Abstract

Abstract: The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectance of amorphous tetrahedrally coordinated carbon films (ta-C) prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc was measured in the 30-188-nm range at near normal incidence. The measured reflectance of films grown with average ion energies in the ~70-140-eV range was significantly larger than the reflectance of a C film grown with average ion energy of ~20 eV and of C films deposited by sputtering or evaporation. The difference is attributed to a large proportion of sp3 atom bonding in the ta-C film. This high reflectance is obtained for films deposited onto room-temperature substrates. The reflectance of ta-C films is higher than the standard single-layer coating materials in the EUV spectral range below 130 nm. A self-consistent set of optical constants of ta-C films was obtained with the Kramers-Krönig analysis using ellipsometry measurements in the 190-950 nm range and the EUV reflectance measurements. These optical constants allowed calculating the EUV reflectance of ta-C films at grazing incidence for applications such as free electron laser mirrors.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

J. I. Larruquert, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, M. Fernández-Pereaa, J. A. Aznárez, and J. A. Méndez, “Multilayer coatings for the far and extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE8076, 80760D, 80760D-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Coraggia, F. Frassetto, J. A. Aznarez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and L. Poletto, “Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A635(1), S43–S46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

R. Delmdahl, S. Weissmantel, and G. Reisse, “Diamondlike carbon films,” Adv. Mater. Process.168, 23–25 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, and J. F. Seely, “Normal-incidence silicon-gadolinium multilayers for imaging at 63 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett.33(9), 965–967 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Balandin, M. Shamsa, W. L. Liu, C. Casiraghi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Thermal conductivity of ultrathin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Tan, J. Zhu, A. Liu, Z. Jia, and J. Han, “Effects of mass density on the microhardness and modulus of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Mater. Lett.61(23-24), 4647–4650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

B. Steeg, L. Juha, J. Feldhaus, S. Jacobi, R. Sobierajski, C. Michaelsen, A. Andrejczuk, and J. Krzywinski, “Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 657–659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Yulin, F. Schaefers, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Enhanced reflectivity and stability of Sc/Si multilayers,” Proc. SPIE5193, 155–163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Robertson, “Diamond-like amorphous carbon,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.37(4-6), 129–281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. J. Martin and A. Bendavid, “Review of the filtered vacuum arc process and materials deposition,” Thin Solid Films394(1-2), 1–14 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Waidmann, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Electronic structure studies of undoped and nitrogen-doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon using high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.89(7), 3783–3792 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (6)

A. C. Ferrari, A. Libassi, B. K. Tanner, V. Stolojan, J. Yuan, L. M. Brown, S. E. Rodil, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Density, sp3 fraction, and cross-sectional structure of amorphous carbon films determined by x-ray reflectivity and electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 11089–11103 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Reflectance measurements and optical constants in the extreme ultraviolet of thin films of ion-beam-deposited carbon,” Opt. Commun.183(5-6), 437–443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Polo, J. L. Andújar, A. Hart, J. Robertson, and W. I. Milne, “Preparation of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 663–667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. LiBassi, A. C. Ferrari, V. Stolojan, B. K. Tanner, J. Robertson, and L. M. Brown;“Density, sp3 content and internal layering of DLC films by X-ray reflectivity and electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 771–776 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Chen and J. P. Zhao, “Optical constants of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films in the infrared region and at a wavelength of 633 nm,” J. Appl. Phys.87(9), 4268–4273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Optical properties of hot-pressed B4C in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt.39(10), 1537–1540 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (5)

B. K. Tay, X. Shi, L. K. Cheah, and D. I. Flynn, “Growth conditions and properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 199–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Friedmann, J. P. Sullivan, J. A. Knapp, D. R. Tallant, D. M. Follstaedt, D. L. Medlin, and P. B. Mirkarimi, “Thick stress-free amorphous-tetrahedral carbon films with hardness near that of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(26), 3820–3822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Shi Xu, D. Flynn, B. K. Tay, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, S. R. P. Silva, Y. Lifshitz, and W. I. Milne, “Mechanical properties and Raman spectra of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with high sp3 fraction deposited using a filtered cathodic arc,” Philos. Mag. B76(3), 351–361 (1997).

