Abstract

Propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBX) imaging yields high contrast images of the lung where airways that overlap in projection coherently scatter the x-rays, giving rise to a speckled intensity due to interference effects. Our previous works have shown that total and regional changes in lung air volumes can be accurately measured from two-dimensional (2D) absorption or phase contrast images when the subject is immersed in a water-filled container. In this paper we demonstrate how the phase contrast speckle patterns can be used to directly measure absolute regional lung air volumes from 2D PBX images without the need for a water-filled container. We justify this technique analytically and via simulation using the transport-of-intensity equation and calibrate the technique using our existing methods for measuring lung air volume. Finally, we show the full capabilities of this technique for measuring regional differences in lung aeration.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (4)

M. L. Siew, M. J. Wallace, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, A. B. te Pas, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “The role of lung inflation and sodium transport in airway liquid clearance during lung aeration in newborn rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 443–449 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Wheeler, M. Wallace, M. Kitchen, A. te Pas, A. Fouras, M. Islam, M. Siew, R. Lewis, C. Morley, P. Davis, and S. Hooper, “Establishing lung gas volumes at birth: interaction between positive end-expiratory pressures and tidal volumes in preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 734–741 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. T. Leong, A. Fouras, M. S. Islam, M. J. Wallace, S. B. Hooper, and M. J. Kitchen, “High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images,” Med. Phys.40, 041909 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Garson, E. W. Izaguirre, S. G. Price, and M. A. Anastasio, “Characterization of speckle in lung images acquired with a benchtop in-line x-ray phase-contrast system,” Phys. Med. Biol.58, 4237 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40, 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Kyriazis, I. Rodriguez, N. Nin, J. Izquierdo-Garcia, J. Lorente, J. Perez-Sanchez, J. Pesic, L. Olsson, and J. Ruiz-Cabello, “Dynamic ventilation 3He MRI for the quantification of disease in the rat lung,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59, 777–786 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Carnibella, M. J. Kitchen, and A. Fouras, “Determining particle size distributions from a single projection image,” Opt. Express20, 15962–15968 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. Moosmann, R. Hofmann, and T. Baumbach, “Single-distance phase retrieval at large phase shifts,” Opt. Express19, 12066–12073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ewald and T. Wilhein, “Source size characterization of a microfocus x-ray tube used for in-line phase-contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 81–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Siew, A. B. te Pas, M. J. Wallace, M. J. Kitchen, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, C. J. Morley, P. G. Davis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Surfactant increases the uniformity of lung aeration at birth in ventilated preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.70, 50–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum.5, T02002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, K. Uesugi, and M. J. Kitchen, “A high precision recipe for correcting images distorted by a tapered fiber optic,” J. Instrum.5, P09008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Mueller, F. R. Long, R. L. Flucke, and R. G. Castile, “Volume-monitored chest CT: a simplified method for obtaining motion-free images near full inspiratory and end expiratory lung volumes,” Pediatr. Radiol.40, 1663–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med.51, 646–653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uecker, S. Zhang, D. Voit, A. Karaus, K.-D. Merboldt, and J. Frahm, “Real-time MRI at a resolution of 20 ms,” NMR Biomed.23, 986–994 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, R. K. Wang, and M. T. Hinds, “Quantitative temporal speckle contrast imaging for tissue mechanics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24, 3728–3734 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tuohimaa, M. Otendal, and H. M. Hertz, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with a liquid-metal-jet-anode micro-focus source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 074104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J.21, 3329–3337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. L. Levy, M. Fletcher, D. B. Price, T. Hausen, R. J. Halbert, and B. P. Yawn, “International primary care respiratory group (IPCRG) guidelines: Diagnosis of respiratory diseases in primary care,” Prim. Care Respir. J.15, 20–34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Wang, G. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Blind deblurring of spiral CT images based on ENR and wiener filter,” J. x-ray sci. technol.13, 49–60 (2005).

2004 (4)

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49, 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Porra, S. Monfraix, G. Berruyer, G. Le Duc, C. Nemoz, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, A. R. A. Sovijrvi, and S. Bayat, “Effect of tidal volume on distribution of ventilation assessed by synchrotron radiation CT in rabbit,” J. Appl. Physiol.96, 1899–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fricke-Begemann and K. D. Hinsch, “Measurement of random processes at rough surfaces with digital speckle correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A21, 252–262 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Turner, B. Dhal, J. Hayes, A. Mancuso, K. Nugent, D. Paterson, R. Scholten, C. Tran, and A. Peele, “X-ray phase imaging: Demonstration of extended conditions for homogeneous objects,” Opt. Express12, 2960–2965 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

E. Oostveen, D. MacLeod, H. Lorino, R. Farr, Z. Hantos, K. Desager, and F. Marchal, and on behalf of the ERS Task Force on Respiratory Impedance Measurements, “The forced oscillation technique in clinical practice: methodology, recommendations and future developments,” Eur. Respir. J.22, 1026–1041 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microscopy206, 33–40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

