Abstract

Laser produced plasma sources are considered attractive for high-volume extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography because of their high power at the target wavelength 13.5 nm. However, besides the required EUV light, a large amount of infrared (IR) light from the CO2 drive laser is scattered and reflected from the plasma as well as from the EUV mirrors in the optical system. Since these mirrors typically consist of molybdenum and silicon, the reflectance at IR wavelengths is even higher than in the EUV, which leads to high energy loads in the optical system. One option to reduce this is to structure the EUV multilayer, in particular the collector mirror, with an IR grating that has a high IR-suppression in the zeroth order. In this paper, the characterization of such an optical element is reported, including the IR-diffraction efficiency, the EUV performance (reflectance and scattering), and the relevant surface roughness. The measurement results are directly linked to the individual manufacturing steps.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

A. J. R. van den Boogaard, F. A. van Goor, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Wavelength separation from extreme ultraviolet mirrors using phaseshift reflection,” Opt. Lett.37(2), 160–162 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, H. Blaschke, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering: an effective method for characterizing thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C164–C171 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

W. A. Soer, P. Gawlitza, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, M. J. J. Jak, S. Braun, P. Muys, and V. Y. Banine, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror with near-zero IR reflectance,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3680–3682 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express15(21), 13997–14012 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE5193, 70–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

1998

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988

1981

Ahmad, I.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Antohe, A.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Antoni, M.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE5193, 70–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Banine, V. Y.

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Soer, P. Gawlitza, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, M. J. J. Jak, S. Braun, P. Muys, and V. Y. Banine, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror with near-zero IR reflectance,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3680–3682 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgart, P.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Benoit, N.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bibishkin, M. S.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bijkerk, F.

Blaschke, H.

Böwering, N. R.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, D. C.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Braun, S.

Brown, D.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bull, H.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Bykanov, A. N.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chkhalo, N. I.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Church, E. L.

Cummings, K. D.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Dea, S.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Haan, M.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Denbeaux, G.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Duparré, A.

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt.52(14), 3279–3287 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, H. Blaschke, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering: an effective method for characterizing thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C164–C171 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt.49(9), 1503–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express15(21), 13997–14012 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, “Measurement system to determine the total and angle-resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions,” Appl. Opt.44(29), 6093–6107 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt.41(1), 154–171 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberhardt, R.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Egle, W.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE5193, 70–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Enkisch, H.

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ershov, A. I.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Farrar, N. R.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feigl, T.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express15(21), 13997–14012 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferre-Borrull, J.

Fiedler, T.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fomenkov, I. V.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gary, E.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gawlitza, P.

Gaylord, T. K.

Gebhardt, A.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giggel, V.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gliech, S.

Golich, D. J.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, F.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Gusev, S. A.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. E.

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, K.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE5193, 70–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heiße, H.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Herffurth, T.

Hershcovitch, A.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Hoffmann, K.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hudyma, R. M.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jak, M. J. J.

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Soer, P. Gawlitza, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, M. J. J. Jak, S. Braun, P. Muys, and V. Y. Banine, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror with near-zero IR reflectance,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3680–3682 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jobst, P. J.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kierey, H.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE5193, 70–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kleemann, B.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE5193, 70–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kluenkov, E. B.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krivtsun, V. M.

La Fontaine, B.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lercel, M. J.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lopatin, A. Y.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Löscher, H.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Louis, E.

Luchin, V. I.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mbanaso, C.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Medvedev, V. V.

Melzer, F.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE5193, 70–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Müllender, S.

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muys, P.

Myers, D. W.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, R.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nedelcu, I.

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noreen, H.

C. Wagner and H. Noreen, “EUV lithography: lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Notni, G.

Pauer, H.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Perske, M.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pestov, A. E.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pragt, J.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rajyaguru, C.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Risse, S.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rohde, M.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rucks, P.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salashchenko, N. N.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scheiding, S.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, S.

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt.52(14), 3279–3287 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, H. Blaschke, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering: an effective method for characterizing thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C164–C171 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt.49(9), 1503–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express15(21), 13997–14012 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, “Measurement system to determine the total and angle-resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions,” Appl. Opt.44(29), 6093–6107 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schürmann, M.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shmaenok, L. A.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Singer, W.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE5193, 70–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soer, W. A.

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Soer, P. Gawlitza, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, M. J. J. Jak, S. Braun, P. Muys, and V. Y. Banine, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror with near-zero IR reflectance,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3680–3682 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sommargren, G. E.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, S. N.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steinert, J.

Steinkopf, R.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, O.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. S.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

ter Horst, R.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tromp, N.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trost, M.

