density for three different transitions: TO phonon assisted transition in Si0.5Ge0.5 at 0.876 eV, Γ →LH transition at 0.813 eV and Γ →HH transition at 0.797 eV are shown. The fit for the linear regime is shown to extract the exponent ‘m’.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) EL peak position due to direct gap Γ→HH and Γ→LH optical transitions in compressively strained Ge film as a function of temperature for an injection current density of 14 mA/cm2 and (b) variation of FWHM with temperature

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Electroluminescence spectra of strained Ge devices for different temperatures from 10 K to 300 K at an injected current density of 14 mA/cm2 and (b) Normalized direct band gap integrated EL intensity as a function of temperature to extract the activation energy.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

EL spectra of strained Ge for a sine wave ac current modulation showing the maximum intensity occurs at 5 MHz

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Integrated EL intensity as a function of frequency for (a) Ge direct band gap transition and (b) TO phonon assisted transition in Si0.5Ge0.5.

Equations (1)

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I EL (T) (1+a e E 1 /kT +b e E 2 /kT ) 1

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