Abstract

We report on the resolution and noise characteristics of handheld and workstation organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays in comparison with liquid crystal displays (LCDs). The results demonstrate advantages, in terms of sharpness, of handheld OLED displays with modulation transfer function (MTF) values exceeding 0.60 at the Nyquist frequencies. The OLED workstation included in this study exhibits significant signal contamination among adjacent pixels resulting in degraded resolution performance indicated by horizontal and vertical MTF values of 0.13 and 0.24 at the Nyquist frequency. On the other hand, its noise characteristics are superior to the LCD workstation tested. While the noise power spectral (NPS) values of the OLED workstation are 8.0×10−6 mm2 at 1 mm−1, the LCD workstation has NPS values of 2.6×10−5 mm2. Although phone-size OLED displays have superior resolution and noise per pixel, the perceived resolution characteristics at appropriate viewing distances are inferior to tablet-size and workstation LCDs. In addition, our results show some degree of dependency of the resolution and noise on luminance level and viewing orientation. We also found a slightly degraded resolution and increased low-frequency noise at off-normal orientations in the handheld displays.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. Y. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Thin-type integral imaging method with an organic light emitting diode panel,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4297–4934 (2008).
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  3. M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332, 570–573 (2011).
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  4. S. H. Cho, Y. W. Song, J. G. Lee, Y. C. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. Ha, J. S. Oh, S. Y. Oh, S. Y. Lee, K. H. Hwang, D. S. Zang, and Y. H. Lee, “Weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes with improved light out-coupling,” Opt. Express 16, 12632–12639 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. M. Chen, Y. B. Yuan, J. R. Lian, and X. Zhou, “High-efficiency and high-contrast phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with p-type si anodes,” Opt. Express 22, 14644–14649 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 13, 9431–9438 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Nishiyama, M. Sano, S. Jinguji, A. Harada, J. Yoshimura, and Y. Fujii, “An organic light-emitting diode display for use in neuroendoscopic surgery in ventricle,” Acta Neurochir. 154, 1523–1525 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. E. Flanders, R. H. Wiggins, and M. E. Gozum, “Handheld computers in radiology,” RadioGraphics 23, 1035–1047 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. P. McNulty, J. T. Ryan, M. G. Evanoff, and L. A. Rainford, “Flexible image evaluation: iPad versus secondary-class monitors for review of MR spinal emergency cases, a comparative study,” Acad. Radiol. 19, 1023–1028 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. John, A. C. C. Poh, T. C. C. Lim, E. H. Y. Chan, and L. R. Chong, “The iPad tablet computer for mobile on-call radiology diagnosis? Auditing discrepancy in CT and MRI reporting,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 628–634 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. F. Choudhri, T. M. Carr, C. P. Ho, J. R. Stone, S. S. B. Gay, and D. L. Lambert, “Handheld device review of abdominal CT for evaluation of acute appendicitis,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 492–496 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, and R. J. Jennings, “Noise in flat-panel displays with subpixel structure,” Med. Phys. 31, 715–723 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. R. S. Saunders and E. Samei, “Resolution and noise measurements of five CRT and LCD medical displays,” Med. Phys. 33, 308–319 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, and H. Fujita, “MTF measurement method for medical displays by using a bar-pattern image,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 831–837 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, A. Nishimura, M. Hasegawa, and N. Kimura, “Analysis method of noise power spectrum for medical monochrome liquid crystal displays,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 1, 201–207 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Zafar, M. Choi, J. Wang, P. Liu, and A. Badano, “Visual methods for determining ambient illumination conditions when viewing medical images in mobile display devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 124–132 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. H. Fifadara, A. Averbukh, D. S. Channin, and A. Badano, “Effect of viewing angle on luminance and contrast for a five-million-pixel monochrome display and a nine-million-pixel color liquid crystal display,” J. Digital Imaging 17, 264–270 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Hatanaka, J. Morishita, T. Hiwasa, K. Dogomori, F. Toyofuku, M. Ohki, and Y. Higashida, “Comparison of vewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 2, 166–174 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Badano and D. H. Fifadara, “Goniometric and conoscopic measurements of angular display contrast for one-, three-, five-, and nine-million-pixel medical liquid crystal displays,” Med. Phys. 31, 3452–3460 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Samei and S. L. Wright, “Vewing angle performance of medical liquid crystal displays,” Med. Phys. 33, 645–654 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. G. C. Kagadis, A. Walz-Flannigan, E. A. Krupinski, P. G. Nagy, K. Katsanos, A. Diamantopoulos, and S. G. Langer, “Medical imaging displays and their use in image interpretation,” RadioGraphics 33, 275–291 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. P. Prabhu, S. Gandhi, and P. R. Goddard, “Ergonomics of digital imaging,” Br. J. Radiol. 78, 582–586 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Badano, M. J. Flynn, and J. Kanicki, High-Fidelity Medical Imaging Displays (SPIE Press, 2004).
  27. M. B. Williams, P. A. Mangiafico, and P. U. Simoni, “Noise power spectra of images from digital mammography detectors,” Med. Phys. 26, 1279–1293 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. E. Nishimaru, K. Ichikawa, I. Okita, Y. Tomoshige, T. Kurokawa, Y. Nakamura, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body images in multidetector CT,” J. Digital Imaging 23, 806–818 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