M. Chhowalla, J. Robertson, C. W. Chen, S. R. P. Silva, C. A. Davis, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and W. I. Milne, “Influence of ion energy and substrate temperature on the optical and electronic properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films,” J. Appl. Phys.81(1), 139–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Tay, X. Shi, L. K. Cheah, and D. I. Flynn, “Optical properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 268–272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, T. J. Kinder, and L. Wielunski, “The deposition of TiN thin films by nitrogen ion assisted deposition of Ti from a filtered cathodic arc source,” Surf. Coat. Tech.86–87, 271–278 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Chhowalla, Y. Yin, G. A. J. Amaratunga, D. R. McKenzie, and T. Frauenheim, “Highly tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with low stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(16), 2344–2346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

K. Kurosawa, R. Sonouchi, A. Yokotani, W. Sasaki, M. Kattoh, Y. Takigawa, and K. Nishimura, “Fabrication, characteristics, and performance of diamond mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet excimer lasers,” Opt. Eng.34(5), 1405–1409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Sasano, E. Ishiguro, S. Mitani, and H. Tomimori, “Reflectivities of chemical vapor deposition diamond mirrors in the vacuum ultraviolet region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66(2), 2211–2213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. W. May, “CVD diamond - a new technology for the future?” Endeavour Mag.19(3), 101–106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, and M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet optical properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” Proc. SPIE2515, 558–564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (3)

F. Xiong, Y. Y. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Complex dielectric function of amorphous diamond films deposited by pulsed-excimer-laser ablation of graphite,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(11), 8016–8023 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Fallon, V. S. Veerasamy, C. A. Davis, J. Robertson, G. A. J. Amaratunga, W. I. Milne, and J. Koskinen, “Properties of filtered-ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon as a function of ion energy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(7), 4777–4782 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (4)

1981 (1)

M. M. Kelly, J. B. West, and D. E. Lloyd, “Reflectance of silicon carbide in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Phys. D14(3), 401–404 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, “Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminum,” Phys. Rev. B22(4), 1612–1628 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

1974 (2)

M. Altarelli and D. Y. Smith, “Superconvergence and surn rules for the optical constants: physical meaning, comparison with experiment, and generalization,” Phys. Rev. B9(4), 1290–1298 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Klucker, M. Skibowski, and W. Steinmann, “Anisotropy in the optical transitions from the π and σ valence bands of graphite,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.65(2), 703–710 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

1967 (4)

1964 (1)

H. R. Philipp and E. A. Taft, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of refiectance data for diamond,” Phys. Rev.136(5A), A1445–A1448 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

Altarelli, M.

M. Altarelli and D. Y. Smith, “Superconvergence and surn rules for the optical constants: physical meaning, comparison with experiment, and generalization,” Phys. Rev. B9(4), 1290–1298 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Amaratunga, G. A. J.

M. Chhowalla, J. Robertson, C. W. Chen, S. R. P. Silva, C. A. Davis, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and W. I. Milne, “Influence of ion energy and substrate temperature on the optical and electronic properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films,” J. Appl. Phys.81(1), 139–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Chhowalla, Y. Yin, G. A. J. Amaratunga, D. R. McKenzie, and T. Frauenheim, “Highly tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with low stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(16), 2344–2346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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M. C. Polo, J. L. Andújar, A. Hart, J. Robertson, and W. I. Milne, “Preparation of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 663–667 (2000).
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S. Coraggia, F. Frassetto, J. A. Aznarez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and L. Poletto, “Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A635(1), S43–S46 (2011).
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J. I. Larruquert, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, M. Fernández-Pereaa, J. A. Aznárez, and J. A. Méndez, “Multilayer coatings for the far and extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE8076, 80760D, 80760D-8 (2011).
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M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Méndez, J. A. Aznárez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Narrowband multilayer coatings for the extreme ultraviolet range of 50-92 nm,” Opt. Express17(25), 22773–22784 (2009).
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A. A. Balandin, M. Shamsa, W. L. Liu, C. Casiraghi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Thermal conductivity of ultrathin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043115 (2008).
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G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, and M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet optical properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” Proc. SPIE2515, 558–564 (1995).
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A. LiBassi, A. C. Ferrari, V. Stolojan, B. K. Tanner, J. Robertson, and L. M. Brown;“Density, sp3 content and internal layering of DLC films by X-ray reflectivity and electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 771–776 (2000).
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A. A. Balandin, M. Shamsa, W. L. Liu, C. Casiraghi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Thermal conductivity of ultrathin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043115 (2008).
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M. Chhowalla, J. Robertson, C. W. Chen, S. R. P. Silva, C. A. Davis, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and W. I. Milne, “Influence of ion energy and substrate temperature on the optical and electronic properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films,” J. Appl. Phys.81(1), 139–145 (1997).
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Coraggia, S.