E. M. Law, A. F. Little, and J. C. Salanitri, “Non-vascular intervention with real-time CT fluoroscopy,” Australas. Radiol.45, 109–112 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bayat, G. Le Duc, L. Porra, G. Berruyer, C. Nemoz, S. Monfraix, S. Fiedler, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, C. G. Standertskjld-Nordenstam, and A. R. A. Sovijrvi, “Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent,” Phys. Med. Biol.46, 3287–3299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Brancazio, G. Franz, E. Petsonk, and D. Frazer, “Lung area-volume models in relation to the recruitment-derecruitment of individual lung units,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.29, 252–262 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Giglio, M. Carpineti, A. Vailati, and D. Brogioli, “Near-field intensity correlations of scattered light,” Appl. Opt.40, 4036–4040 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, “Refraction-enhanced x-ray imaging of mouse lung using synchrotron radiation source,” Med. Phys.26, 2190–2193 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68, 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard x-rays,” Nature384, 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

M. J. Tobin, G. Jenouri, B. Lind, H. Watson, A. Schneider, and M. A. Sackner, “Validation of respiratory inductive plethysmography in patients with pulmonary disease,” Chest83, 615–620 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Teague, “Deterministic phase retrieval: a green’s function solution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.73, 1434–1441 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

J. H. Talbot, “Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a random distribution of identical apertures in a plane screen,” Proc. Phys. Soc.89, 1043–1053 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allison, B. J.

M. L. Siew, M. J. Wallace, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, A. B. te Pas, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “The role of lung inflation and sodium transport in airway liquid clearance during lung aeration in newborn rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 443–449 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40, 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anastasio, M. A.

A. B. Garson, E. W. Izaguirre, S. G. Price, and M. A. Anastasio, “Characterization of speckle in lung images acquired with a benchtop in-line x-ray phase-contrast system,” Phys. Med. Biol.58, 4237 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, Y.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bankier, A.

H. Kauczor and A. Bankier, Functional Imaging of the Chest (Springer, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Baumbach, T.

Bayat, S.

L. Porra, S. Monfraix, G. Berruyer, G. Le Duc, C. Nemoz, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, A. R. A. Sovijrvi, and S. Bayat, “Effect of tidal volume on distribution of ventilation assessed by synchrotron radiation CT in rabbit,” J. Appl. Physiol.96, 1899–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bayat, G. Le Duc, L. Porra, G. Berruyer, C. Nemoz, S. Monfraix, S. Fiedler, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, C. G. Standertskjld-Nordenstam, and A. R. A. Sovijrvi, “Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent,” Phys. Med. Biol.46, 3287–3299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beiderman, Y.

Berruyer, G.

L. Porra, S. Monfraix, G. Berruyer, G. Le Duc, C. Nemoz, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, A. R. A. Sovijrvi, and S. Bayat, “Effect of tidal volume on distribution of ventilation assessed by synchrotron radiation CT in rabbit,” J. Appl. Physiol.96, 1899–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bayat, G. Le Duc, L. Porra, G. Berruyer, C. Nemoz, S. Monfraix, S. Fiedler, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, C. G. Standertskjld-Nordenstam, and A. R. A. Sovijrvi, “Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent,” Phys. Med. Biol.46, 3287–3299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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K. Wheeler, M. Wallace, M. Kitchen, A. te Pas, A. Fouras, M. Islam, M. Siew, R. Lewis, C. Morley, P. Davis, and S. Hooper, “Establishing lung gas volumes at birth: interaction between positive end-expiratory pressures and tidal volumes in preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 734–741 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, R. A.

M. L. Siew, M. J. Wallace, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, A. B. te Pas, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “The role of lung inflation and sodium transport in airway liquid clearance during lung aeration in newborn rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 443–449 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40, 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Siew, A. B. te Pas, M. J. Wallace, M. J. Kitchen, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, C. J. Morley, P. G. Davis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Surfactant increases the uniformity of lung aeration at birth in ventilated preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.70, 50–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, K. Uesugi, and M. J. Kitchen, “A high precision recipe for correcting images distorted by a tapered fiber optic,” J. Instrum.5, P09008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum.5, T02002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J.21, 3329–3337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49, 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lind, B.