G. C. Kagadis, A. Walz-Flannigan, E. A. Krupinski, P. G. Nagy, K. Katsanos, A. Diamantopoulos, and S. G. Langer, “Medical imaging displays and their use in image interpretation,” RadioGraphics 33, 275–291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Zafar, M. Choi, J. Wang, P. Liu, and A. Badano, “Visual methods for determining ambient illumination conditions when viewing medical images in mobile display devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 124–132 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Nishiyama, M. Sano, S. Jinguji, A. Harada, J. Yoshimura, and Y. Fujii, “An organic light-emitting diode display for use in neuroendoscopic surgery in ventricle,” Acta Neurochir. 154, 1523–1525 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. P. McNulty, J. T. Ryan, M. G. Evanoff, and L. A. Rainford, “Flexible image evaluation: iPad versus secondary-class monitors for review of MR spinal emergency cases, a comparative study,” Acad. Radiol. 19, 1023–1028 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, A. C. C. Poh, T. C. C. Lim, E. H. Y. Chan, and L. R. Chong, “The iPad tablet computer for mobile on-call radiology diagnosis? Auditing discrepancy in CT and MRI reporting,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 628–634 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Choudhri, T. M. Carr, C. P. Ho, J. R. Stone, S. S. B. Gay, and D. L. Lambert, “Handheld device review of abdominal CT for evaluation of acute appendicitis,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 492–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332, 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

R. J. Toomey, J. T. Ryan, M. F. McEntee, M. G. Evanoff, D. P. Chakraborty, D. J. M. J. P. McNulty, E. M. Thomas, and P. C. Brennan, “The diagnostic efficacy of hand-held devices for emergency radiological consultation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194, 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nishimaru, K. Ichikawa, I. Okita, Y. Tomoshige, T. Kurokawa, Y. Nakamura, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body images in multidetector CT,” J. Digital Imaging 23, 806–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Hatanaka, J. Morishita, T. Hiwasa, K. Dogomori, F. Toyofuku, M. Ohki, and Y. Higashida, “Comparison of vewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 2, 166–174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, A. Nishimura, M. Hasegawa, and N. Kimura, “Analysis method of noise power spectrum for medical monochrome liquid crystal displays,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 1, 201–207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Cho, Y. W. Song, J. G. Lee, Y. C. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. Ha, J. S. Oh, S. Y. Oh, S. Y. Lee, K. H. Hwang, D. S. Zang, and Y. H. Lee, “Weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes with improved light out-coupling,” Opt. Express 16, 12632–12639 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Thin-type integral imaging method with an organic light emitting diode panel,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4297–4934 (2008).

J. H. Lee, Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, J. H. Fang, S. C. Hsu, J. R. Lin, and M. K. Wei, “Efficiency improvement and image quality of organic light-emitting display by attaching cylindrical microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16, 2184–2190 (2008).

2007 (1)

S. M. Chen, Y. B. Yuan, J. R. Lian, and X. Zhou, “High-efficiency and high-contrast phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with p-type si anodes,” Opt. Express 22, 14644–14649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. R. S. Saunders and E. Samei, “Resolution and noise measurements of five CRT and LCD medical displays,” Med. Phys. 33, 308–319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, and H. Fujita, “MTF measurement method for medical displays by using a bar-pattern image,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 831–837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Samei and S. L. Wright, “Vewing angle performance of medical liquid crystal displays,” Med. Phys. 33, 645–654 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

S. P. Prabhu, S. Gandhi, and P. R. Goddard, “Ergonomics of digital imaging,” Br. J. Radiol. 78, 582–586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 13, 9431–9438 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, and R. J. Jennings, “Noise in flat-panel displays with subpixel structure,” Med. Phys. 31, 715–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Badano and D. H. Fifadara, “Goniometric and conoscopic measurements of angular display contrast for one-, three-, five-, and nine-million-pixel medical liquid crystal displays,” Med. Phys. 31, 3452–3460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Fifadara, A. Averbukh, D. S. Channin, and A. Badano, “Effect of viewing angle on luminance and contrast for a five-million-pixel monochrome display and a nine-million-pixel color liquid crystal display,” J. Digital Imaging 17, 264–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. E. Flanders, R. H. Wiggins, and M. E. Gozum, “Handheld computers in radiology,” RadioGraphics 23, 1035–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. B. Williams, P. A. Mangiafico, and P. U. Simoni, “Noise power spectra of images from digital mammography detectors,” Med. Phys. 26, 1279–1293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andriole, K. P.

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Averbukh, A.

D. H. Fifadara, A. Averbukh, D. S. Channin, and A. Badano, “Effect of viewing angle on luminance and contrast for a five-million-pixel monochrome display and a nine-million-pixel color liquid crystal display,” J. Digital Imaging 17, 264–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Badano, A.

F. Zafar, M. Choi, J. Wang, P. Liu, and A. Badano, “Visual methods for determining ambient illumination conditions when viewing medical images in mobile display devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 124–132 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, and R. J. Jennings, “Noise in flat-panel displays with subpixel structure,” Med. Phys. 31, 715–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Fifadara, A. Averbukh, D. S. Channin, and A. Badano, “Effect of viewing angle on luminance and contrast for a five-million-pixel monochrome display and a nine-million-pixel color liquid crystal display,” J. Digital Imaging 17, 264–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Badano and D. H. Fifadara, “Goniometric and conoscopic measurements of angular display contrast for one-, three-, five-, and nine-million-pixel medical liquid crystal displays,” Med. Phys. 31, 3452–3460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Badano, M. J. Flynn, and J. Kanicki, High-Fidelity Medical Imaging Displays (SPIE Press, 2004).