S. Coraggia, F. Frassetto, J. A. Aznarez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and L. Poletto, “Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A635(1), S43–S46 (2011).
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Davis, C. A.

M. Chhowalla, J. Robertson, C. W. Chen, S. R. P. Silva, C. A. Davis, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and W. I. Milne, “Influence of ion energy and substrate temperature on the optical and electronic properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films,” J. Appl. Phys.81(1), 139–145 (1997).
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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables54(2), 181–342 (1993).
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P. J. Fallon, V. S. Veerasamy, C. A. Davis, J. Robertson, G. A. J. Amaratunga, W. I. Milne, and J. Koskinen, “Properties of filtered-ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon as a function of ion energy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(7), 4777–4782 (1993).
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Fedotov, V. Y.

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B. Steeg, L. Juha, J. Feldhaus, S. Jacobi, R. Sobierajski, C. Michaelsen, A. Andrejczuk, and J. Krzywinski, “Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 657–659 (2004).
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Fernández-Pereaa, M.

J. I. Larruquert, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, M. Fernández-Pereaa, J. A. Aznárez, and J. A. Méndez, “Multilayer coatings for the far and extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE8076, 80760D, 80760D-8 (2011).
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A. A. Balandin, M. Shamsa, W. L. Liu, C. Casiraghi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Thermal conductivity of ultrathin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043115 (2008).
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A. LiBassi, A. C. Ferrari, V. Stolojan, B. K. Tanner, J. Robertson, and L. M. Brown;“Density, sp3 content and internal layering of DLC films by X-ray reflectivity and electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 771–776 (2000).
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A. C. Ferrari, A. Libassi, B. K. Tanner, V. Stolojan, J. Yuan, L. M. Brown, S. E. Rodil, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Density, sp3 fraction, and cross-sectional structure of amorphous carbon films determined by x-ray reflectivity and electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 11089–11103 (2000).
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S. Waidmann, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Electronic structure studies of undoped and nitrogen-doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon using high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.89(7), 3783–3792 (2001).
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Flynn, D.

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B. K. Tay, X. Shi, L. K. Cheah, and D. I. Flynn, “Optical properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 268–272 (1997).
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B. K. Tay, X. Shi, L. K. Cheah, and D. I. Flynn, “Growth conditions and properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 199–203 (1997).
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T. A. Friedmann, J. P. Sullivan, J. A. Knapp, D. R. Tallant, D. M. Follstaedt, D. L. Medlin, and P. B. Mirkarimi, “Thick stress-free amorphous-tetrahedral carbon films with hardness near that of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(26), 3820–3822 (1997).
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S. Coraggia, F. Frassetto, J. A. Aznarez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and L. Poletto, “Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A635(1), S43–S46 (2011).
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M. Chhowalla, Y. Yin, G. A. J. Amaratunga, D. R. McKenzie, and T. Frauenheim, “Highly tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with low stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(16), 2344–2346 (1996).
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T. A. Friedmann, J. P. Sullivan, J. A. Knapp, D. R. Tallant, D. M. Follstaedt, D. L. Medlin, and P. B. Mirkarimi, “Thick stress-free amorphous-tetrahedral carbon films with hardness near that of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(26), 3820–3822 (1997).
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J. I. Larruquert, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, M. Fernández-Pereaa, J. A. Aznárez, and J. A. Méndez, “Multilayer coatings for the far and extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE8076, 80760D, 80760D-8 (2011).
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J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.88(4), 719–725 (2007).
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G. M. Blumenstock, R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, and M. L. Ginter, “Extreme ultraviolet optical properties of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films,” Proc. SPIE2515, 558–564 (1995).
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Gum, J. S.

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M. Tan, J. Zhu, A. Liu, Z. Jia, and J. Han, “Effects of mass density on the microhardness and modulus of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Mater. Lett.61(23-24), 4647–4650 (2007).
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M. C. Polo, J. L. Andújar, A. Hart, J. Robertson, and W. I. Milne, “Preparation of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 663–667 (2000).
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Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables54(2), 181–342 (1993).
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Jerome, A.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.88(4), 719–725 (2007).
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M. Tan, J. Zhu, A. Liu, Z. Jia, and J. Han, “Effects of mass density on the microhardness and modulus of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Mater. Lett.61(23-24), 4647–4650 (2007).
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B. Steeg, L. Juha, J. Feldhaus, S. Jacobi, R. Sobierajski, C. Michaelsen, A. Andrejczuk, and J. Krzywinski, “Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 657–659 (2004).
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S. A. Yulin, F. Schaefers, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Enhanced reflectivity and stability of Sc/Si multilayers,” Proc. SPIE5193, 155–163 (2004).
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P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, T. J. Kinder, and L. Wielunski, “The deposition of TiN thin films by nitrogen ion assisted deposition of Ti from a filtered cathodic arc source,” Surf. Coat. Tech.86–87, 271–278 (1996).
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Kleinsorge, B.

