Abstract

We report on the design, fabrication and optical characterization of GaN/AlN quantum-dot-based waveguides for all-optical switching via intraband absorption saturation at 1.55 µm. The transmittance of the TM-polarized light increases with the incident optical power due to the saturation of the s-pz intraband absorption in the QDs. Single-mode waveguides with a ridge width of 2 µm and a length of 1.5 mm display 10 dB absorption saturation of the TM-polarized light for an input pulse energy of 8 pJ and 150 fs.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

M. Beeler, E. Trichas, E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

S. Valdueza-Felip, L. Rigutti, F. B. Naranjo, P. Ruterana, J. Mangeney, F. H. Julien, M. González-Herráez, E. Monroy, “Carrier localization in InN/InGaN multiple-quantum wells with high In-content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(6), 062109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. Nevou, J. Mangeney, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Ultrafast relaxation and optical saturation of intraband absorption of GaN/AlN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, H. Yoshida, N. Managaki, T. Shimizu, S. Hassanet, C. Cumtornkittikul, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, “Integration of GaN/AlN all-optical switch with SiN/AlN waveguide utilizing spot-size conversion,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23247–23253 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, E. Monroy, “Third order nonlinear susceptibility of InN at near band-gap wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, “Nonlinear optical waveguides based on near-infrared intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5860–5865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, P. Vogl, “nextano: General Purpose 3-D Simulations,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Radic, C. J. Mc Kinstrie, “Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 859–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 mm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Wada, “Femtosecond all-optical devices for ultrafast communication and signal processing,” New J. Phys. 6, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gogneau, G. Jalabert, E. Monroy, E. Sarigiannidou, J.-L. Rouviére, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J.-M. Gérard, B. Daudin, “Influence of AlN overgrowth on structural properties of GaN quantum wells and quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1104–1110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at ~1.55 mm wavelength in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Vinegoni, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, “Measurements of the nonlinear coefficient of standard SMF, DSF, and DCF fibers using a self-aligned interferometer and a Faraday mirror,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 13(12), 1337–1339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (<150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen, “Nonlinear optics: past, present, and future,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 6(6), 876–880 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-µm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

S. Noda, T. Yamashita, M. Ohya, Y. Muromoto, A. Sasaki, “All-optical modulation for semiconductor lasers by using three energy levels in n-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 1640–1647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M.

P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andlauer, T.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, P. Vogl, “nextano: General Purpose 3-D Simulations,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (<150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, E.

P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beeler, M.

M. Beeler, E. Trichas, E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, A.

Birner, S.

P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, P. Vogl, “nextano: General Purpose 3-D Simulations,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, “Nonlinear optics: past, present, and future,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 6(6), 876–880 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, V.

F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at ~1.55 mm wavelength in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. N. G.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corredera, P.

F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cumtornkittikul, C.

Dang, L. S.

P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daudin, B.

N. Gogneau, G. Jalabert, E. Monroy, E. Sarigiannidou, J.-L. Rouviére, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J.-M. Gérard, B. Daudin, “Influence of AlN overgrowth on structural properties of GaN quantum wells and quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1104–1110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doyennette, L.

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F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
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J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 mm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1102 (2004).
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S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
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F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, E. Monroy, “Third order nonlinear susceptibility of InN at near band-gap wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091903 (2007).
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S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
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F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, E. Monroy, “Third order nonlinear susceptibility of InN at near band-gap wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091903 (2007).
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L. Nevou, J. Mangeney, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Ultrafast relaxation and optical saturation of intraband absorption of GaN/AlN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132104 (2009).
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P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
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S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
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F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
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M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
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L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 mm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1102 (2004).
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Heber, J. D.

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P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
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N. Gogneau, G. Jalabert, E. Monroy, E. Sarigiannidou, J.-L. Rouviére, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J.-M. Gérard, B. Daudin, “Influence of AlN overgrowth on structural properties of GaN quantum wells and quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1104–1110 (2004).
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S. Valdueza-Felip, L. Rigutti, F. B. Naranjo, P. Ruterana, J. Mangeney, F. H. Julien, M. González-Herráez, E. Monroy, “Carrier localization in InN/InGaN multiple-quantum wells with high In-content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(6), 062109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, J. Mangeney, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Ultrafast relaxation and optical saturation of intraband absorption of GaN/AlN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132104 (2009).
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P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
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S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
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M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
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J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 mm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1102 (2004).
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F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
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P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, “Intersubband transition in AlGaN-GaN quantum wells for ultrafast all-optical switching at communication wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 3940, Ultrafast Phenomena in SemiconductorsIV, 127 (2000).