Brennan, P. C.

R. J. Toomey, J. T. Ryan, M. F. McEntee, M. G. Evanoff, D. P. Chakraborty, D. J. M. J. P. McNulty, E. M. Thomas, and P. C. Brennan, “The diagnostic efficacy of hand-held devices for emergency radiological consultation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194, 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr, T. M.

A. F. Choudhri, T. M. Carr, C. P. Ho, J. R. Stone, S. S. B. Gay, and D. L. Lambert, “Handheld device review of abdominal CT for evaluation of acute appendicitis,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 492–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, D.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakraborty, D. P.

R. J. Toomey, J. T. Ryan, M. F. McEntee, M. G. Evanoff, D. P. Chakraborty, D. J. M. J. P. McNulty, E. M. Thomas, and P. C. Brennan, “The diagnostic efficacy of hand-held devices for emergency radiological consultation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194, 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, E. H. Y.

S. John, A. C. C. Poh, T. C. C. Lim, E. H. Y. Chan, and L. R. Chong, “The iPad tablet computer for mobile on-call radiology diagnosis? Auditing discrepancy in CT and MRI reporting,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 628–634 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Channin, D. S.

D. H. Fifadara, A. Averbukh, D. S. Channin, and A. Badano, “Effect of viewing angle on luminance and contrast for a five-million-pixel monochrome display and a nine-million-pixel color liquid crystal display,” J. Digital Imaging 17, 264–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. Y.

J. H. Lee, Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, J. H. Fang, S. C. Hsu, J. R. Lin, and M. K. Wei, “Efficiency improvement and image quality of organic light-emitting display by attaching cylindrical microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16, 2184–2190 (2008).

Chen, S. M.

S. M. Chen, Y. B. Yuan, J. R. Lian, and X. Zhou, “High-efficiency and high-contrast phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with p-type si anodes,” Opt. Express 22, 14644–14649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Choi, H.

Y. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Thin-type integral imaging method with an organic light emitting diode panel,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4297–4934 (2008).

Choi, M.

F. Zafar, M. Choi, J. Wang, P. Liu, and A. Badano, “Visual methods for determining ambient illumination conditions when viewing medical images in mobile display devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 124–132 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. K.

Chong, L. R.

S. John, A. C. C. Poh, T. C. C. Lim, E. H. Y. Chan, and L. R. Chong, “The iPad tablet computer for mobile on-call radiology diagnosis? Auditing discrepancy in CT and MRI reporting,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 628–634 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choudhri, A. F.

A. F. Choudhri, T. M. Carr, C. P. Ho, J. R. Stone, S. S. B. Gay, and D. L. Lambert, “Handheld device review of abdominal CT for evaluation of acute appendicitis,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 492–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clunie, D. A.

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Compton, K.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornelius, C.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corrigan, K.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curran, B. H.

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Diamantopoulos, A.

G. C. Kagadis, A. Walz-Flannigan, E. A. Krupinski, P. G. Nagy, K. Katsanos, A. Diamantopoulos, and S. G. Langer, “Medical imaging displays and their use in image interpretation,” RadioGraphics 33, 275–291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dogomori, K.

S. Hatanaka, J. Morishita, T. Hiwasa, K. Dogomori, F. Toyofuku, M. Ohki, and Y. Higashida, “Comparison of vewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 2, 166–174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donoghue, E. P.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332, 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evanoff, M. G.

J. P. McNulty, J. T. Ryan, M. G. Evanoff, and L. A. Rainford, “Flexible image evaluation: iPad versus secondary-class monitors for review of MR spinal emergency cases, a comparative study,” Acad. Radiol. 19, 1023–1028 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Toomey, J. T. Ryan, M. F. McEntee, M. G. Evanoff, D. P. Chakraborty, D. J. M. J. P. McNulty, E. M. Thomas, and P. C. Brennan, “The diagnostic efficacy of hand-held devices for emergency radiological consultation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194, 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, J. H.

J. H. Lee, Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, J. H. Fang, S. C. Hsu, J. R. Lin, and M. K. Wei, “Efficiency improvement and image quality of organic light-emitting display by attaching cylindrical microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16, 2184–2190 (2008).

Fifadara, D. H.

A. Badano and D. H. Fifadara, “Goniometric and conoscopic measurements of angular display contrast for one-, three-, five-, and nine-million-pixel medical liquid crystal displays,” Med. Phys. 31, 3452–3460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Fifadara, A. Averbukh, D. S. Channin, and A. Badano, “Effect of viewing angle on luminance and contrast for a five-million-pixel monochrome display and a nine-million-pixel color liquid crystal display,” J. Digital Imaging 17, 264–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flanders, A. E.

A. E. Flanders, R. H. Wiggins, and M. E. Gozum, “Handheld computers in radiology,” RadioGraphics 23, 1035–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flynn, M. J.

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Badano, M. J. Flynn, and J. Kanicki, High-Fidelity Medical Imaging Displays (SPIE Press, 2004).