S. Waidmann, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Electronic structure studies of undoped and nitrogen-doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon using high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.89(7), 3783–3792 (2001).
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A. C. Ferrari, A. Libassi, B. K. Tanner, V. Stolojan, J. Yuan, L. M. Brown, S. E. Rodil, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Density, sp3 fraction, and cross-sectional structure of amorphous carbon films determined by x-ray reflectivity and electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 11089–11103 (2000).
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S. Waidmann, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Electronic structure studies of undoped and nitrogen-doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon using high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.89(7), 3783–3792 (2001).
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Kortright, J. B.

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P. J. Fallon, V. S. Veerasamy, C. A. Davis, J. Robertson, G. A. J. Amaratunga, W. I. Milne, and J. Koskinen, “Properties of filtered-ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon as a function of ion energy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(7), 4777–4782 (1993).
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B. Steeg, L. Juha, J. Feldhaus, S. Jacobi, R. Sobierajski, C. Michaelsen, A. Andrejczuk, and J. Krzywinski, “Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 657–659 (2004).
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K. Kurosawa, R. Sonouchi, A. Yokotani, W. Sasaki, M. Kattoh, Y. Takigawa, and K. Nishimura, “Fabrication, characteristics, and performance of diamond mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet excimer lasers,” Opt. Eng.34(5), 1405–1409 (1995).
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M. Fernández-Perea, R. Soufli, J. C. Robinson, L. Rodríguez-De Marcos, J. A. Méndez, J. I. Larruquert, and E. M. Gullikson, “Triple-wavelength, narrowband Mg/SiC multilayers with corrosion barriers and high peak reflectance in the 25-80 nm wavelength region,” Opt. Express20(21), 24018–24029 (2012).
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J. I. Larruquert, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, M. Fernández-Pereaa, J. A. Aznárez, and J. A. Méndez, “Multilayer coatings for the far and extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE8076, 80760D, 80760D-8 (2011).
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S. Coraggia, F. Frassetto, J. A. Aznarez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and L. Poletto, “Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A635(1), S43–S46 (2011).
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M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Méndez, J. A. Aznárez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Narrowband multilayer coatings for the extreme ultraviolet range of 50-92 nm,” Opt. Express17(25), 22773–22784 (2009).
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Libassi, A.

A. C. Ferrari, A. Libassi, B. K. Tanner, V. Stolojan, J. Yuan, L. M. Brown, S. E. Rodil, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Density, sp3 fraction, and cross-sectional structure of amorphous carbon films determined by x-ray reflectivity and electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 11089–11103 (2000).
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A. LiBassi, A. C. Ferrari, V. Stolojan, B. K. Tanner, J. Robertson, and L. M. Brown;“Density, sp3 content and internal layering of DLC films by X-ray reflectivity and electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 771–776 (2000).
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Lifshitz, Y.

D. Shi Xu, D. Flynn, B. K. Tay, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, S. R. P. Silva, Y. Lifshitz, and W. I. Milne, “Mechanical properties and Raman spectra of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with high sp3 fraction deposited using a filtered cathodic arc,” Philos. Mag. B76(3), 351–361 (1997).

Liu, A.

M. Tan, J. Zhu, A. Liu, Z. Jia, and J. Han, “Effects of mass density on the microhardness and modulus of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Mater. Lett.61(23-24), 4647–4650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. L.

A. A. Balandin, M. Shamsa, W. L. Liu, C. Casiraghi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Thermal conductivity of ultrathin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. M. Kelly, J. B. West, and D. E. Lloyd, “Reflectance of silicon carbide in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Phys. D14(3), 401–404 (1981).
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Martin, P. J.

P. J. Martin and A. Bendavid, “Review of the filtered vacuum arc process and materials deposition,” Thin Solid Films394(1-2), 1–14 (2001).
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P. J. Martin, A. Bendavid, T. J. Kinder, and L. Wielunski, “The deposition of TiN thin films by nitrogen ion assisted deposition of Ti from a filtered cathodic arc source,” Surf. Coat. Tech.86–87, 271–278 (1996).
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M. Chhowalla, Y. Yin, G. A. J. Amaratunga, D. R. McKenzie, and T. Frauenheim, “Highly tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with low stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(16), 2344–2346 (1996).
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Medlin, D. L.