M. J. Tobin, G. Jenouri, B. Lind, H. Watson, A. Schneider, and M. A. Sackner, “Validation of respiratory inductive plethysmography in patients with pulmonary disease,” Chest83, 615–620 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. M. Law, A. F. Little, and J. C. Salanitri, “Non-vascular intervention with real-time CT fluoroscopy,” Australas. Radiol.45, 109–112 (2001).
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K. S. Mueller, F. R. Long, R. L. Flucke, and R. G. Castile, “Volume-monitored chest CT: a simplified method for obtaining motion-free images near full inspiratory and end expiratory lung volumes,” Pediatr. Radiol.40, 1663–1669 (2010).
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A. Kyriazis, I. Rodriguez, N. Nin, J. Izquierdo-Garcia, J. Lorente, J. Perez-Sanchez, J. Pesic, L. Olsson, and J. Ruiz-Cabello, “Dynamic ventilation 3He MRI for the quantification of disease in the rat lung,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59, 777–786 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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E. Oostveen, D. MacLeod, H. Lorino, R. Farr, Z. Hantos, K. Desager, and F. Marchal, and on behalf of the ERS Task Force on Respiratory Impedance Measurements, “The forced oscillation technique in clinical practice: methodology, recommendations and future developments,” Eur. Respir. J.22, 1026–1041 (2003).
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E. Oostveen, D. MacLeod, H. Lorino, R. Farr, Z. Hantos, K. Desager, and F. Marchal, and on behalf of the ERS Task Force on Respiratory Impedance Measurements, “The forced oscillation technique in clinical practice: methodology, recommendations and future developments,” Eur. Respir. J.22, 1026–1041 (2003).
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Marchal, F.

E. Oostveen, D. MacLeod, H. Lorino, R. Farr, Z. Hantos, K. Desager, and F. Marchal, and on behalf of the ERS Task Force on Respiratory Impedance Measurements, “The forced oscillation technique in clinical practice: methodology, recommendations and future developments,” Eur. Respir. J.22, 1026–1041 (2003).
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S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
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D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microscopy206, 33–40 (2002).
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T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med.51, 646–653 (2010).
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D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microscopy206, 33–40 (2002).
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Monfraix, S.

L. Porra, S. Monfraix, G. Berruyer, G. Le Duc, C. Nemoz, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, A. R. A. Sovijrvi, and S. Bayat, “Effect of tidal volume on distribution of ventilation assessed by synchrotron radiation CT in rabbit,” J. Appl. Physiol.96, 1899–1908 (2004).
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S. Bayat, G. Le Duc, L. Porra, G. Berruyer, C. Nemoz, S. Monfraix, S. Fiedler, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, C. G. Standertskjld-Nordenstam, and A. R. A. Sovijrvi, “Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent,” Phys. Med. Biol.46, 3287–3299 (2001).
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Morgan, M. J.

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 6065–6077 (2008).
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S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J.21, 3329–3337 (2007).
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K. Wheeler, M. Wallace, M. Kitchen, A. te Pas, A. Fouras, M. Islam, M. Siew, R. Lewis, C. Morley, P. Davis, and S. Hooper, “Establishing lung gas volumes at birth: interaction between positive end-expiratory pressures and tidal volumes in preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 734–741 (2013).
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M. L. Siew, A. B. te Pas, M. J. Wallace, M. J. Kitchen, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, C. J. Morley, P. G. Davis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Surfactant increases the uniformity of lung aeration at birth in ventilated preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.70, 50–55 (2011).
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M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49, 4335–4348 (2004).
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K. S. Mueller, F. R. Long, R. L. Flucke, and R. G. Castile, “Volume-monitored chest CT: a simplified method for obtaining motion-free images near full inspiratory and end expiratory lung volumes,” Pediatr. Radiol.40, 1663–1669 (2010).
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T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med.51, 646–653 (2010).
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L. Porra, S. Monfraix, G. Berruyer, G. Le Duc, C. Nemoz, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, A. R. A. Sovijrvi, and S. Bayat, “Effect of tidal volume on distribution of ventilation assessed by synchrotron radiation CT in rabbit,” J. Appl. Physiol.96, 1899–1908 (2004).
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S. Bayat, G. Le Duc, L. Porra, G. Berruyer, C. Nemoz, S. Monfraix, S. Fiedler, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, C. G. Standertskjld-Nordenstam, and A. R. A. Sovijrvi, “Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent,” Phys. Med. Biol.46, 3287–3299 (2001).
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A. Kyriazis, I. Rodriguez, N. Nin, J. Izquierdo-Garcia, J. Lorente, J. Perez-Sanchez, J. Pesic, L. Olsson, and J. Ruiz-Cabello, “Dynamic ventilation 3He MRI for the quantification of disease in the rat lung,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59, 777–786 (2012).
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A. Kyriazis, I. Rodriguez, N. Nin, J. Izquierdo-Garcia, J. Lorente, J. Perez-Sanchez, J. Pesic, L. Olsson, and J. Ruiz-Cabello, “Dynamic ventilation 3He MRI for the quantification of disease in the rat lung,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59, 777–786 (2012).
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E. Oostveen, D. MacLeod, H. Lorino, R. Farr, Z. Hantos, K. Desager, and F. Marchal, and on behalf of the ERS Task Force on Respiratory Impedance Measurements, “The forced oscillation technique in clinical practice: methodology, recommendations and future developments,” Eur. Respir. J.22, 1026–1041 (2003).
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D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microscopy206, 33–40 (2002).
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M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 515–534 (2011).
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Pavlov, K.

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J.21, 3329–3337 (2007).
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M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 515–534 (2011).
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Perez-Sanchez, J.