Fujii, Y.

K. Nishiyama, M. Sano, S. Jinguji, A. Harada, J. Yoshimura, and Y. Fujii, “An organic light-emitting diode display for use in neuroendoscopic surgery in ventricle,” Acta Neurochir. 154, 1523–1525 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, H.

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, and H. Fujita, “MTF measurement method for medical displays by using a bar-pattern image,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 831–837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gagne, R. M.

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, and R. J. Jennings, “Noise in flat-panel displays with subpixel structure,” Med. Phys. 31, 715–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandhi, S.

S. P. Prabhu, S. Gandhi, and P. R. Goddard, “Ergonomics of digital imaging,” Br. J. Radiol. 78, 582–586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gay, S. S. B.

A. F. Choudhri, T. M. Carr, C. P. Ho, J. R. Stone, S. S. B. Gay, and D. L. Lambert, “Handheld device review of abdominal CT for evaluation of acute appendicitis,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 492–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goddard, P. R.

S. P. Prabhu, S. Gandhi, and P. R. Goddard, “Ergonomics of digital imaging,” Br. J. Radiol. 78, 582–586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gozum, M. E.

A. E. Flanders, R. H. Wiggins, and M. E. Gozum, “Handheld computers in radiology,” RadioGraphics 23, 1035–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, J.

Harada, A.

K. Nishiyama, M. Sano, S. Jinguji, A. Harada, J. Yoshimura, and Y. Fujii, “An organic light-emitting diode display for use in neuroendoscopic surgery in ventricle,” Acta Neurochir. 154, 1523–1525 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, M.

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, A. Nishimura, M. Hasegawa, and N. Kimura, “Analysis method of noise power spectrum for medical monochrome liquid crystal displays,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 1, 201–207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatanaka, S.

S. Hatanaka, J. Morishita, T. Hiwasa, K. Dogomori, F. Toyofuku, M. Ohki, and Y. Higashida, “Comparison of vewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 2, 166–174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemminger, B.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higashida, Y.

S. Hatanaka, J. Morishita, T. Hiwasa, K. Dogomori, F. Toyofuku, M. Ohki, and Y. Higashida, “Comparison of vewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 2, 166–174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiwasa, T.

S. Hatanaka, J. Morishita, T. Hiwasa, K. Dogomori, F. Toyofuku, M. Ohki, and Y. Higashida, “Comparison of vewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 2, 166–174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hngiandreou, N.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, C. P.

A. F. Choudhri, T. M. Carr, C. P. Ho, J. R. Stone, S. S. B. Gay, and D. L. Lambert, “Handheld device review of abdominal CT for evaluation of acute appendicitis,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 492–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y. H.

J. H. Lee, Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, J. H. Fang, S. C. Hsu, J. R. Lin, and M. K. Wei, “Efficiency improvement and image quality of organic light-emitting display by attaching cylindrical microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16, 2184–2190 (2008).

Hsu, S. C.

J. H. Lee, Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, J. H. Fang, S. C. Hsu, J. R. Lin, and M. K. Wei, “Efficiency improvement and image quality of organic light-emitting display by attaching cylindrical microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16, 2184–2190 (2008).

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 13, 9431–9438 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, K. H.

Ichikawa, K.

E. Nishimaru, K. Ichikawa, I. Okita, Y. Tomoshige, T. Kurokawa, Y. Nakamura, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body images in multidetector CT,” J. Digital Imaging 23, 806–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, A. Nishimura, M. Hasegawa, and N. Kimura, “Analysis method of noise power spectrum for medical monochrome liquid crystal displays,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 1, 201–207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, and H. Fujita, “MTF measurement method for medical displays by using a bar-pattern image,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 831–837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, R. J.

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, and R. J. Jennings, “Noise in flat-panel displays with subpixel structure,” Med. Phys. 31, 715–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jinguji, S.

K. Nishiyama, M. Sano, S. Jinguji, A. Harada, J. Yoshimura, and Y. Fujii, “An organic light-emitting diode display for use in neuroendoscopic surgery in ventricle,” Acta Neurochir. 154, 1523–1525 (2012).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John, A. C. C. Poh, T. C. C. Lim, E. H. Y. Chan, and L. R. Chong, “The iPad tablet computer for mobile on-call radiology diagnosis? Auditing discrepancy in CT and MRI reporting,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 628–634 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J.

Y. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Thin-type integral imaging method with an organic light emitting diode panel,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4297–4934 (2008).

Kagadis, G. C.

G. C. Kagadis, A. Walz-Flannigan, E. A. Krupinski, P. G. Nagy, K. Katsanos, A. Diamantopoulos, and S. G. Langer, “Medical imaging displays and their use in image interpretation,” RadioGraphics 33, 275–291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanicki, J.

A. Badano, M. J. Flynn, and J. Kanicki, High-Fidelity Medical Imaging Displays (SPIE Press, 2004).

Katsanos, K.

G. C. Kagadis, A. Walz-Flannigan, E. A. Krupinski, P. G. Nagy, K. Katsanos, A. Diamantopoulos, and S. G. Langer, “Medical imaging displays and their use in image interpretation,” RadioGraphics 33, 275–291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332, 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Y. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Thin-type integral imaging method with an organic light emitting diode panel,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4297–4934 (2008).