T. A. Friedmann, J. P. Sullivan, J. A. Knapp, D. R. Tallant, D. M. Follstaedt, D. L. Medlin, and P. B. Mirkarimi, “Thick stress-free amorphous-tetrahedral carbon films with hardness near that of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(26), 3820–3822 (1997).
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Mendez, J. A.

S. Coraggia, F. Frassetto, J. A. Aznarez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and L. Poletto, “Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A635(1), S43–S46 (2011).
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Méndez, J. A.

Michaelsen, C.

B. Steeg, L. Juha, J. Feldhaus, S. Jacobi, R. Sobierajski, C. Michaelsen, A. Andrejczuk, and J. Krzywinski, “Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 657–659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milne, W. I.

M. C. Polo, J. L. Andújar, A. Hart, J. Robertson, and W. I. Milne, “Preparation of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 663–667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Shi Xu, D. Flynn, B. K. Tay, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, S. R. P. Silva, Y. Lifshitz, and W. I. Milne, “Mechanical properties and Raman spectra of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with high sp3 fraction deposited using a filtered cathodic arc,” Philos. Mag. B76(3), 351–361 (1997).

M. Chhowalla, J. Robertson, C. W. Chen, S. R. P. Silva, C. A. Davis, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and W. I. Milne, “Influence of ion energy and substrate temperature on the optical and electronic properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films,” J. Appl. Phys.81(1), 139–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Fallon, V. S. Veerasamy, C. A. Davis, J. Robertson, G. A. J. Amaratunga, W. I. Milne, and J. Koskinen, “Properties of filtered-ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon as a function of ion energy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(7), 4777–4782 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkarimi, P. B.

T. A. Friedmann, J. P. Sullivan, J. A. Knapp, D. R. Tallant, D. M. Follstaedt, D. L. Medlin, and P. B. Mirkarimi, “Thick stress-free amorphous-tetrahedral carbon films with hardness near that of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(26), 3820–3822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitani, S.

T. Sasano, E. Ishiguro, S. Mitani, and H. Tomimori, “Reflectivities of chemical vapor deposition diamond mirrors in the vacuum ultraviolet region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66(2), 2211–2213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Negro, M.

S. Coraggia, F. Frassetto, J. A. Aznarez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and L. Poletto, “Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A635(1), S43–S46 (2011).
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Newnam, B.

Nishimura, K.

K. Kurosawa, R. Sonouchi, A. Yokotani, W. Sasaki, M. Kattoh, Y. Takigawa, and K. Nishimura, “Fabrication, characteristics, and performance of diamond mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet excimer lasers,” Opt. Eng.34(5), 1405–1409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. W.

D. Shi Xu, D. Flynn, B. K. Tay, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, S. R. P. Silva, Y. Lifshitz, and W. I. Milne, “Mechanical properties and Raman spectra of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with high sp3 fraction deposited using a filtered cathodic arc,” Philos. Mag. B76(3), 351–361 (1997).

Osantowski, J. F.

Partlow, W. D.

Pershin, Y. P.

Philipp, H. R.

H. R. Philipp and E. A. Taft, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of refiectance data for diamond,” Phys. Rev.136(5A), A1445–A1448 (1964).
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Poletto, L.

S. Coraggia, F. Frassetto, J. A. Aznarez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and L. Poletto, “Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A635(1), S43–S46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Polo, M. C.

M. C. Polo, J. L. Andújar, A. Hart, J. Robertson, and W. I. Milne, “Preparation of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 663–667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prawer, S.

D. Shi Xu, D. Flynn, B. K. Tay, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, S. R. P. Silva, Y. Lifshitz, and W. I. Milne, “Mechanical properties and Raman spectra of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with high sp3 fraction deposited using a filtered cathodic arc,” Philos. Mag. B76(3), 351–361 (1997).

Ramsey, J. B.

Ravet, M. F.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reisse, G.

R. Delmdahl, S. Weissmantel, and G. Reisse, “Diamondlike carbon films,” Adv. Mater. Process.168, 23–25 (2010).

Roberts, R. A.

R. A. Roberts and W. C. Walker, “Optical study of the electronic structure of diamond,” Phys. Rev.161(3), 730–735 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, J.