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt.52(14), 3279–3287 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt.49(9), 1503–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsybin, N. N.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt.52(14), 3279–3287 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express15(21), 13997–14012 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, G.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van de Kruijs, R. W. E.

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van den Boogaard, A. J. R.

van der Meer, R.

van Goor, F. A.

van Herpen, M. M. J. W.

W. A. Soer, P. Gawlitza, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, M. J. J. Jak, S. Braun, P. Muys, and V. Y. Banine, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror with near-zero IR reflectance,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3680–3682 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vaschenko, G. O.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Venema, L.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

von Finck, A.

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, C.

C. Wagner and H. Noreen, “EUV lithography: lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wevers, R.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE5193, 70–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilbrandt, S.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Winters, R.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE5193, 70–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yakshin, A. E.

V. V. Medvedev, A. J. R. van den Boogaard, R. van der Meer, A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, V. M. Krivtsun, and F. Bijkerk, “Infrared diffractive filtering for extreme ultraviolet multilayer Bragg reflectors,” Opt. Express21(14), 16964–16974 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yakunin, A. M.

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zoethout, E.

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zuev, S. Y.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt.41(1), 154–171 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, H. Blaschke, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering: an effective method for characterizing thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C164–C171 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt.52(14), 3279–3287 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, “Measurement system to determine the total and angle-resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions,” Appl. Opt.44(29), 6093–6107 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt.49(9), 1503–1512 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt.50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Church, “Fractal surface finish,” Appl. Opt.27(8), 1518–1526 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS11, 021110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Microelectron. Eng.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

C. Wagner and H. Noreen, “EUV lithography: lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 µm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Proc. SPIE

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE5193, 70–78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, A. Kolbmüller, R. Steinkopf, M. Schürmann, J. Jobst, N. Kaiser, and R. Eberhardt, “Ultra-precise optical mirrors with thick amorphous silicon layer,“ Proc. 11th int. conf. EUSPEN, Lake Como, Italy, 337-340 (2011).

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering - Measurement and Analysis, 3rd Edition (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA 2012).

Gigaphoton's extreme UV source hits 5.2% efficiency” (optics.org, 05 Jul. 2012), http://optics.org/news/3/7/6

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical reflectance of Mo/Si multilayer without capping layer for normal incidence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction from binary grating. Left: Working principle for separating EUV and IR light, right: grating efficiencies and –angles for EUV and IR-radiation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of grating-like Mo/Si multilayer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two different process chains for manufacturing ultra-precise and post-polished metal mirrors for applications in the visible, ultraviolet, and EUV spectral range.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM images (measurement area: 10 µm x 10 µm) of diamond turned (left) and super polished (right) NiP surface on top of an Al alloy substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Instrument ALBATROSS for light scattering measurements in the ultraviolet-visible-IR spectral range. Left: Schematic showing the individual laser light sources (1), mechanical chopper for lock-in amplification (2), attenuation filters (3), beam preparation optics (4) with spatial filter (5), polarizer (6), sample (7), and detector (8), right: photograph of 3D goniometer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Instrument MERLIN for light scattering measurement at 13.5 nm. Left: Schematic showing the measurement vacuum chamber (MC), beam preparation vacuum chamber (BC), source vacuum chamber (SC), Xe-plasma (1) beam preparation optics (4), spatial filter (5), sample (7), detectors (8a – photodiode, 8b - channeltron), and reference detector (9), right: photograph of 2D goniometer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

AFM images (measurement area: 1µm x 1 µm) of the surface topography of the grating top and bottom.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Light scattering based roughness characterization of grating-like Mo/Si multilayer, left: ARS measurements at 395 nm for different orientations of the sample and different illumination spot sizes, right: PSD retrieved from scattering data and AFM measurements.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Roughness map (measurement area: 5 x 5 mm2) of structured Mo/Si multilayer retrieved from ARS measurements at 395 nm. The high roughness values (red colored areas) result from the grating edges.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured and simulated grating efficiencies at 10.6 µm on linear scale (left) and logarithmic scale (right).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Grating profile retrieved from white light interferometry.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

ARS measurements of structured Mo/Si multilayer at 13.5 nm. Angle of incidence 20°.

Equations (4)

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sin θ n sin θ i f g =nλ,
σ 2 =2π f min f max PSD(f)fdf .
ARS( θ s )= Δ P s Δ Ω s P i = 16 π 2 λ 4 cos θ i cos 2 θ s QPSD(f),
TS=2π 2° 85° ARS( θ s θ i )sin( θ s θ i )d θ s .

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