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Thin-type integral imaging method with an organic light emitting diode panel,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4297–4934 (2008).

Y. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Thin-type integral imaging method with an organic light emitting diode panel,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4297–4934 (2008).

Kim, Y. C.

Kimura, N.

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, A. Nishimura, M. Hasegawa, and N. Kimura, “Analysis method of noise power spectrum for medical monochrome liquid crystal displays,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 1, 201–207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodera, Y.

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, A. Nishimura, M. Hasegawa, and N. Kimura, “Analysis method of noise power spectrum for medical monochrome liquid crystal displays,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 1, 201–207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, and H. Fujita, “MTF measurement method for medical displays by using a bar-pattern image,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 831–837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kravchenko, I.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332, 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupinski, E.

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krupinski, E. A.

G. C. Kagadis, A. Walz-Flannigan, E. A. Krupinski, P. G. Nagy, K. Katsanos, A. Diamantopoulos, and S. G. Langer, “Medical imaging displays and their use in image interpretation,” RadioGraphics 33, 275–291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurokawa, T.

E. Nishimaru, K. Ichikawa, I. Okita, Y. Tomoshige, T. Kurokawa, Y. Nakamura, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body images in multidetector CT,” J. Digital Imaging 23, 806–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, D. L.

A. F. Choudhri, T. M. Carr, C. P. Ho, J. R. Stone, S. S. B. Gay, and D. L. Lambert, “Handheld device review of abdominal CT for evaluation of acute appendicitis,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 492–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Langer, S. G.

G. C. Kagadis, A. Walz-Flannigan, E. A. Krupinski, P. G. Nagy, K. Katsanos, A. Diamantopoulos, and S. G. Langer, “Medical imaging displays and their use in image interpretation,” RadioGraphics 33, 275–291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

Y. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Thin-type integral imaging method with an organic light emitting diode panel,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4297–4934 (2008).

Lee, J. G.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, S. Y.

Lee, Y. H.

Lian, J. R.

S. M. Chen, Y. B. Yuan, J. R. Lian, and X. Zhou, “High-efficiency and high-contrast phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with p-type si anodes,” Opt. Express 22, 14644–14649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lieto, R. P.

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lim, T. C. C.

S. John, A. C. C. Poh, T. C. C. Lim, E. H. Y. Chan, and L. R. Chong, “The iPad tablet computer for mobile on-call radiology diagnosis? Auditing discrepancy in CT and MRI reporting,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 628–634 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

J. H. Lee, Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, J. H. Fang, S. C. Hsu, J. R. Lin, and M. K. Wei, “Efficiency improvement and image quality of organic light-emitting display by attaching cylindrical microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16, 2184–2190 (2008).

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 13, 9431–9438 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J. R.

J. H. Lee, Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, J. H. Fang, S. C. Hsu, J. R. Lin, and M. K. Wei, “Efficiency improvement and image quality of organic light-emitting display by attaching cylindrical microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16, 2184–2190 (2008).

Lin, T. C.

Lin, Y. H.

Liu, B.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332, 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, P.

F. Zafar, M. Choi, J. Wang, P. Liu, and A. Badano, “Visual methods for determining ambient illumination conditions when viewing medical images in mobile display devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 124–132 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mangiafico, P. A.

M. B. Williams, P. A. Mangiafico, and P. U. Simoni, “Noise power spectra of images from digital mammography detectors,” Med. Phys. 26, 1279–1293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCarthy, M. A.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332, 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McEntee, M. F.

R. J. Toomey, J. T. Ryan, M. F. McEntee, M. G. Evanoff, D. P. Chakraborty, D. J. M. J. P. McNulty, E. M. Thomas, and P. C. Brennan, “The diagnostic efficacy of hand-held devices for emergency radiological consultation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194, 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, D. J. M. J. P.

R. J. Toomey, J. T. Ryan, M. F. McEntee, M. G. Evanoff, D. P. Chakraborty, D. J. M. J. P. McNulty, E. M. Thomas, and P. C. Brennan, “The diagnostic efficacy of hand-held devices for emergency radiological consultation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194, 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, J. P.

J. P. McNulty, J. T. Ryan, M. G. Evanoff, and L. A. Rainford, “Flexible image evaluation: iPad versus secondary-class monitors for review of MR spinal emergency cases, a comparative study,” Acad. Radiol. 19, 1023–1028 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mian, T.

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morishita, J.

S. Hatanaka, J. Morishita, T. Hiwasa, K. Dogomori, F. Toyofuku, M. Ohki, and Y. Higashida, “Comparison of vewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 2, 166–174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moxley-Stevens, D. M.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagy, P. G.

G. C. Kagadis, A. Walz-Flannigan, E. A. Krupinski, P. G. Nagy, K. Katsanos, A. Diamantopoulos, and S. G. Langer, “Medical imaging displays and their use in image interpretation,” RadioGraphics 33, 275–291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, Y.

E. Nishimaru, K. Ichikawa, I. Okita, Y. Tomoshige, T. Kurokawa, Y. Nakamura, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body images in multidetector CT,” J. Digital Imaging 23, 806–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nishimaru, E.

E. Nishimaru, K. Ichikawa, I. Okita, Y. Tomoshige, T. Kurokawa, Y. Nakamura, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body images in multidetector CT,” J. Digital Imaging 23, 806–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, A.

