Abstract

We experimentally study surface plasmon lasing in a series of metal hole arrays on a gold-semiconductor interface. The sub-wavelength holes are arranged in square arrays of which we systematically vary the lattice constant and hole size. The semiconductor medium is optically pumped and operates at telecom wavelengths (λ ∼ 1.5 μm). For all 9 studied arrays, we observe surface plasmon (SP) lasing close to normal incidence, where different lasers operate in different plasmonic bands and at different wavelengths. Angle- and frequency-resolved measurements of the spontaneous emission visualizes these bands over the relevant (ω, k||) range. The observed bands are accurately described by a simple coupled-wave model, which enables us to quantify the backwards and right-angle scattering of SPs at the holes in the metal film.

© 2013 OSA

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  2. M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Semiconductor nanoring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 201105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461, 629–632 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics4, 382–387 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Zhou, M. Dridi, J. Y. Suh, C. H. Kim, D. T. Co, M. R. Wasielewski, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays,” Nature Nanotech.8, 506–511 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-wavelength metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep.64, 453 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  18. N. Rotenberg, M. Spasenović, T. L. Krijger, B. L. Feber, F. J. G. de Abajo, and L. Kuipers, “Plasmon Scattering from Single Subwavelength Holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 127402 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 113901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013 (2)

W. Zhou, M. Dridi, J. Y. Suh, C. H. Kim, D. T. Co, M. R. Wasielewski, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays,” Nature Nanotech.8, 506–511 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. van Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, M. J. A. de Dood, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, “Surface plasmon lasing observed in metal hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 206802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

F. van Beijnum, C. Retif, C. B. Smiet, H. Liu, P. Lalanne, and M. P. van Exter, “Quasi-cylindrical wave contribution in experiments on extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature492, 411–414 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rotenberg, M. Spasenović, T. L. Krijger, B. L. Feber, F. J. G. de Abajo, and L. Kuipers, “Plasmon Scattering from Single Subwavelength Holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 127402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

P. Berini and I. De Leon, “Surface plasmon polariton amplifiers and lasers,” Nat. Photonics6, 16–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Semiconductor nanoring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics4, 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through sub-wavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-wavelength metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep.64, 453 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Paddon and J. F. Young, “Two-dimensional vector-coupled-mode theory for textured planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B61, 2090–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B60, 2610–2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

W. L. Barnes, “Fluorescence near interfaces: The role of photonic mode density,” J. Mod. Opt.45, 661–699 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

’t Hooft, G. W.

F. van Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, M. J. A. de Dood, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, “Surface plasmon lasing observed in metal hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 206802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

’t Hooft, G.W.

F. van Beijnum, P.J. van Veldhoven, E.J. Geluk, G.W. ’t Hooft, and M.P. van Exter, “Loss compensation of extraordinary optical transmission,” submitted for publication.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, “Fluorescence near interfaces: The role of photonic mode density,” J. Mod. Opt.45, 661–699 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

P. Berini and I. De Leon, “Surface plasmon polariton amplifiers and lasers,” Nat. Photonics6, 16–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics4, 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Co, D. T.

W. Zhou, M. Dridi, J. Y. Suh, C. H. Kim, D. T. Co, M. R. Wasielewski, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays,” Nature Nanotech.8, 506–511 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culshaw, I. S.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B60, 2610–2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Abajo, F. J. G.

N. Rotenberg, M. Spasenović, T. L. Krijger, B. L. Feber, F. J. G. de Abajo, and L. Kuipers, “Plasmon Scattering from Single Subwavelength Holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 127402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Dood, M. J. A.

F. van Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, M. J. A. de Dood, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, “Surface plasmon lasing observed in metal hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 206802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

De Leon, I.

P. Berini and I. De Leon, “Surface plasmon polariton amplifiers and lasers,” Nat. Photonics6, 16–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics4, 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dridi, M.

W. Zhou, M. Dridi, J. Y. Suh, C. H. Kim, D. T. Co, M. R. Wasielewski, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays,” Nature Nanotech.8, 506–511 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through sub-wavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feber, B. L.

N. Rotenberg, M. Spasenović, T. L. Krijger, B. L. Feber, F. J. G. de Abajo, and L. Kuipers, “Plasmon Scattering from Single Subwavelength Holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 127402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through sub-wavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

F. van Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, M. J. A. de Dood, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, “Surface plasmon lasing observed in metal hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 206802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E.J.

F. van Beijnum, P.J. van Veldhoven, E.J. Geluk, G.W. ’t Hooft, and M.P. van Exter, “Loss compensation of extraordinary optical transmission,” submitted for publication.

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C. F.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-wavelength metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep.64, 453 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. H.