J. Robertson, “Diamond-like amorphous carbon,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.37(4-6), 129–281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Waidmann, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Electronic structure studies of undoped and nitrogen-doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon using high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.89(7), 3783–3792 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Polo, J. L. Andújar, A. Hart, J. Robertson, and W. I. Milne, “Preparation of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 663–667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. LiBassi, A. C. Ferrari, V. Stolojan, B. K. Tanner, J. Robertson, and L. M. Brown;“Density, sp3 content and internal layering of DLC films by X-ray reflectivity and electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 771–776 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, A. Libassi, B. K. Tanner, V. Stolojan, J. Yuan, L. M. Brown, S. E. Rodil, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Density, sp3 fraction, and cross-sectional structure of amorphous carbon films determined by x-ray reflectivity and electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 11089–11103 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Chhowalla, J. Robertson, C. W. Chen, S. R. P. Silva, C. A. Davis, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and W. I. Milne, “Influence of ion energy and substrate temperature on the optical and electronic properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films,” J. Appl. Phys.81(1), 139–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Fallon, V. S. Veerasamy, C. A. Davis, J. Robertson, G. A. J. Amaratunga, W. I. Milne, and J. Koskinen, “Properties of filtered-ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon as a function of ion energy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(7), 4777–4782 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Rodil, S. E.

A. C. Ferrari, A. Libassi, B. K. Tanner, V. Stolojan, J. Yuan, L. M. Brown, S. E. Rodil, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Density, sp3 fraction, and cross-sectional structure of amorphous carbon films determined by x-ray reflectivity and electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 11089–11103 (2000).
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M. Fernández-Perea, R. Soufli, J. C. Robinson, L. Rodríguez-De Marcos, J. A. Méndez, J. I. Larruquert, and E. M. Gullikson, “Triple-wavelength, narrowband Mg/SiC multilayers with corrosion barriers and high peak reflectance in the 25-80 nm wavelength region,” Opt. Express20(21), 24018–24029 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

Roulliay, M.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.88(4), 719–725 (2007).
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E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, “Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminum,” Phys. Rev. B22(4), 1612–1628 (1980).
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K. Kurosawa, R. Sonouchi, A. Yokotani, W. Sasaki, M. Kattoh, Y. Takigawa, and K. Nishimura, “Fabrication, characteristics, and performance of diamond mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet excimer lasers,” Opt. Eng.34(5), 1405–1409 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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T. Sasano, E. Ishiguro, S. Mitani, and H. Tomimori, “Reflectivities of chemical vapor deposition diamond mirrors in the vacuum ultraviolet region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66(2), 2211–2213 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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S. A. Yulin, F. Schaefers, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Enhanced reflectivity and stability of Sc/Si multilayers,” Proc. SPIE5193, 155–163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Seely, J. F.

Shamsa, M.

A. A. Balandin, M. Shamsa, W. L. Liu, C. Casiraghi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Thermal conductivity of ultrathin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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B. K. Tay, X. Shi, L. K. Cheah, and D. I. Flynn, “Growth conditions and properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 199–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Tay, X. Shi, L. K. Cheah, and D. I. Flynn, “Optical properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 268–272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi Xu, D.

D. Shi Xu, D. Flynn, B. K. Tay, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, S. R. P. Silva, Y. Lifshitz, and W. I. Milne, “Mechanical properties and Raman spectra of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with high sp3 fraction deposited using a filtered cathodic arc,” Philos. Mag. B76(3), 351–361 (1997).

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E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, “Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminum,” Phys. Rev. B22(4), 1612–1628 (1980).
[CrossRef]

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D. Shi Xu, D. Flynn, B. K. Tay, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, S. R. P. Silva, Y. Lifshitz, and W. I. Milne, “Mechanical properties and Raman spectra of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with high sp3 fraction deposited using a filtered cathodic arc,” Philos. Mag. B76(3), 351–361 (1997).

M. Chhowalla, J. Robertson, C. W. Chen, S. R. P. Silva, C. A. Davis, G. A. J. Amaratunga, and W. I. Milne, “Influence of ion energy and substrate temperature on the optical and electronic properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films,” J. Appl. Phys.81(1), 139–145 (1997).
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E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, “Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminum,” Phys. Rev. B22(4), 1612–1628 (1980).
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B. Steeg, L. Juha, J. Feldhaus, S. Jacobi, R. Sobierajski, C. Michaelsen, A. Andrejczuk, and J. Krzywinski, “Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 657–659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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K. Kurosawa, R. Sonouchi, A. Yokotani, W. Sasaki, M. Kattoh, Y. Takigawa, and K. Nishimura, “Fabrication, characteristics, and performance of diamond mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet excimer lasers,” Opt. Eng.34(5), 1405–1409 (1995).
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Stagira, S.

