Abstract

We demonstrate a novel method to reduce the mode-locking threshold of erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) based on saturable absorber (SA). The SA was prepared by mixing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and single-wall carbon nanotubes in sodium carboxymethylcellulose. The mode-locking threshold of EDFL was adjusted through simple changing the concentration of GNPs in the SA. The variation range of the threshold was as large as 21.5 mW. A lowest threshold of ~16 mW was obtained with the concentration of GNPs as 0.006 mmol/ml. The largest decreased ratio of the initial threshold was 47.5%. Surface plasmon field enhancement effect was speculated as the main reason for the reduced mode-locking threshold.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (2)

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Jiang, Y. Liu, S. Liu, N. Liu, and W. Qin, “Upconversion emission enhancement of Gd3+ ions induced by surface plasmon field in Au@NaYF4 nanostructures codoped with Gd3+-Yb3+-Tm3+ ions,” J. Coll. Int. Sci.377(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. Zhong, Y. Shen, H. Shen, and Y. Huang, “FDTD study of a novel terahertz emitter with electrical field enhancement using surface plasmon resonance,” PIERS Online6(2), 153–156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. L. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 754–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. A. Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 043307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hart, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

Y. Wang, X. Xu, Z. Tian, Y. Zong, H. Cheng, and C. Lin, “Selective heterogeneous nucleation and growth of size-controlled metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes in solution,” Chemistry12(9), 2542–2549 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 51–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultrafast fiber laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys.6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc.12(2), 121–129 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(15), 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett.28(8), 806–807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, B.

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banks, P. S.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. P.

Byun, K. M.

Cheng, H.

Y. Wang, X. Xu, Z. Tian, Y. Zong, H. Cheng, and C. Lin, “Selective heterogeneous nucleation and growth of size-controlled metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes in solution,” Chemistry12(9), 2542–2549 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, K. N.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hart, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, M.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fritzsche, W.

Fu, S.

K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. L. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 754–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujiki, A.

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. A. Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 043307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gai, H.

Geddes, C. D.

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc.12(2), 121–129 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grudinin, A.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultrafast fiber laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys.6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hakulinen, T.

Härkönen, A.

Hart, I.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hart, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Huang, Y.

S. Zhong, Y. Shen, H. Shen, and Y. Huang, “FDTD study of a novel terahertz emitter with electrical field enhancement using surface plasmon resonance,” PIERS Online6(2), 153–156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, T.

Itoga, E.

Itoh, K.

Jablonski, M.

S. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 51–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, K.

K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. L. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 754–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, T.

T. Jiang, Y. Liu, S. Liu, N. Liu, and W. Qin, “Upconversion emission enhancement of Gd3+ ions induced by surface plasmon field in Au@NaYF4 nanostructures codoped with Gd3+-Yb3+-Tm3+ ions,” J. Coll. Int. Sci.377(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N. Y.

Kang, M. S.

Kasaya, M. A.

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. A. Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 043307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaskela, A.

Kataura, H.

Kauppinen, E. I.

Kazansky, P. G.

Kelly, S. M. J.

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett.28(8), 806–807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

Kim, S. W.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kivistö, S.

Kondo, Y.

König, K.

Kuwahara, Y.

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. A. Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 043307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc.12(2), 121–129 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, H. B.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(15), 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Y. Wang, X. Xu, Z. Tian, Y. Zong, H. Cheng, and C. Lin, “Selective heterogeneous nucleation and growth of size-controlled metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes in solution,” Chemistry12(9), 2542–2549 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. L.

K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. L. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 754–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. R.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

T. Jiang, Y. Liu, S. Liu, N. Liu, and W. Qin, “Upconversion emission enhancement of Gd3+ ions induced by surface plasmon field in Au@NaYF4 nanostructures codoped with Gd3+-Yb3+-Tm3+ ions,” J. Coll. Int. Sci.377(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

T. Jiang, Y. Liu, S. Liu, N. Liu, and W. Qin, “Upconversion emission enhancement of Gd3+ ions induced by surface plasmon field in Au@NaYF4 nanostructures codoped with Gd3+-Yb3+-Tm3+ ions,” J. Coll. Int. Sci.377(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

T. Jiang, Y. Liu, S. Liu, N. Liu, and W. Qin, “Upconversion emission enhancement of Gd3+ ions induced by surface plasmon field in Au@NaYF4 nanostructures codoped with Gd3+-Yb3+-Tm3+ ions,” J. Coll. Int. Sci.377(1), 81–87 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

Mitsuyu, T.