W. Zhou, M. Dridi, J. Y. Suh, C. H. Kim, D. T. Co, M. R. Wasielewski, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays,” Nature Nanotech.8, 506–511 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. W.

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Semiconductor nanoring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krijger, T. L.

N. Rotenberg, M. Spasenović, T. L. Krijger, B. L. Feber, F. J. G. de Abajo, and L. Kuipers, “Plasmon Scattering from Single Subwavelength Holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 127402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, P. C.

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Semiconductor nanoring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

N. Rotenberg, M. Spasenović, T. L. Krijger, B. L. Feber, F. J. G. de Abajo, and L. Kuipers, “Plasmon Scattering from Single Subwavelength Holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 127402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through sub-wavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

F. van Beijnum, C. Retif, C. B. Smiet, H. Liu, P. Lalanne, and M. P. van Exter, “Quasi-cylindrical wave contribution in experiments on extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature492, 411–414 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-wavelength metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep.64, 453 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, C.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

F. van Beijnum, C. Retif, C. B. Smiet, H. Liu, P. Lalanne, and M. P. van Exter, “Quasi-cylindrical wave contribution in experiments on extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature492, 411–414 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. T.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-wavelength metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep.64, 453 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.-M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through sub-wavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murray, W. A.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Odom, T. W.

W. Zhou, M. Dridi, J. Y. Suh, C. H. Kim, D. T. Co, M. R. Wasielewski, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays,” Nature Nanotech.8, 506–511 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paddon, P.

P. Paddon and J. F. Young, “Two-dimensional vector-coupled-mode theory for textured planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B61, 2090–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, D. J.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Retif, C.

F. van Beijnum, C. Retif, C. B. Smiet, H. Liu, P. Lalanne, and M. P. van Exter, “Quasi-cylindrical wave contribution in experiments on extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature492, 411–414 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotenberg, N.

N. Rotenberg, M. Spasenović, T. L. Krijger, B. L. Feber, F. J. G. de Abajo, and L. Kuipers, “Plasmon Scattering from Single Subwavelength Holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 127402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

W. Zhou, M. Dridi, J. Y. Suh, C. H. Kim, D. T. Co, M. R. Wasielewski, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays,” Nature Nanotech.8, 506–511 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, A. M.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smiet, C. B.

F. van Beijnum, C. Retif, C. B. Smiet, H. Liu, P. Lalanne, and M. P. van Exter, “Quasi-cylindrical wave contribution in experiments on extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature492, 411–414 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spasenovic, M.

N. Rotenberg, M. Spasenović, T. L. Krijger, B. L. Feber, F. J. G. de Abajo, and L. Kuipers, “Plasmon Scattering from Single Subwavelength Holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 127402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stibenz, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, J. Y.

W. Zhou, M. Dridi, J. Y. Suh, C. H. Kim, D. T. Co, M. R. Wasielewski, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays,” Nature Nanotech.8, 506–511 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D. M.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Troccoli, M.

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Beijnum, F.

F. van Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, M. J. A. de Dood, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, “Surface plasmon lasing observed in metal hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 206802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. van Beijnum, C. Retif, C. B. Smiet, H. Liu, P. Lalanne, and M. P. van Exter, “Quasi-cylindrical wave contribution in experiments on extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature492, 411–414 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. van Beijnum, P.J. van Veldhoven, E.J. Geluk, G.W. ’t Hooft, and M.P. van Exter, “Loss compensation of extraordinary optical transmission,” submitted for publication.

van Exter, M. P.

F. van Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, M. J. A. de Dood, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, “Surface plasmon lasing observed in metal hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 206802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. van Beijnum, C. Retif, C. B. Smiet, H. Liu, P. Lalanne, and M. P. van Exter, “Quasi-cylindrical wave contribution in experiments on extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature492, 411–414 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Exter, M.P.

F. van Beijnum, P.J. van Veldhoven, E.J. Geluk, G.W. ’t Hooft, and M.P. van Exter, “Loss compensation of extraordinary optical transmission,” submitted for publication.

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

F. van Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, M. J. A. de Dood, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, “Surface plasmon lasing observed in metal hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 206802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P.J.

F. van Beijnum, P.J. van Veldhoven, E.J. Geluk, G.W. ’t Hooft, and M.P. van Exter, “Loss compensation of extraordinary optical transmission,” submitted for publication.

Wang, B.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-wavelength metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep.64, 453 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wasielewski, M. R.

