Abstract

The performance of plasmonic nanoantenna structures on top of SOI wire waveguides as coherent perfect absorbers for modulators and all-optical switches is explored. The absorption, scattering, reflection and transmission spectra of gold and aluminum nanoantenna-loaded waveguides were calculated by means of 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations for single waves propagating along the waveguide, as well as for standing wave scenarios composed from two counterpropagating waves. The investigated configurations showed losses of roughly 1% and extinction ratios greater than 25 dB for modulator and switching applications, as well as plasmon effects such as strong field enhancement and localization in the nanoantenna region. The proposed plasmonic coherent perfect absorbers can be utilized for ultracompact all-optical switches in coherent networks as well as modulators and can find applications in sensing or in increasing nonlinear effects.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

2012 (13)

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics6(11), 737–748 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Ament, J. Prasad, A. Henkel, S. Schmachtel, and C. Sönnichsen, “Single unlabeled protein detection on individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1092–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Feng and K. Halterman, “Coherent perfect absorption in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B86(16), 165103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Pirruccio, G. Lozano, Y. Zhang, S. R. K. Rodriguez, R. Gomes, Z. Hens, and J. G. Rivas, “Coherent absorption and enhanced photoluminescence in thin layers of nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B85(16), 165455 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Dutta-Gupta, O. J. F. Martin, S. D. Gupta, and G. S. Agarwal, “Controllable coherent perfect absorption in a composite film,” Opt. Express20(2), 1330–1336 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Longhi and G. Della Valle, “Coherent perfect absorbers for transient, periodic, or chaotic optical fields: time-reversed lasers beyond threshold,” Phys. Rev. A85(5), 053838 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light-with-light without nonlinearity,” Light: Science & Applications1(7), e18 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

H. Noh, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Perfect coupling of light to surface plasmons by coherent absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(18), 186805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Février, P. Gogol, A. Aassime, R. Mégy, C. Delacour, A. Chelnokov, A. Apuzzo, S. Blaize, J.-M. Lourtioz, and B. Dagens, “Giant coupling effect between metal nanoparticle chain and optical waveguide,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1032–1037 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Février, P. Gogol, G. Barbillon, A. Aassime, R. Mégy, B. Bartenlian, J.-M. Lourtioz, and B. Dagens, “Integration of short gold nanoparticles chain on SOI waveguide toward compact integrated bio-sensors,” Opt. Express20(16), 17402–17410 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Fevrier, P. Gogol, A. Aassime, R. Megy, D. Bouville, J. M. Lourtioz, and B. Dagens, “Localized surface plasmon Bragg grating on SOI waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A109(4), 935–942 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernal Arango, A. Kwadrin, and A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic antennas hybridized with dielectric waveguides,” ACS Nano6(11), 10156–10167 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Maksymov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Actively tunable bistable optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna,” Opt. Express20(8), 8929–8938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science332(6030), 702–704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linic, P. Christopher, and D. B. Ingram, “Plasmonic-metal nanostructures for efficient conversion of solar to chemical energy,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 911–921 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kéna-Cohen, A. Wiener, Y. Sivan, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. Bradley, A. Horsfield, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic sinks for the selective removal of long-lived states,” ACS Nano5(12), 9958–9965 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science331(6019), 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small6(22), 2498–2507 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electon. Lett.46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett.10(3), 891–895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(24), 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res.41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Waveguide-plasmon polaritons: strong coupling of photonic and electronic resonances in a metallic photonic crystal slab,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(18), 183901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, “Absorption enhancement in silicon-on-insulator waveguides using metal island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(16), 2327 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aassime, A.

M. Février, P. Gogol, A. Aassime, R. Mégy, C. Delacour, A. Chelnokov, A. Apuzzo, S. Blaize, J.-M. Lourtioz, and B. Dagens, “Giant coupling effect between metal nanoparticle chain and optical waveguide,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1032–1037 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Février, P. Gogol, G. Barbillon, A. Aassime, R. Mégy, B. Bartenlian, J.-M. Lourtioz, and B. Dagens, “Integration of short gold nanoparticles chain on SOI waveguide toward compact integrated bio-sensors,” Opt. Express20(16), 17402–17410 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Fevrier, P. Gogol, A. Aassime, R. Megy, D. Bouville, J. M. Lourtioz, and B. Dagens, “Localized surface plasmon Bragg grating on SOI waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A109(4), 935–942 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Abashin, M.

Abdelsalam, M.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

Aichele, T.

M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett.10(3), 891–895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ament, I.