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J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 mm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1102 (2004).
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F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
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S. Valdueza-Felip, L. Rigutti, F. B. Naranjo, P. Ruterana, J. Mangeney, F. H. Julien, M. González-Herráez, E. Monroy, “Carrier localization in InN/InGaN multiple-quantum wells with high In-content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(6), 062109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, J. Mangeney, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Ultrafast relaxation and optical saturation of intraband absorption of GaN/AlN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132104 (2009).
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F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 mm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1102 (2004).
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F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
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P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
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S. Valdueza-Felip, L. Rigutti, F. B. Naranjo, P. Ruterana, J. Mangeney, F. H. Julien, M. González-Herráez, E. Monroy, “Carrier localization in InN/InGaN multiple-quantum wells with high In-content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(6), 062109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, J. Mangeney, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Ultrafast relaxation and optical saturation of intraband absorption of GaN/AlN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, E. Monroy, “Third order nonlinear susceptibility of InN at near band-gap wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Gogneau, G. Jalabert, E. Monroy, E. Sarigiannidou, J.-L. Rouviére, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J.-M. Gérard, B. Daudin, “Influence of AlN overgrowth on structural properties of GaN quantum wells and quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1104–1110 (2004).
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F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Naranjo, F. B.

S. Valdueza-Felip, L. Rigutti, F. B. Naranjo, P. Ruterana, J. Mangeney, F. H. Julien, M. González-Herráez, E. Monroy, “Carrier localization in InN/InGaN multiple-quantum wells with high In-content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(6), 062109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, E. Monroy, “Third order nonlinear susceptibility of InN at near band-gap wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nevou, L.

L. Nevou, J. Mangeney, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Ultrafast relaxation and optical saturation of intraband absorption of GaN/AlN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H. M.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at ~1.55 mm wavelength in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (<150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, T. Yamashita, M. Ohya, Y. Muromoto, A. Sasaki, “All-optical modulation for semiconductor lasers by using three energy levels in n-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 1640–1647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohya, M.

S. Noda, T. Yamashita, M. Ohya, Y. Muromoto, A. Sasaki, “All-optical modulation for semiconductor lasers by using three energy levels in n-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 1640–1647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quoi, K. W.

Radic, S.

S. Radic, C. J. Mc Kinstrie, “Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 859–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rapaport, R.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raybaut, M.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

Remmele, T.

P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rigutti, L.

S. Valdueza-Felip, L. Rigutti, F. B. Naranjo, P. Ruterana, J. Mangeney, F. H. Julien, M. González-Herráez, E. Monroy, “Carrier localization in InN/InGaN multiple-quantum wells with high In-content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(6), 062109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rouviére, J.-L.

N. Gogneau, G. Jalabert, E. Monroy, E. Sarigiannidou, J.-L. Rouviére, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J.-M. Gérard, B. Daudin, “Influence of AlN overgrowth on structural properties of GaN quantum wells and quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1104–1110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruterana, P.

S. Valdueza-Felip, L. Rigutti, F. B. Naranjo, P. Ruterana, J. Mangeney, F. H. Julien, M. González-Herráez, E. Monroy, “Carrier localization in InN/InGaN multiple-quantum wells with high In-content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(6), 062109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sabathil, M.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, P. Vogl, “nextano: General Purpose 3-D Simulations,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sarigiannidou, E.

N. Gogneau, G. Jalabert, E. Monroy, E. Sarigiannidou, J.-L. Rouviére, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J.-M. Gérard, B. Daudin, “Influence of AlN overgrowth on structural properties of GaN quantum wells and quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1104–1110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, A.

S. Noda, T. Yamashita, M. Ohya, Y. Muromoto, A. Sasaki, “All-optical modulation for semiconductor lasers by using three energy levels in n-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 1640–1647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Gogneau, G. Jalabert, E. Monroy, E. Sarigiannidou, J.-L. Rouviére, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J.-M. Gérard, B. Daudin, “Influence of AlN overgrowth on structural properties of GaN quantum wells and quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1104–1110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

Solís, J.

S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, E. Monroy, “Third order nonlinear susceptibility of InN at near band-gap wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Sugiyama, M.

Suzuki, N.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (<150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-µm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, “Intersubband transition in AlGaN-GaN quantum wells for ultrafast all-optical switching at communication wavelength,” Proc. SPIE 3940, Ultrafast Phenomena in SemiconductorsIV, 127 (2000).

Tachibana, T.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 mm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Gogneau, G. Jalabert, E. Monroy, E. Sarigiannidou, J.-L. Rouviére, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J.-M. Gérard, B. Daudin, “Influence of AlN overgrowth on structural properties of GaN quantum wells and quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1104–1110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tchernycheva, M.

L. Nevou, J. Mangeney, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Ultrafast relaxation and optical saturation of intraband absorption of GaN/AlN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomidis, C.

Trellakis, A.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, P. Vogl, “nextano: General Purpose 3-D Simulations,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trichas, E.

M. Beeler, E. Trichas, E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Valdueza-Felip, S.

S. Valdueza-Felip, L. Rigutti, F. B. Naranjo, P. Ruterana, J. Mangeney, F. H. Julien, M. González-Herráez, E. Monroy, “Carrier localization in InN/InGaN multiple-quantum wells with high In-content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(6), 062109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vinegoni, C.

C. Vinegoni, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, “Measurements of the nonlinear coefficient of standard SMF, DSF, and DCF fibers using a self-aligned interferometer and a Faraday mirror,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 13(12), 1337–1339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vogl, P.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, P. Vogl, “nextano: General Purpose 3-D Simulations,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wada, O.