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, A. Nishimura, M. Hasegawa, and N. Kimura, “Analysis method of noise power spectrum for medical monochrome liquid crystal displays,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 1, 201–207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishiyama, K.

K. Nishiyama, M. Sano, S. Jinguji, A. Harada, J. Yoshimura, and Y. Fujii, “An organic light-emitting diode display for use in neuroendoscopic surgery in ventricle,” Acta Neurochir. 154, 1523–1525 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Norweck, J. T.

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. S.

Oh, S. Y.

Ohki, M.

S. Hatanaka, J. Morishita, T. Hiwasa, K. Dogomori, F. Toyofuku, M. Ohki, and Y. Higashida, “Comparison of vewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 2, 166–174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okita, I.

E. Nishimaru, K. Ichikawa, I. Okita, Y. Tomoshige, T. Kurokawa, Y. Nakamura, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body images in multidetector CT,” J. Digital Imaging 23, 806–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pavlicek, W.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peck, D. J.

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Poh, A. C. C.

S. John, A. C. C. Poh, T. C. C. Lim, E. H. Y. Chan, and L. R. Chong, “The iPad tablet computer for mobile on-call radiology diagnosis? Auditing discrepancy in CT and MRI reporting,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 628–634 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prabhu, S. P.

S. P. Prabhu, S. Gandhi, and P. R. Goddard, “Ergonomics of digital imaging,” Br. J. Radiol. 78, 582–586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rainford, L. A.

J. P. McNulty, J. T. Ryan, M. G. Evanoff, and L. A. Rainford, “Flexible image evaluation: iPad versus secondary-class monitors for review of MR spinal emergency cases, a comparative study,” Acad. Radiol. 19, 1023–1028 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinzler, A. G.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332, 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roehrig, H.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutz, L.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryan, J. T.

J. P. McNulty, J. T. Ryan, M. G. Evanoff, and L. A. Rainford, “Flexible image evaluation: iPad versus secondary-class monitors for review of MR spinal emergency cases, a comparative study,” Acad. Radiol. 19, 1023–1028 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Toomey, J. T. Ryan, M. F. McEntee, M. G. Evanoff, D. P. Chakraborty, D. J. M. J. P. McNulty, E. M. Thomas, and P. C. Brennan, “The diagnostic efficacy of hand-held devices for emergency radiological consultation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194, 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samei, E.

E. Samei and S. L. Wright, “Vewing angle performance of medical liquid crystal displays,” Med. Phys. 33, 645–654 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. S. Saunders and E. Samei, “Resolution and noise measurements of five CRT and LCD medical displays,” Med. Phys. 33, 308–319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sano, M.

K. Nishiyama, M. Sano, S. Jinguji, A. Harada, J. Yoshimura, and Y. Fujii, “An organic light-emitting diode display for use in neuroendoscopic surgery in ventricle,” Acta Neurochir. 154, 1523–1525 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, J. R. S.

J. R. S. Saunders and E. Samei, “Resolution and noise measurements of five CRT and LCD medical displays,” Med. Phys. 33, 308–319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibert, J. A.

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shepard, J.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simoni, P. U.

M. B. Williams, P. A. Mangiafico, and P. U. Simoni, “Noise power spectra of images from digital mammography detectors,” Med. Phys. 26, 1279–1293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, F.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332, 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Y. W.

Stone, J. R.

A. F. Choudhri, T. M. Carr, C. P. Ho, J. R. Stone, S. S. B. Gay, and D. L. Lambert, “Handheld device review of abdominal CT for evaluation of acute appendicitis,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 492–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

E. Nishimaru, K. Ichikawa, I. Okita, Y. Tomoshige, T. Kurokawa, Y. Nakamura, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body images in multidetector CT,” J. Digital Imaging 23, 806–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. M.

R. J. Toomey, J. T. Ryan, M. F. McEntee, M. G. Evanoff, D. P. Chakraborty, D. J. M. J. P. McNulty, E. M. Thomas, and P. C. Brennan, “The diagnostic efficacy of hand-held devices for emergency radiological consultation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194, 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomoshige, Y.

E. Nishimaru, K. Ichikawa, I. Okita, Y. Tomoshige, T. Kurokawa, Y. Nakamura, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body images in multidetector CT,” J. Digital Imaging 23, 806–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toomey, R. J.

R. J. Toomey, J. T. Ryan, M. F. McEntee, M. G. Evanoff, D. P. Chakraborty, D. J. M. J. P. McNulty, E. M. Thomas, and P. C. Brennan, “The diagnostic efficacy of hand-held devices for emergency radiological consultation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194, 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toyofuku, F.

S. Hatanaka, J. Morishita, T. Hiwasa, K. Dogomori, F. Toyofuku, M. Ohki, and Y. Higashida, “Comparison of vewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 2, 166–174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uzenoff, R. A.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walz-Flannigan, A.

G. C. Kagadis, A. Walz-Flannigan, E. A. Krupinski, P. G. Nagy, K. Katsanos, A. Diamantopoulos, and S. G. Langer, “Medical imaging displays and their use in image interpretation,” RadioGraphics 33, 275–291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

F. Zafar, M. Choi, J. Wang, P. Liu, and A. Badano, “Visual methods for determining ambient illumination conditions when viewing medical images in mobile display devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 124–132 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, M. K.