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nasibulin, A. G.

Nishizawa, N.

Nouchi, K.

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[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

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M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultrafast fiber laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys.6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, W.

T. Jiang, Y. Liu, S. Liu, N. Liu, and W. Qin, “Upconversion emission enhancement of Gd3+ ions induced by surface plasmon field in Au@NaYF4 nanostructures codoped with Gd3+-Yb3+-Tm3+ ions,” J. Coll. Int. Sci.377(1), 81–87 (2012).
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N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
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M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
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S. Zhong, Y. Shen, H. Shen, and Y. Huang, “FDTD study of a novel terahertz emitter with electrical field enhancement using surface plasmon resonance,” PIERS Online6(2), 153–156 (2010).
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M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38), 3874–3899 (2009).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38), 3874–3899 (2009).
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S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
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K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
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A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. A. Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 043307 (2010).
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N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, S.

S. Zhong, Y. Shen, H. Shen, and Y. Huang, “FDTD study of a novel terahertz emitter with electrical field enhancement using surface plasmon resonance,” PIERS Online6(2), 153–156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Wang, X. Xu, Z. Tian, Y. Zong, H. Cheng, and C. Lin, “Selective heterogeneous nucleation and growth of size-controlled metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes in solution,” Chemistry12(9), 2542–2549 (2006).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38), 3874–3899 (2009).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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[CrossRef]

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. A. Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 043307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(27), 7671–7673 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemistry (1)

Y. Wang, X. Xu, Z. Tian, Y. Zong, H. Cheng, and C. Lin, “Selective heterogeneous nucleation and growth of size-controlled metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes in solution,” Chemistry12(9), 2542–2549 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. L. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(11), 754–756 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys.85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Coll. Int. Sci. (1)

T. Jiang, Y. Liu, S. Liu, N. Liu, and W. Qin, “Upconversion emission enhancement of Gd3+ ions induced by surface plasmon field in Au@NaYF4 nanostructures codoped with Gd3+-Yb3+-Tm3+ ions,” J. Coll. Int. Sci.377(1), 81–87 (2012).
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P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultrafast fiber laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys.6, 177 (2004).
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P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PIERS Online (1)

S. Zhong, Y. Shen, H. Shen, and Y. Huang, “FDTD study of a novel terahertz emitter with electrical field enhancement using surface plasmon resonance,” PIERS Online6(2), 153–156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM images of (a) the SWCNTs and (b) the SWCNTs@GNPs (Insert: TEM image of the GNPs). AFM images of (c) the SWCNTs-NaCMC film and (d) the SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC film (the concentration of GNPs is 0.006 mmol/ml).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The optical absorption spectra of (a) the SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC films with different GNP concentration (0 to 0.010 mmol/ml) from 400 to 1800 nm (Insert: dependence of the absorption intensity on the GNP concentration), (b) from 1200 to 1800 nm, and (c) the NaCMC film, the SWCNTs-NaCMC film, and the SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC film (the concentration of GNPs is 0.006 mmol/ml) from 800 to 1800 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration of the mode-locked EDFL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Emission spectrum of the EDFL based on a SWCNTs-NaCMC film, (b) laser intensity as a function of time at a pump power of ~20 mW, (c) emission spectrum, (d) output pulse train, (e) single pulse profile of the mode-locked EDFL at a pump power of ~90 mW, and (f) the output power of the mode-locked EDFL as a function of the pump power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of (a) the mode-locking threshold and (b) the CW threshold on the GNP concentration, (c) the output power of the EDFL mode-locked with a SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC film (the concentration of GNPs is 0.006 mmol/ml) as a function of the pump power, and distributions of excitation power density around GNPs with mutual distance as (d) 10, (e) 5, and (f) 1 nm in the x-y plane.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a), (b) Emission spectra, (c), (d) single pulse profiles, and (e), (f) output pulse trains of EDFLs mode-locked with a SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC film (the concentration of GNPs is 0.006 mmol/ml) and a SWCNTs-NaCMC film.

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