O. Wada, “Femtosecond all-optical devices for ultrafast communication and signal processing,” New J. Phys. 6, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (<150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Warde, E.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

C. Vinegoni, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, “Measurements of the nonlinear coefficient of standard SMF, DSF, and DCF fibers using a self-aligned interferometer and a Faraday mirror,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 13(12), 1337–1339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

S. Noda, T. Yamashita, M. Ohya, Y. Muromoto, A. Sasaki, “All-optical modulation for semiconductor lasers by using three energy levels in n-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 1640–1647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

Zibold, T.

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, P. Vogl, “nextano: General Purpose 3-D Simulations,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, E. Monroy, “Third order nonlinear susceptibility of InN at near band-gap wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Naranjo, P. K. Kandaswamy, S. Valdueza-Felip, V. Calvo, M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, J. A. Méndez, G. R. Mutta, B. Lacroix, P. Ruterana, E. Monroy, “Nonlinear absorption of InN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well structures at optical telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Valdueza-Felip, L. Rigutti, F. B. Naranjo, P. Ruterana, J. Mangeney, F. H. Julien, M. González-Herráez, E. Monroy, “Carrier localization in InN/InGaN multiple-quantum wells with high In-content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(6), 062109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 mm in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at ~1.55 mm wavelength in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (<150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S. N. G. Chu, “Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, J. Mangeney, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, “Ultrafast relaxation and optical saturation of intraband absorption of GaN/AlN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Noda, T. Yamashita, M. Ohya, Y. Muromoto, A. Sasaki, “All-optical modulation for semiconductor lasers by using three energy levels in n-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 1640–1647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

N. Bloembergen, “Nonlinear optics: past, present, and future,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 6(6), 876–880 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonic Tech. L. (2)

C. Vinegoni, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, “Measurements of the nonlinear coefficient of standard SMF, DSF, and DCF fibers using a self-aligned interferometer and a Faraday mirror,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 13(12), 1337–1339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Valdueza-Felip, F. B. Naranjo, M. González-Herráez, H. Fernández, J. Solís, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, “Characterization of the resonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum wells and quantum dots at 1.5 µm,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 20(16), 1366–1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE T. Electron Dev. (1)

S. Birner, T. Zibold, T. Andlauer, T. Kubis, M. Sabathil, A. Trellakis, P. Vogl, “nextano: General Purpose 3-D Simulations,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 54(9), 2137–2142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

S. Radic, C. J. Mc Kinstrie, “Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C(5), 859–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, A. Michon, F. H. Julien, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, S. Birner, L. S. Dang, “GaN/AlN short-period superlattices for intersubband optoelectronics: A systematic study of their epitaxial growth, design, and performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Monroy, M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, L. S. Dang, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, “Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Gogneau, G. Jalabert, E. Monroy, E. Sarigiannidou, J.-L. Rouviére, T. Shibata, M. Tanaka, J.-M. Gérard, B. Daudin, “Influence of AlN overgrowth on structural properties of GaN quantum wells and quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1104–1110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Suzuki, N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-µm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

O. Wada, “Femtosecond all-optical devices for ultrafast communication and signal processing,” New J. Phys. 6, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Beeler, E. Trichas, E. Monroy, “III-nitride semiconductors for intersubband optoelectronics: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 28(7), 074022 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic description of the GaN/AlN WG device. (b-d) Cross-section and normalized modal amplitude color maps for GaN/AlN WGs with different ridge widths: 10, 5 and 2 µm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(left) Normalized output modal amplitude profile for a 2-µm-wide WG with different ridge etching depths: 100, 200 and 350 nm. (middle) Estimated modal effective area as a function of the ridge etching depth for the 2-µm-wide WG. (right) Normalized output modal amplitude profile for both 5-µm- and 2-µm-wide WGs with 350-nm-deep ridges. The location of QD/QW layers in the experimental structures is indicated by the black vertical lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Conduction band profile of the active GaN/AlN superlattice considering the whole WG structure. Inset: Conduction band profile of one of the GaN/AlN QWs designed to obtain a resonant intraband transition at ~1.55 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

HRTEM images of the active region of the samples containing 3 layers of (a) Si-doped GaN/AlN QWs and (b) Si-doped GaN/AlN QDs. (c) 45° tilted FESEM image of the facet, and (d) plane view of a fabricated 2-µm-wide GaN/AlN QD-based WG.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field image of transmitted light through (a) 5-µm-wide and (b) 2-µm-wide QD-based WGs. (c) Cutback method: Experimental TE-TM transmittance at minimum incident power (−12 dBm) as a function of the WG length for the 5-µm-wide QW-based WG. The experimental points correspond to the average of transmittance measurements in 3 WGs for each WG length.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmittance for TE- and TM-polarized light (left) and transmittance increase versus control pulse energy for TM-polarized light measured (right) in (a,b) a 1-mm-long 5-µm-wide QW-based WG (S1), (c,d) a 1.5-mm-long 5-µm-wide QD-based WG (S2), and (e,f) a 1.5-mm-long 2-µm-wide QD-based WG (S3).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the structural parameters and experimental results obtained for the three samples under study (S1, S2 and S3).

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