W. Zhou, M. Dridi, J. Y. Suh, C. H. Kim, D. T. Co, M. R. Wasielewski, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays,” Nature Nanotech.8, 506–511 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B60, 2610–2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

P. Paddon and J. F. Young, “Two-dimensional vector-coupled-mode theory for textured planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B61, 2090–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, M. Dridi, J. Y. Suh, C. H. Kim, D. T. Co, M. R. Wasielewski, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays,” Nature Nanotech.8, 506–511 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Semiconductor nanoring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. L. Barnes, “Fluorescence near interfaces: The role of photonic mode density,” J. Mod. Opt.45, 661–699 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

P. Berini and I. De Leon, “Surface plasmon polariton amplifiers and lasers,” Nat. Photonics6, 16–24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics4, 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461, 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. van Beijnum, C. Retif, C. B. Smiet, H. Liu, P. Lalanne, and M. P. van Exter, “Quasi-cylindrical wave contribution in experiments on extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature492, 411–414 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Nanotech. (1)

W. Zhou, M. Dridi, J. Y. Suh, C. H. Kim, D. T. Co, M. R. Wasielewski, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays,” Nature Nanotech.8, 506–511 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. Paddon and J. F. Young, “Two-dimensional vector-coupled-mode theory for textured planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B61, 2090–2101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B60, 2610–2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

N. Rotenberg, M. Spasenović, T. L. Krijger, B. L. Feber, F. J. G. de Abajo, and L. Kuipers, “Plasmon Scattering from Single Subwavelength Holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 127402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. van Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, M. J. A. de Dood, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, “Surface plasmon lasing observed in metal hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 206802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Their Role in the Enhanced Transmission of Light through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes in a Metal Film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through sub-wavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, “Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science302, 1374–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci. Rep. (1)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-wavelength metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep.64, 453 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

F. van Beijnum, P.J. van Veldhoven, E.J. Geluk, G.W. ’t Hooft, and M.P. van Exter, “Loss compensation of extraordinary optical transmission,” submitted for publication.

Semiconductor database of the Ioffe physical technical institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of experimental geometry. We optically excite the gain layer through the substrate, using a continuous-wave pump laser, and observe its fluorescence and laser emission on the metal size, as a function of emission angle and wavelength. (b) The layer package of all samples consists of InP substrate, an In0.53Ga0.47As gain layer, a thin spacer layer, and gold on top (see text for details). The red curve shows the calculated (square of the) magnetic field |Hy|2 of the surface plasmon polaritons, which are excited by fluorescence, amplified by stimulated emission, and scattered by the holes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Far-field emission pattern of (a0 = 450 nm, d2) laser observed within the NA=0.4 of our microscope objective at detection wavelengths ranging from 1560 to 1420 nm. The emission features can be divided in three groups: a low-frequency (C), mid-frequency (B), and high-frequency (A).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

False-color images of the measured far-field intensities I(0, θy; λ) of our devices, which vary in lattice spacing (top to bottom; indicated in nm), and hole size (left to right; indicated as d1–d3). Lasing is visible as a saturated white, which often turns into a saturated stripe. The scale in all figures runs from θy = −0.4 to 0.4 mrad and from λ = 1400 to 1600 nm and is indicated only in the top left figure. The inverted vertical axis helps to compare these figures with the standard (ω, k||) dispersion diagrams. The righthand side of each figure contains information on the wavelengths of the A, B, and C bands close to normal incidence and the pump threshold of lasing modes. Note the color coding of the three bands.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dispersion curves of the four SP bands, depicted as frequency difference (ωω0) versus angle θ, for three different models of increasing complexity: (a) uncoupled traveling waves, (b) backscattering only, and (c) right-angle and backscattering. Fig. (a) shows the linear dispersion of the ±y modes at slope ±c1 = 1/neff, for neff = 3 and the almost flat-band dispersion for the ±x modes. Fig. (b) shows the case γ/ω0 = 0.015, where the ±y bands exhibit an avoided crossing at θ = 0 and where the ±x bands have a fixed splitting 2γ. The three solid bands A, B, and C couple to p-polarized light, whereas the single dashed S band couples to s polarization. Fig. (c) shows how only the cosine-type modes exhibit a second avoided crossing around θ = 0 when right-angle scattering at a rate κ/ω0 = 0.006 is added.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dispersion curves of four SP bands of the (a0 = 470 nm, d2) laser for (a) p-polarized and (b) s-polarized emission. The three solid and single dashed curve show the p-polarized (A, B, C) bands and the s-polarized S band and are calculated based on three fit parameters: γ, κ and neff (see text).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( r , t ) = [ E x ( t ) u x e i G x + E x ( t ) u x e i G x + E y ( t ) u y e i G y + E y ( t ) u y e i G y ] e i k | | y ,
H = ( ω 0 + c 2 θ 2 γ κ κ γ ω 0 + c 2 θ 2 κ κ κ κ ω 0 + c 1 θ γ κ κ γ ω 0 c 1 θ )

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