A. Kyriazis, I. Rodriguez, N. Nin, J. Izquierdo-Garcia, J. Lorente, J. Perez-Sanchez, J. Pesic, L. Olsson, and J. Ruiz-Cabello, “Dynamic ventilation 3He MRI for the quantification of disease in the rat lung,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59, 777–786 (2012).
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A. Kyriazis, I. Rodriguez, N. Nin, J. Izquierdo-Garcia, J. Lorente, J. Perez-Sanchez, J. Pesic, L. Olsson, and J. Ruiz-Cabello, “Dynamic ventilation 3He MRI for the quantification of disease in the rat lung,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59, 777–786 (2012).
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L. Porra, S. Monfraix, G. Berruyer, G. Le Duc, C. Nemoz, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, A. R. A. Sovijrvi, and S. Bayat, “Effect of tidal volume on distribution of ventilation assessed by synchrotron radiation CT in rabbit,” J. Appl. Physiol.96, 1899–1908 (2004).
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S. Bayat, G. Le Duc, L. Porra, G. Berruyer, C. Nemoz, S. Monfraix, S. Fiedler, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, C. G. Standertskjld-Nordenstam, and A. R. A. Sovijrvi, “Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent,” Phys. Med. Biol.46, 3287–3299 (2001).
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A. Kyriazis, I. Rodriguez, N. Nin, J. Izquierdo-Garcia, J. Lorente, J. Perez-Sanchez, J. Pesic, L. Olsson, and J. Ruiz-Cabello, “Dynamic ventilation 3He MRI for the quantification of disease in the rat lung,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59, 777–786 (2012).
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A. Kyriazis, I. Rodriguez, N. Nin, J. Izquierdo-Garcia, J. Lorente, J. Perez-Sanchez, J. Pesic, L. Olsson, and J. Ruiz-Cabello, “Dynamic ventilation 3He MRI for the quantification of disease in the rat lung,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59, 777–786 (2012).
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M. J. Tobin, G. Jenouri, B. Lind, H. Watson, A. Schneider, and M. A. Sackner, “Validation of respiratory inductive plethysmography in patients with pulmonary disease,” Chest83, 615–620 (1983).
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E. M. Law, A. F. Little, and J. C. Salanitri, “Non-vascular intervention with real-time CT fluoroscopy,” Australas. Radiol.45, 109–112 (2001).
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M. J. Tobin, G. Jenouri, B. Lind, H. Watson, A. Schneider, and M. A. Sackner, “Validation of respiratory inductive plethysmography in patients with pulmonary disease,” Chest83, 615–620 (1983).
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Siew, M.

K. Wheeler, M. Wallace, M. Kitchen, A. te Pas, A. Fouras, M. Islam, M. Siew, R. Lewis, C. Morley, P. Davis, and S. Hooper, “Establishing lung gas volumes at birth: interaction between positive end-expiratory pressures and tidal volumes in preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 734–741 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J.21, 3329–3337 (2007).
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M. L. Siew, M. J. Wallace, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, A. B. te Pas, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “The role of lung inflation and sodium transport in airway liquid clearance during lung aeration in newborn rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 443–449 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Siew, A. B. te Pas, M. J. Wallace, M. J. Kitchen, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, C. J. Morley, P. G. Davis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Surfactant increases the uniformity of lung aeration at birth in ventilated preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.70, 50–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40, 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J.21, 3329–3337 (2007).
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L. Porra, S. Monfraix, G. Berruyer, G. Le Duc, C. Nemoz, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, A. R. A. Sovijrvi, and S. Bayat, “Effect of tidal volume on distribution of ventilation assessed by synchrotron radiation CT in rabbit,” J. Appl. Physiol.96, 1899–1908 (2004).
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S. Bayat, G. Le Duc, L. Porra, G. Berruyer, C. Nemoz, S. Monfraix, S. Fiedler, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, C. G. Standertskjld-Nordenstam, and A. R. A. Sovijrvi, “Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent,” Phys. Med. Biol.46, 3287–3299 (2001).
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S. Bayat, G. Le Duc, L. Porra, G. Berruyer, C. Nemoz, S. Monfraix, S. Fiedler, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, C. G. Standertskjld-Nordenstam, and A. R. A. Sovijrvi, “Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent,” Phys. Med. Biol.46, 3287–3299 (2001).
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S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard x-rays,” Nature384, 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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L. Porra, S. Monfraix, G. Berruyer, G. Le Duc, C. Nemoz, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, A. R. A. Sovijrvi, and S. Bayat, “Effect of tidal volume on distribution of ventilation assessed by synchrotron radiation CT in rabbit,” J. Appl. Physiol.96, 1899–1908 (2004).
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S. Bayat, G. Le Duc, L. Porra, G. Berruyer, C. Nemoz, S. Monfraix, S. Fiedler, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, C. G. Standertskjld-Nordenstam, and A. R. A. Sovijrvi, “Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent,” Phys. Med. Biol.46, 3287–3299 (2001).
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S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
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K. Wheeler, M. Wallace, M. Kitchen, A. te Pas, A. Fouras, M. Islam, M. Siew, R. Lewis, C. Morley, P. Davis, and S. Hooper, “Establishing lung gas volumes at birth: interaction between positive end-expiratory pressures and tidal volumes in preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 734–741 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. L. Siew, M. J. Wallace, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, A. B. te Pas, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “The role of lung inflation and sodium transport in airway liquid clearance during lung aeration in newborn rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 443–449 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Siew, A. B. te Pas, M. J. Wallace, M. J. Kitchen, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, C. J. Morley, P. G. Davis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Surfactant increases the uniformity of lung aeration at birth in ventilated preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.70, 50–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teague, M. R.