S. Coraggia, F. Frassetto, J. A. Aznarez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and L. Poletto, “Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A635(1), S43–S46 (2011).
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Stanford, J. L.

Steeg, B.

B. Steeg, L. Juha, J. Feldhaus, S. Jacobi, R. Sobierajski, C. Michaelsen, A. Andrejczuk, and J. Krzywinski, “Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 657–659 (2004).
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R. Klucker, M. Skibowski, and W. Steinmann, “Anisotropy in the optical transitions from the π and σ valence bands of graphite,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.65(2), 703–710 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Stolojan, V.

A. LiBassi, A. C. Ferrari, V. Stolojan, B. K. Tanner, J. Robertson, and L. M. Brown;“Density, sp3 content and internal layering of DLC films by X-ray reflectivity and electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 771–776 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, A. Libassi, B. K. Tanner, V. Stolojan, J. Yuan, L. M. Brown, S. E. Rodil, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Density, sp3 fraction, and cross-sectional structure of amorphous carbon films determined by x-ray reflectivity and electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 11089–11103 (2000).
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T. A. Friedmann, J. P. Sullivan, J. A. Knapp, D. R. Tallant, D. M. Follstaedt, D. L. Medlin, and P. B. Mirkarimi, “Thick stress-free amorphous-tetrahedral carbon films with hardness near that of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(26), 3820–3822 (1997).
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Swartzlander, A. B.

Taft, E. A.

H. R. Philipp and E. A. Taft, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of refiectance data for diamond,” Phys. Rev.136(5A), A1445–A1448 (1964).
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Takacs, P. Z.

Takigawa, Y.

K. Kurosawa, R. Sonouchi, A. Yokotani, W. Sasaki, M. Kattoh, Y. Takigawa, and K. Nishimura, “Fabrication, characteristics, and performance of diamond mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet excimer lasers,” Opt. Eng.34(5), 1405–1409 (1995).
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T. A. Friedmann, J. P. Sullivan, J. A. Knapp, D. R. Tallant, D. M. Follstaedt, D. L. Medlin, and P. B. Mirkarimi, “Thick stress-free amorphous-tetrahedral carbon films with hardness near that of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(26), 3820–3822 (1997).
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Tan, M.

M. Tan, J. Zhu, A. Liu, Z. Jia, and J. Han, “Effects of mass density on the microhardness and modulus of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Mater. Lett.61(23-24), 4647–4650 (2007).
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Tanner, B. K.

A. LiBassi, A. C. Ferrari, V. Stolojan, B. K. Tanner, J. Robertson, and L. M. Brown;“Density, sp3 content and internal layering of DLC films by X-ray reflectivity and electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Diamond Related Materials9(3-6), 771–776 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, A. Libassi, B. K. Tanner, V. Stolojan, J. Yuan, L. M. Brown, S. E. Rodil, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Density, sp3 fraction, and cross-sectional structure of amorphous carbon films determined by x-ray reflectivity and electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 11089–11103 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tay, B. K.

B. K. Tay, X. Shi, L. K. Cheah, and D. I. Flynn, “Growth conditions and properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 199–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Tay, X. Shi, L. K. Cheah, and D. I. Flynn, “Optical properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films308–309, 268–272 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Shi Xu, D. Flynn, B. K. Tay, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, S. R. P. Silva, Y. Lifshitz, and W. I. Milne, “Mechanical properties and Raman spectra of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with high sp3 fraction deposited using a filtered cathodic arc,” Philos. Mag. B76(3), 351–361 (1997).

Toft, A. R.

Tomimori, H.

T. Sasano, E. Ishiguro, S. Mitani, and H. Tomimori, “Reflectivities of chemical vapor deposition diamond mirrors in the vacuum ultraviolet region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.66(2), 2211–2213 (1995).
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Varniere, F.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.88(4), 719–725 (2007).
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P. J. Fallon, V. S. Veerasamy, C. A. Davis, J. Robertson, G. A. J. Amaratunga, W. I. Milne, and J. Koskinen, “Properties of filtered-ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon as a function of ion energy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(7), 4777–4782 (1993).
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Venskytis, F. J.

Vickridge, I.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.88(4), 719–725 (2007).
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J. I. Larruquert, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, L. Rodríguez-de Marcos, M. Fernández-Pereaa, J. A. Aznárez, and J. A. Méndez, “Multilayer coatings for the far and extreme ultraviolet,” Proc. SPIE8076, 80760D, 80760D-8 (2011).
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M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Méndez, J. A. Aznárez, and J. I. Larruquert, “Narrowband multilayer coatings for the extreme ultraviolet range of 50-92 nm,” Opt. Express17(25), 22773–22784 (2009).
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Vozzi, C.