J. H. Lee, Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, J. H. Fang, S. C. Hsu, J. R. Lin, and M. K. Wei, “Efficiency improvement and image quality of organic light-emitting display by attaching cylindrical microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16, 2184–2190 (2008).

Wiggins, R. H.

A. E. Flanders, R. H. Wiggins, and M. E. Gozum, “Handheld computers in radiology,” RadioGraphics 23, 1035–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, M. B.

M. B. Williams, P. A. Mangiafico, and P. U. Simoni, “Noise power spectra of images from digital mammography detectors,” Med. Phys. 26, 1279–1293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, C. E.

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, S. L.

E. Samei and S. L. Wright, “Vewing angle performance of medical liquid crystal displays,” Med. Phys. 33, 645–654 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

Yoshimura, J.

K. Nishiyama, M. Sano, S. Jinguji, A. Harada, J. Yoshimura, and Y. Fujii, “An organic light-emitting diode display for use in neuroendoscopic surgery in ventricle,” Acta Neurochir. 154, 1523–1525 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y. B.

S. M. Chen, Y. B. Yuan, J. R. Lian, and X. Zhou, “High-efficiency and high-contrast phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with p-type si anodes,” Opt. Express 22, 14644–14649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zafar, F.

F. Zafar, M. Choi, J. Wang, P. Liu, and A. Badano, “Visual methods for determining ambient illumination conditions when viewing medical images in mobile display devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 124–132 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zang, D. S.

Zhou, X.

S. M. Chen, Y. B. Yuan, J. R. Lian, and X. Zhou, “High-efficiency and high-contrast phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with p-type si anodes,” Opt. Express 22, 14644–14649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

Acad. Radiol. (1)

J. P. McNulty, J. T. Ryan, M. G. Evanoff, and L. A. Rainford, “Flexible image evaluation: iPad versus secondary-class monitors for review of MR spinal emergency cases, a comparative study,” Acad. Radiol. 19, 1023–1028 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Neurochir. (1)

K. Nishiyama, M. Sano, S. Jinguji, A. Harada, J. Yoshimura, and Y. Fujii, “An organic light-emitting diode display for use in neuroendoscopic surgery in ventricle,” Acta Neurochir. 154, 1523–1525 (2012).
[CrossRef]

AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. (1)

R. J. Toomey, J. T. Ryan, M. F. McEntee, M. G. Evanoff, D. P. Chakraborty, D. J. M. J. P. McNulty, E. M. Thomas, and P. C. Brennan, “The diagnostic efficacy of hand-held devices for emergency radiological consultation,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 194, 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Y. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Thin-type integral imaging method with an organic light emitting diode panel,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4297–4934 (2008).

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

S. P. Prabhu, S. Gandhi, and P. R. Goddard, “Ergonomics of digital imaging,” Br. J. Radiol. 78, 582–586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Digital Imaging (5)

J. T. Norweck, J. A. Seibert, K. P. Andriole, D. A. Clunie, B. H. Curran, M. J. Flynn, E. Krupinski, R. P. Lieto, D. J. Peck, and T. Mian, “ACR-AAPM-SIIM technical standard for electronic practice of medical imaging,” J. Digital Imaging 26, 38–52 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Nishimaru, K. Ichikawa, I. Okita, Y. Tomoshige, T. Kurokawa, Y. Nakamura, and M. Suzuki, “Development of a noise reduction filter algorithm for pediatric body images in multidetector CT,” J. Digital Imaging 23, 806–818 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. John, A. C. C. Poh, T. C. C. Lim, E. H. Y. Chan, and L. R. Chong, “The iPad tablet computer for mobile on-call radiology diagnosis? Auditing discrepancy in CT and MRI reporting,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 628–634 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Choudhri, T. M. Carr, C. P. Ho, J. R. Stone, S. S. B. Gay, and D. L. Lambert, “Handheld device review of abdominal CT for evaluation of acute appendicitis,” J. Digital Imaging 25, 492–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Fifadara, A. Averbukh, D. S. Channin, and A. Badano, “Effect of viewing angle on luminance and contrast for a five-million-pixel monochrome display and a nine-million-pixel color liquid crystal display,” J. Digital Imaging 17, 264–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

F. Zafar, M. Choi, J. Wang, P. Liu, and A. Badano, “Visual methods for determining ambient illumination conditions when viewing medical images in mobile display devices,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20, 124–132 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, and H. Fujita, “MTF measurement method for medical displays by using a bar-pattern image,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 831–837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (6)

E. Samei, A. Badano, D. Chakraborty, K. Compton, C. Cornelius, K. Corrigan, M. J. Flynn, B. Hemminger, N. Hngiandreou, J. Johnson, D. M. Moxley-Stevens, W. Pavlicek, H. Roehrig, L. Rutz, J. Shepard, R. A. Uzenoff, J. Wang, and C. E. Willis, “Assesment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report,” Med. Phys. 32, 1205–1225 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, and R. J. Jennings, “Noise in flat-panel displays with subpixel structure,” Med. Phys. 31, 715–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. S. Saunders and E. Samei, “Resolution and noise measurements of five CRT and LCD medical displays,” Med. Phys. 33, 308–319 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Williams, P. A. Mangiafico, and P. U. Simoni, “Noise power spectra of images from digital mammography detectors,” Med. Phys. 26, 1279–1293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Badano and D. H. Fifadara, “Goniometric and conoscopic measurements of angular display contrast for one-, three-, five-, and nine-million-pixel medical liquid crystal displays,” Med. Phys. 31, 3452–3460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Samei and S. L. Wright, “Vewing angle performance of medical liquid crystal displays,” Med. Phys. 33, 645–654 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

J. H. Lee, Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, J. H. Fang, S. C. Hsu, J. R. Lin, and M. K. Wei, “Efficiency improvement and image quality of organic light-emitting display by attaching cylindrical microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 16, 2184–2190 (2008).