Teicher, M.

Thomlinson, W.

L. Porra, S. Monfraix, G. Berruyer, G. Le Duc, C. Nemoz, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, A. R. A. Sovijrvi, and S. Bayat, “Effect of tidal volume on distribution of ventilation assessed by synchrotron radiation CT in rabbit,” J. Appl. Physiol.96, 1899–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bayat, G. Le Duc, L. Porra, G. Berruyer, C. Nemoz, S. Monfraix, S. Fiedler, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, C. G. Standertskjld-Nordenstam, and A. R. A. Sovijrvi, “Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent,” Phys. Med. Biol.46, 3287–3299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, M. J.

M. J. Tobin, G. Jenouri, B. Lind, H. Watson, A. Schneider, and M. A. Sackner, “Validation of respiratory inductive plethysmography in patients with pulmonary disease,” Chest83, 615–620 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, C.

Tuohimaa, T.

T. Tuohimaa, M. Otendal, and H. M. Hertz, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with a liquid-metal-jet-anode micro-focus source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 074104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner, L.

Uecker, M.

M. Uecker, S. Zhang, D. Voit, A. Karaus, K.-D. Merboldt, and J. Frahm, “Real-time MRI at a resolution of 20 ms,” NMR Biomed.23, 986–994 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uesugi, K.

M. L. Siew, M. J. Wallace, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, A. B. te Pas, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “The role of lung inflation and sodium transport in airway liquid clearance during lung aeration in newborn rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 443–449 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Siew, A. B. te Pas, M. J. Wallace, M. J. Kitchen, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, C. J. Morley, P. G. Davis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Surfactant increases the uniformity of lung aeration at birth in ventilated preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.70, 50–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, K. Uesugi, and M. J. Kitchen, “A high precision recipe for correcting images distorted by a tapered fiber optic,” J. Instrum.5, P09008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J.21, 3329–3337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49, 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umetani, K.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, “Refraction-enhanced x-ray imaging of mouse lung using synchrotron radiation source,” Med. Phys.26, 2190–2193 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vailati, A.

Venegas, J. G.

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med.51, 646–653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voit, D.

M. Uecker, S. Zhang, D. Voit, A. Karaus, K.-D. Merboldt, and J. Frahm, “Real-time MRI at a resolution of 20 ms,” NMR Biomed.23, 986–994 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M.

K. Wheeler, M. Wallace, M. Kitchen, A. te Pas, A. Fouras, M. Islam, M. Siew, R. Lewis, C. Morley, P. Davis, and S. Hooper, “Establishing lung gas volumes at birth: interaction between positive end-expiratory pressures and tidal volumes in preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 734–741 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. J.

A. F. T. Leong, A. Fouras, M. S. Islam, M. J. Wallace, S. B. Hooper, and M. J. Kitchen, “High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images,” Med. Phys.40, 041909 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Siew, M. J. Wallace, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, A. B. te Pas, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “The role of lung inflation and sodium transport in airway liquid clearance during lung aeration in newborn rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 443–449 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40, 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Siew, A. B. te Pas, M. J. Wallace, M. J. Kitchen, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, C. J. Morley, P. G. Davis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Surfactant increases the uniformity of lung aeration at birth in ventilated preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.70, 50–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum.5, T02002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J.21, 3329–3337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

J. Wang, G. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Blind deblurring of spiral CT images based on ENR and wiener filter,” J. x-ray sci. technol.13, 49–60 (2005).

Wang, J.

J. Wang, G. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Blind deblurring of spiral CT images based on ENR and wiener filter,” J. x-ray sci. technol.13, 49–60 (2005).

Wang, R. K.

Watson, H.

M. J. Tobin, G. Jenouri, B. Lind, H. Watson, A. Schneider, and M. A. Sackner, “Validation of respiratory inductive plethysmography in patients with pulmonary disease,” Chest83, 615–620 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weibel, E. R.

E. R. Weibel, Morphometry of the Human Lung (Academic, 1963).

Wellman, T. J.

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med.51, 646–653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wheeler, K.

K. Wheeler, M. Wallace, M. Kitchen, A. te Pas, A. Fouras, M. Islam, M. Siew, R. Lewis, C. Morley, P. Davis, and S. Hooper, “Establishing lung gas volumes at birth: interaction between positive end-expiratory pressures and tidal volumes in preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 734–741 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhein, T.