S. Coraggia, F. Frassetto, J. A. Aznarez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and L. Poletto, “Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. A635(1), S43–S46 (2011).
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S. Waidmann, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Electronic structure studies of undoped and nitrogen-doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon using high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.89(7), 3783–3792 (2001).
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R. A. Roberts and W. C. Walker, “Optical study of the electronic structure of diamond,” Phys. Rev.161(3), 730–735 (1967).
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R. Delmdahl, S. Weissmantel, and G. Reisse, “Diamondlike carbon films,” Adv. Mater. Process.168, 23–25 (2010).

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M. Chhowalla, Y. Yin, G. A. J. Amaratunga, D. R. McKenzie, and T. Frauenheim, “Highly tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with low stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(16), 2344–2346 (1996).
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K. Kurosawa, R. Sonouchi, A. Yokotani, W. Sasaki, M. Kattoh, Y. Takigawa, and K. Nishimura, “Fabrication, characteristics, and performance of diamond mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet excimer lasers,” Opt. Eng.34(5), 1405–1409 (1995).
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A. C. Ferrari, A. Libassi, B. K. Tanner, V. Stolojan, J. Yuan, L. M. Brown, S. E. Rodil, B. Kleinsorge, and J. Robertson, “Density, sp3 fraction, and cross-sectional structure of amorphous carbon films determined by x-ray reflectivity and electron energy-loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B62(16), 11089–11103 (2000).
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S. A. Yulin, F. Schaefers, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Enhanced reflectivity and stability of Sc/Si multilayers,” Proc. SPIE5193, 155–163 (2004).
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M. Tan, J. Zhu, A. Liu, Z. Jia, and J. Han, “Effects of mass density on the microhardness and modulus of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films,” Mater. Lett.61(23-24), 4647–4650 (2007).
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Adv. Mater. Process. (1)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

B. Steeg, L. Juha, J. Feldhaus, S. Jacobi, R. Sobierajski, C. Michaelsen, A. Andrejczuk, and J. Krzywinski, “Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(5), 657–659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Chhowalla, Y. Yin, G. A. J. Amaratunga, D. R. McKenzie, and T. Frauenheim, “Highly tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with low stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(16), 2344–2346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Friedmann, J. P. Sullivan, J. A. Knapp, D. R. Tallant, D. M. Follstaedt, D. L. Medlin, and P. B. Mirkarimi, “Thick stress-free amorphous-tetrahedral carbon films with hardness near that of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(26), 3820–3822 (1997).
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http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

EUV-FUV reflectance of five C samples grown with the plotted bias voltage as a function of wavelength. The estimated average C ion energy is given in Table 1. Solid line: reflectance calculated with the present optical constants. The semi-empirical data of Henke et al. [54] are also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The EUV-FUV reflectance of a ta-C film compared to other forms of high-reflectance, solid-state C material: bulk diamond [22], CVD amorphous diamond (typical thickness: 15 μm) [24], graphite (E⊥c-axis) [38], IBD C (24-nm thick) [29].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The EUV-FUV reflectance of a ta-C film compared to other thin-film materials with relatively high reflectance below 120 nm: aged IBD SiC [39], aged IBD B4C [40], and evaporation-deposited Ir [41] and Os [42].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ellipsometry parameters tan Ψ and cos Δ, both experimental and fitted with the obtained n, k data, as a function of wavelength measured for the ta-C film deposited with 50-V bias voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The optical constants n and k of ta-C versus wavelength in log scale. The semi-empirical data of Henke et al. [54] are also shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated ta-C EUV reflectance at two grazing incidence angles measured from the normal versus wavelength in log scale.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Bias voltage, C-ion energy, and film thickness of the prepared samples

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of the three Lorentz oscillators obtained in the fitting to ellipsometry measurements.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ( Ε )= Ε π P 0 ln[ R( Ε' ) ] Ε ' 2 Ε 2 dΕ'
r p r s = tan( Ψ ) e iΔ
ε= ( n+ik ) 2 = j=1 3 A j E 0j E 2 E 0j 2 +i C j E
n eff ( Ε )= 4 ε 0 m πN e 2 2 0 Ε Ε'k(Ε')dΕ'
0 [ n(Ε)1 ]dΕ=0 ,
ς= 0 [ n(Ε)1 ]dΕ 0 | n(Ε)1 |dΕ

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