S. H. Cho, Y. W. Song, J. G. Lee, Y. C. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. Ha, J. S. Oh, S. Y. Oh, S. Y. Lee, K. H. Hwang, D. S. Zang, and Y. H. Lee, “Weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes with improved light out-coupling,” Opt. Express 16, 12632–12639 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Chen, Y. B. Yuan, J. R. Lian, and X. Zhou, “High-efficiency and high-contrast phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with p-type si anodes,” Opt. Express 22, 14644–14649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y. H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T. C. Lin, S. C. Hsu, H. Y. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 13, 9431–9438 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

RadioGraphics (2)

A. E. Flanders, R. H. Wiggins, and M. E. Gozum, “Handheld computers in radiology,” RadioGraphics 23, 1035–1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Kagadis, A. Walz-Flannigan, E. A. Krupinski, P. G. Nagy, K. Katsanos, A. Diamantopoulos, and S. G. Langer, “Medical imaging displays and their use in image interpretation,” RadioGraphics 33, 275–291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiol. Phys. Technol. (2)

K. Ichikawa, Y. Kodera, A. Nishimura, M. Hasegawa, and N. Kimura, “Analysis method of noise power spectrum for medical monochrome liquid crystal displays,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 1, 201–207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hatanaka, J. Morishita, T. Hiwasa, K. Dogomori, F. Toyofuku, M. Ohki, and Y. Higashida, “Comparison of vewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors,” Radiol. Phys. Technol. 2, 166–174 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332, 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Badano, M. J. Flynn, and J. Kanicki, High-Fidelity Medical Imaging Displays (SPIE Press, 2004).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement of a photometric camera at various oriented angles. (a) Experiment layout of the camera and a resolution chart. The camera was oriented at varying angles from −10 to 10 degrees with respect to the perpendicular direction to the resolution chart. (b) The captured pattern image with the camera. The edge line of 2×2-mm square cut indicated by a square with red broken line was used for the MTF calculation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The experimental setting of the photometric CCD camera capturing the display screen for measuring the display MTFs. The OLEDp1, OLEDp2, LCDp, and LCDt were set by the portrait orientation while OLEDw and LCDw were set by the landscape orientation. (b) The captured screen images displaying the horizontal and vertical line-patterns. The horizontal direction corresponds to the RGB sub-pixel direction except for LCDt in which the vertical direction corresponds to the RGB direction. Orange dot-line squares showing respective one pixel regions and 0.1-mm scale bars are indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modulation transfer functions of the photometric camera at various viewing angles in the range from −10 to 10 degrees.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Line spread functions for the devices tested in this study.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modulation transfer functions as a function of absolute frequency, relative frequency, and angular frequency expressed in cycles per degree for the devices tested in this study. (a) and (d) show error bars representing two standard deviations for measured MTFs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

One-dimensional noise power spectra for the devices tested in this study. The error bars represent two standard deviations for measured NPS.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two-dimensional noise power spectra for the devices tested in this study.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Horizontal line spread functions by various digital driving levels for OLEDp1, OLEDp2, OLEDw, and LCDw.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Horizontal modulation transfer functions as a function of relative spatial frequency by various digital driving levels for OLEDp1, OLEDp2, OLEDw, and LCDw.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Line spread functions and modulation transfer functions by various line digital driving levels (DDLs) in 40% DDL background for OLEDp2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Horizontal 1-dimensional noise power spectra by various digital driving levels for OLEDp1, OLEDp2, OLEDw, and LCDw.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Line spread functions at various camera orientations from −8 to 8 degrees for OLEDp1, OLEDp2, and LCDt.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Modulation transfer functions by various camera orientations from −8 to 8 degrees for OLEDp1, OLEDp2, and LCDt.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

One-dimensional noise power spectra by various camera orientations from −8 to 8 degrees for OLEDp1, OLEDp2, and LCDt.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Display specifications with minimum and maximum luminance values and luminance ratio. The luminance values were measured at the maximum brightness setting for the handheld displays and LCDw, and the contrast and brightness parameters were set at 50 with a color space: SMTPE-C for OLEDw.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Digital driving levels (DDL) and luminance values of the line (LN) and background (BG) in the displayed pattern at perpendicular viewing angle.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sinc ( u / f N ) = sin ( u π p ) u π p ,
( c y / deg ) = V D 57.3 ( c y / m m ) .
N P S ( u ) = s M x 2 | m = 0 M 1 L ( k x ) L ¯ exp { 2 π j ( k m M ) } | 2 ,
N P S ( u , v ) = x y M N | m = 0 M 1 n = 0 N 1 L ( k x , l y ) L ¯ exp { 2 π j ( k m M , l n N ) } | 2 ,

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