J. Ewald and T. Wilhein, “Source size characterization of a microfocus x-ray tube used for in-line phase-contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 81–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S. W.

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microscopy206, 33–40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68, 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard x-rays,” Nature384, 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, D. S.

D. S. Wilks, Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences (Elsevier Science, 2011).

Williams, I. M.

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J.21, 3329–3337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkler, T.

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med.51, 646–653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yagi, N.

M. L. Siew, M. J. Wallace, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, A. B. te Pas, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “The role of lung inflation and sodium transport in airway liquid clearance during lung aeration in newborn rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 443–449 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Siew, A. B. te Pas, M. J. Wallace, M. J. Kitchen, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, C. J. Morley, P. G. Davis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Surfactant increases the uniformity of lung aeration at birth in ventilated preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.70, 50–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J.21, 3329–3337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49, 4335–4348 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, “Refraction-enhanced x-ray imaging of mouse lung using synchrotron radiation source,” Med. Phys.26, 2190–2193 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamasaki, K.

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, “Refraction-enhanced x-ray imaging of mouse lung using synchrotron radiation source,” Med. Phys.26, 2190–2193 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamazaki, H.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yawn, B. P.

M. L. Levy, M. Fletcher, D. B. Price, T. Hausen, R. J. Halbert, and B. P. Yawn, “International primary care respiratory group (IPCRG) guidelines: Diagnosis of respiratory diseases in primary care,” Prim. Care Respir. J.15, 20–34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoneda, Y.

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zalevsky, Z.

Zhang, S.

M. Uecker, S. Zhang, D. Voit, A. Karaus, K.-D. Merboldt, and J. Frahm, “Real-time MRI at a resolution of 20 ms,” NMR Biomed.23, 986–994 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

J. Ewald and T. Wilhein, “Source size characterization of a microfocus x-ray tube used for in-line phase-contrast imaging,” AIP Conf. Proc.1365, 81–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (2)

L. Brancazio, G. Franz, E. Petsonk, and D. Frazer, “Lung area-volume models in relation to the recruitment-derecruitment of individual lung units,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.29, 252–262 (2001).
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A. Fouras, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, J. Nguyen, K. Hourigan, K. K. W Siu, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “Altered lung motion is a sensitive indicator of regional lung disease,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40, 1160–1169 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Tuohimaa, M. Otendal, and H. M. Hertz, “Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with a liquid-metal-jet-anode micro-focus source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 074104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Australas. Radiol. (1)

E. M. Law, A. F. Little, and J. C. Salanitri, “Non-vascular intervention with real-time CT fluoroscopy,” Australas. Radiol.45, 109–112 (2001).
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Chest (1)

M. J. Tobin, G. Jenouri, B. Lind, H. Watson, A. Schneider, and M. A. Sackner, “Validation of respiratory inductive plethysmography in patients with pulmonary disease,” Chest83, 615–620 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Respir. J. (1)

E. Oostveen, D. MacLeod, H. Lorino, R. Farr, Z. Hantos, K. Desager, and F. Marchal, and on behalf of the ERS Task Force on Respiratory Impedance Measurements, “The forced oscillation technique in clinical practice: methodology, recommendations and future developments,” Eur. Respir. J.22, 1026–1041 (2003).
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FASEB J. (1)

S. B. Hooper, M. J. Kitchen, M. J. Wallace, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, M. J. Morgan, C. Hall, K. K. W. Siu, I. M. Williams, M. Siew, S. C. Irvine, K. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Imaging lung aeration and lung liquid clearance at birth,” FASEB J.21, 3329–3337 (2007).
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IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

A. Kyriazis, I. Rodriguez, N. Nin, J. Izquierdo-Garcia, J. Lorente, J. Perez-Sanchez, J. Pesic, L. Olsson, and J. Ruiz-Cabello, “Dynamic ventilation 3He MRI for the quantification of disease in the rat lung,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.59, 777–786 (2012).
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J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

L. Porra, S. Monfraix, G. Berruyer, G. Le Duc, C. Nemoz, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, A. R. A. Sovijrvi, and S. Bayat, “Effect of tidal volume on distribution of ventilation assessed by synchrotron radiation CT in rabbit,” J. Appl. Physiol.96, 1899–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Instrum. (2)

M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, K. Uesugi, and M. J. Kitchen, “A high precision recipe for correcting images distorted by a tapered fiber optic,” J. Instrum.5, P09008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kitchen, A. Habib, A. Fouras, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Wallace, and S. B. Hooper, “A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging,” J. Instrum.5, T02002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Microscopy (1)

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microscopy206, 33–40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Med. (1)

T. J. Wellman, T. Winkler, E. L. Costa, G. Musch, R. S. Harris, J. G. Venegas, and M. F. V. Melo, “Measurement of regional specific lung volume change using respiratory-gated PET of inhaled 13N-nitrogen,” J. Nucl. Med.51, 646–653 (2010).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. x-ray sci. technol. (1)

J. Wang, G. Wang, and M. Jiang, “Blind deblurring of spiral CT images based on ENR and wiener filter,” J. x-ray sci. technol.13, 49–60 (2005).