I. Ament, J. Prasad, A. Henkel, S. Schmachtel, and C. Sönnichsen, “Single unlabeled protein detection on individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1092–1095 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apuzzo, A.

M. Février, P. Gogol, A. Aassime, R. Mégy, C. Delacour, A. Chelnokov, A. Apuzzo, S. Blaize, J.-M. Lourtioz, and B. Dagens, “Giant coupling effect between metal nanoparticle chain and optical waveguide,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1032–1037 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahlmann, N.

Barbillon, G.

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(24), 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartenlian, B.

Barth, M.

M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett.10(3), 891–895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, P. N.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Becker, J.

M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett.10(3), 891–895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, O.

M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett.10(3), 891–895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernal Arango, F.

F. Bernal Arango, A. Kwadrin, and A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic antennas hybridized with dielectric waveguides,” ACS Nano6(11), 10156–10167 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaize, S.

M. Février, P. Gogol, A. Aassime, R. Mégy, C. Delacour, A. Chelnokov, A. Apuzzo, S. Blaize, J.-M. Lourtioz, and B. Dagens, “Giant coupling effect between metal nanoparticle chain and optical waveguide,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1032–1037 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borisov, A. G.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouville, D.

M. Fevrier, P. Gogol, A. Aassime, R. Megy, D. Bouville, J. M. Lourtioz, and B. Dagens, “Localized surface plasmon Bragg grating on SOI waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A109(4), 935–942 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D.

S. Kéna-Cohen, A. Wiener, Y. Sivan, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. Bradley, A. Horsfield, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic sinks for the selective removal of long-lived states,” ACS Nano5(12), 9958–9965 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(24), 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(24), 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

H. Noh, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Perfect coupling of light to surface plasmons by coherent absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(18), 186805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science331(6019), 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(5), 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chelnokov, A.

M. Février, P. Gogol, A. Aassime, R. Mégy, C. Delacour, A. Chelnokov, A. Apuzzo, S. Blaize, J.-M. Lourtioz, and B. Dagens, “Giant coupling effect between metal nanoparticle chain and optical waveguide,” Nano Lett.12(2), 1032–1037 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.-F.

Chong, Y.

H. Noh, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Perfect coupling of light to surface plasmons by coherent absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(18), 186805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (3117 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (3053 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept of coherence perfect absorption by plasmonic nanoantennas on top of silicon waveguides. Depending on the position of the antennas relative to the nodes of a standing wave in the waveguide, composed by two counterpropagating waves, absorption can be suppressed or maximized. The position of the nodes of the standing wave can be adjusted by manipulating the phase relation of the two single waves. The SiO2 cladding was removed in this picture for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optimization of length and number of antennas for (a) gold and (c) aluminium antennas by minimizing transmission for a single wave (λ = 1.55 µm, TE-polarization). The spectra of the optimum configurations are given in (b) for the gold trimer and in (d) for the aluminium dimer. The inset in (b) shows the exited plamon resonance mode for the gold trimer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission, absorption and scattering for different numbers of rows of gold trimers if the rows are in (a) maximum nodes (off-state) and (c) in minimum nodes (on-state) of the standing wave (λ = 1.55 µm, TE). Spectra of the best configuration, consisting of three trimer rows (spaced by 0.35 µm) for the off- and the on-state are given in (b) and (d), respectively. The inset in (b) shows the electric field profile of the plasmon resonance in the off-state, while the inset in (d) depicts the simulated structure. In the off-state, the transmission drops below 3% (< −15 dB) for the design wavelength. In the on-state, losses are below 1%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Off-state spectra with doubled row spacing compared to Fig. 3(b). (b) on- and off-state transmission for different numbers of gold trimer rows as function of the width of the nanoantennas. The inset shows the electric field profile of the higher order plasmon mode, which is responsible for the dip in the on-state transmissions for 130 nm wide antennas. The on-state transmission for three and four rows are not shown, as they qualitatively identical with the other on-state curves for the range of interest (width < 80nm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Proposed device concepts for (a) an all-optical switch and (b) a modulator employing antennas on top of the waveguides as coherent absorbers in the middle section of evanescent X-coupler, where the condition of two counterpropagating waves of same amplitude is fulfilled locally. In (b) an electro-optic or thermo-optic actuator for the modulator is indicated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) (Media 1) Off-state spectra of X-coupler with gold absorbers (three trimer rows) on each waveguide for λ = 1.55 µm. The inset shows the simulated structure. (b) (Media 2) The switching characteristic of the X-coupler switch perfectly follows the expected sinusoidal curve. The performance figures are indicated in the graph.

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