Med. Phys. (2)

A. F. T. Leong, A. Fouras, M. S. Islam, M. J. Wallace, S. B. Hooper, and M. J. Kitchen, “High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images,” Med. Phys.40, 041909 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yagi, Y. Suzuki, K. Umetani, Y. Kohmura, and K. Yamasaki, “Refraction-enhanced x-ray imaging of mouse lung using synchrotron radiation source,” Med. Phys.26, 2190–2193 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard x-rays,” Nature384, 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

NMR Biomed. (1)

M. Uecker, S. Zhang, D. Voit, A. Karaus, K.-D. Merboldt, and J. Frahm, “Real-time MRI at a resolution of 20 ms,” NMR Biomed.23, 986–994 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A (1)

S. Goto, K. Takeshita, Y. Suzuki, H. Ohashi, Y. Asano, H. Kimura, T. Matsushita, N. Yagi, M. Isshiki, H. Yamazaki, Y. Yoneda, K. Umetani, and T. Ishikawa, “Construction and commissioning of a 215-m-long beamline at SPring-8,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A467–468, 682–685 (2001).
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Opt. Express (4)

Pediatr. Radiol. (1)

K. S. Mueller, F. R. Long, R. L. Flucke, and R. G. Castile, “Volume-monitored chest CT: a simplified method for obtaining motion-free images near full inspiratory and end expiratory lung volumes,” Pediatr. Radiol.40, 1663–1669 (2010).
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Pediatr. Res. (3)

M. L. Siew, A. B. te Pas, M. J. Wallace, M. J. Kitchen, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, C. J. Morley, P. G. Davis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Surfactant increases the uniformity of lung aeration at birth in ventilated preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.70, 50–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Siew, M. J. Wallace, B. J. Allison, M. J. Kitchen, A. B. te Pas, M. S. Islam, R. A. Lewis, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “The role of lung inflation and sodium transport in airway liquid clearance during lung aeration in newborn rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 443–449 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Wheeler, M. Wallace, M. Kitchen, A. te Pas, A. Fouras, M. Islam, M. Siew, R. Lewis, C. Morley, P. Davis, and S. Hooper, “Establishing lung gas volumes at birth: interaction between positive end-expiratory pressures and tidal volumes in preterm rabbits,” Pediatr. Res.73, 734–741 (2013).
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M. J. Kitchen, R. A. Lewis, M. J. Morgan, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Siew, K. K. W. Siu, A. Habib, A. Fouras, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. B. Hooper, “Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.53, 6065–6077 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bayat, G. Le Duc, L. Porra, G. Berruyer, C. Nemoz, S. Monfraix, S. Fiedler, W. Thomlinson, P. Suortti, C. G. Standertskjld-Nordenstam, and A. R. A. Sovijrvi, “Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent,” Phys. Med. Biol.46, 3287–3299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kitchen, D. Paganin, R. A. Lewis, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and S. T. Mudie, “On the origin of speckle in x-ray phase contrast images of lung tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol.49, 4335–4348 (2004).
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M. L. Levy, M. Fletcher, D. B. Price, T. Hausen, R. J. Halbert, and B. P. Yawn, “International primary care respiratory group (IPCRG) guidelines: Diagnosis of respiratory diseases in primary care,” Prim. Care Respir. J.15, 20–34 (2006).
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A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68, 2774–2782 (1997).
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D. S. Wilks, Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences (Elsevier Science, 2011).

J. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics: Theory and Applications (Roberts & Co., 2007).

E. R. Weibel, Morphometry of the Human Lung (Academic, 1963).

NIST, “National institute of standards and technology, physical reference data,” (2010)

R. W. James, The Crystalline State: The Optical Principles of the Diffraction of X-Rays (Cornell University, 1965).

S. Sýkora, “K-space images of n-dimensional spheres and generalized sinc functions,” 2008, http://www.ebyte.it/library/docs/math07/SincN.html .

H. Kauczor and A. Bankier, Functional Imaging of the Chest (Springer, 2004).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Alveoli in lung tissue, modeled by voids randomly embedded within an absorbing medium, is illuminated by a coherent x-ray source and a PBX image is recorded a distance L from the exit surface of the object.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lung speckle simulations. (a) Azimuthally averaged power spectra of a random distribution of 45 μm air-filled voids simulated within a 10 mm thick water-filled container with a volume packing density of 54%. Under ideal conditions (black), the power spectrum is a damped oscillatory function. To mimic our experimental conditions, ODD was increased from 0.1 m to 2 m, the PBX image was convolved with a Gaussian function, with FWHM=20 um, to simulate the PSF of a detector, and white noise was added, with a standard deviation (σnoise) of 0.1 intensity. This yielded an image with SNR ≈ 10, which was determined from taking the ratio of the mean intensity of the image and σnoise. This results in only one prominent peak in the power spectrum (red). (b) A plot displaying the PSArea of the same sample, but with mean void size of 130 μm, against ODD. (for details on the simulation of lung speckles, see section 2.1)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3.24 mm × 3.24 mm PBX images of a ∼10 mm thick sample (a) of real and (b) simulated (mean diameter of 130 μm) lung tissue normalized against their phase retrieved absorption image. Their corresponding power spectra are shown in (c) and (d), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots of PSArea of simulated lung tissue versus (a) number of voids, of size 130 μm (at 1 m and 3 m ODD), and (b) radius of voids with a maximum volume packing density of 75% (at 3 m), all at energy 24 keV.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) A calibration curve between VL and the PSarea from PBX chest images divided into quadrants consisting of (a) a subset of points (∼ 10%) from multiple pups and (b) a single pup. A weighted linear fit was performed on (a) and is shown as a red line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A pair of 24 mm × 21 mm PCX chest images of a newborn rabbit pup in (a) a water-filled tube and in (b) air. (c) shows their respective power spectra after dividing by their absorption image reconstructed using phase retrieval.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) A representation of the accuracy of using the calibration curve to measure the change in total VL of pups imaged in air in comparison to using a flowmeter. The red line is the line of best fit. (b) Regional lung volume measurements from a lung image sequence after partitioning the images into quadrants. Note that the lower quadrant curves have been offset by 0.1 ml to better distinguish them from the upper quadrant curves.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

14.6 mm ×14.6 mm regional volumetric maps from a mechanically ventilated rabbit pup in air ventilated using three different tidal volumes: (a) 0.12 ml, (b) 0.24 ml and (c) 0.35 ml. Map demonstrate the distribution of air when it enters the lung.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters used for simulating PBX images of lung tissue.

Equations (22)

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| F { I ( x , y , z = L ) I ( x , y , z = 0 ) 1 } | 2 = L 2 δ T 2 k 4 N | F { G ( x , y ) } | 2 ,
I ( x , y , z = 0 ) = F 1 { F [ I ( x , y , z = L ) ] 1 + ( δ l T L μ l T ) k 2 } ,
δ = r e λ 2 2 π i n i ( f 1 ) i ,
N F = a L λ | φ | max ,
| F { G ˜ ( x , y , z ) } | 2 = | G ˜ ( x , y , z ) exp ( 2 π i k r ) d r | 2 ,
| F { G ( x , y , z ) } | 2 = | V 3 ( k R ) 2 [ sin ( k R ) k R cos ( k R ) ] | 2 ,
| F { I ( x , y , z = L ) I ( x , y , z = 0 ) 1 } | 2 = L 2 δ w 2 k 4 N | 4 π R 3 ( k R ) 2 [ sin ( k R ) k R cos ( k R ) ] | 2 .
PS Area = 16 π 2 L 2 δ w 2 N R ξ 0 / R ξ N / R | [ sin ( ξ ) ξ cos ( ξ ) ] | 2 d ξ .
PS Area = 34 π 2 L 2 δ w 2 N R .
V L PS Area n + 3 r n + r
I A ( x , y , z = 0 ) = exp [ 2 k β ( x , y , z ) d z ]
φ ( x , y , z = 0 ) = k δ ( x , y , z ) d z .
I ( x , y , z = 0 ) = exp [ 2 k β T ( x , y ) ]
φ ( x , y , z = 0 ) = k δ T ( x , y ) ,
k I ( x , y , z ) z = [ I ( x , y , z = 0 ) φ ( x , y , z = 0 ) ] ,
I ( x , y , z = L ) I ( x , y , z = 0 ) 1 = L δ [ 2 T ( x , y ) μ | T ( x , y ) | 2 ] ,
| F { I ( x , y , z = L ) I ( x , y , z = 0 ) 1 } 2 | = L 2 δ 2 k 4 | F { T ( x , y ) } | 2 .
T ˜ ( x , y , z ) = V ( x , y , z ) n = 0 N δ ( x x n ) δ ( y y n ) δ ( z z n ) G ˜ ( x , y , z ) ,
| F { T ˜ ( x , y , z ) } | 2 = [ N 2 δ ^ ( 0 , 0 , 0 ) + N ] | F { G ˜ ( x , y , z ) } | 2 ,
| F { T ˜ ( x , y , z ) } | 2 ( k x , k y , 0 ) = | F { z T ˜ ( x , y , z ) d z } | 2 ( k x , k y ) = | F { T ( x , y ) } | 2 ( k x , k y ) ,
| F { T ( x , y ) } | 2 = N | F { G ( x , y ) } | 2 .
| F { I ( x , y , z = L ) I ( x , y , z = 0 ) 1 } | 2 = L 2 δ 2 k 4 N | F { G ( x , y ) } | 2 .

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