Abstract

The thermo-optical dynamics of polymer loaded surface plasmon waveguide (PLSPPW) based devices photo-thermally excited in the nanosecond regime is investigated. We demonstrate thermo-absorption of PLSPPW modes mediated by the temperature-dependent ohmic losses of the metal and the thermally controlled field distribution of the plasmon mode within the metal. For a PLSPPW excited by sub-nanosecond long pulses, we find that the thermo-absorption process leads to modulation depths up to 50% and features an activation time around 2ns whereas the relaxation time is around 800ns, four-fold smaller than the cooling time of the metal film itself. Next, we observe the photo-thermal activation of PLSPPW racetrack shaped resonators at a time scale of 300ns followed however by a long cooling time (18μs) attributed to the poor heat diffusivity of the polymer. We conclude that nanosecond excitation combined to high thermal diffusivity materials opens the way to high speed thermo-optical plasmonic devices.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (3)

2012 (8)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Min, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effect in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano6, 2550–2556 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Nielsen, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, J. Fatome, C. Finot, S. Kaya, L. Markey, O. Albrektsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Millot, and A. Dereux, “Grating couplers for fiber-to-fiber characterizations of stand-alone dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguide components,” J. Lightwave Technol.30, 3118–3125 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient thermo-optically controlled Mach–Zehnder interferometers using dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20, 16300–16309 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, T. Yioultsis, S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, G. D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Giannoulis, H. Apostolopoulos, T. Avramopoulos, M. Tekin, M. Baus, K. Karl, J.-C. Hassan, L. Weeber, A. Markey, S. Dereux, A. Kumar, Bozhevolnyi, N. Pleros, and E. Kriezis, “Interfacing dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides: Theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 678–687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kalavrouziotis, S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, L. Markey, A. Dereux, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Demonstration of a plasmonic MMI switch in 10-Gb/s true data traffic conditions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 1819–1822 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. Baus, M. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep.2, 1358–1361 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, M. Dereux, A. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures hetero-integrated on a silicon chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Saviot, A. Dereux, C. Boissière, O. Durupthy, C. Chaneac, E. Burov, and A. Pastouret, “Efficient photo-thermal activation of gold nanoparticle-doped polymer plasmonic switches,” Opt. Express20, 27636–27649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optical control of dielectric loaded plasmonic racetrack resonators,” J. Appl. Phys.110, 023106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, O. Pitilakis, and E. E. Kriezis, “Thermo-optic plasmo-photonic mode interference switches based on dielectric loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 241110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Pleros, E. E. Kriezis, and K. Vyrsokinos, “Optical interconnects using plasmonics and Si-photonics,” IEEE Photon. J.3, 296–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsilipakos, E. E. Kriezis, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 073111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Pitilakis and E. E. Kriezis, “Longitudinal 2×2 switching configurations based on thermo-optically addressed dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.29, 2636–2646 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express18, 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Marin, “Characteristic dimensions for heat transfer,” Lat. Am. J. Phys. Educ.4, 56–60 (2010).

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett.10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical analysis of thermally tunable microring resonator filters made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.106, 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

K. Leosson, T. Rosenzveig, P. G. Hermannsson, and A. Boltasseva, “Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator,” Opt. Express20, 15546–15552 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steiberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

T. Holmgaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzalez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and M. Morita, “Nonlinear and adiabatic control of high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express15, 17458–17481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “In-line extinction modulator based on long-range surface plasmon polarintons,” Opt. Commun.244, 455–459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metals of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B61, 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168Gb/s data pulses with an hybrid-integrated symetric Mach-Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1993 (1)

D. P. Brunco, J. A. Kittl, C. E. Otis, P. M. Goodwin, M. O. Thompson, and M. J. Aziz, “Time-resolved temperature measurements during pulsed laser irradiation using thin film metal thermometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.64, 2615–2623 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. J. Baseman, N. M. Froberg, J. C. Andreshak, and Z. Schlesinger, “Minimum fluence for laser blow-off of thin gold films at 248 and 532nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56, 1412–1414 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Albrektsen, O.

Andersen, T. B.

Andreshak, J. C.

R. J. Baseman, N. M. Froberg, J. C. Andreshak, and Z. Schlesinger, “Minimum fluence for laser blow-off of thin gold films at 248 and 532nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56, 1412–1414 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anemogiannis, E.

Apostolopoulos, D.

D. Kalavrouziotis, S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, L. Markey, A. Dereux, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Demonstration of a plasmonic MMI switch in 10-Gb/s true data traffic conditions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 1819–1822 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. Baus, M. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep.2, 1358–1361 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, M. Dereux, A. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures hetero-integrated on a silicon chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, H.

O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, T. Yioultsis, S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, G. D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Giannoulis, H. Apostolopoulos, T. Avramopoulos, M. Tekin, M. Baus, K. Karl, J.-C. Hassan, L. Weeber, A. Markey, S. Dereux, A. Kumar, Bozhevolnyi, N. Pleros, and E. Kriezis, “Interfacing dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides: Theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 678–687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Atabaki, A. H.

Atwater, H. A.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett.10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steiberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B149, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Avramopoulos, H.

D. Kalavrouziotis, S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, L. Markey, A. Dereux, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Demonstration of a plasmonic MMI switch in 10-Gb/s true data traffic conditions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 1819–1822 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. Baus, M. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep.2, 1358–1361 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, M. Dereux, A. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures hetero-integrated on a silicon chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Avramopoulos, T.

O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, T. Yioultsis, S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, G. D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Giannoulis, H. Apostolopoulos, T. Avramopoulos, M. Tekin, M. Baus, K. Karl, J.-C. Hassan, L. Weeber, A. Markey, S. Dereux, A. Kumar, Bozhevolnyi, N. Pleros, and E. Kriezis, “Interfacing dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides: Theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 678–687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, M. J.

D. P. Brunco, J. A. Kittl, C. E. Otis, P. M. Goodwin, M. O. Thompson, and M. J. Aziz, “Time-resolved temperature measurements during pulsed laser irradiation using thin film metal thermometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.64, 2615–2623 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baseman, R. J.

R. J. Baseman, N. M. Froberg, J. C. Andreshak, and Z. Schlesinger, “Minimum fluence for laser blow-off of thin gold films at 248 and 532nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56, 1412–1414 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baus, A.

G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, M. Dereux, A. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures hetero-integrated on a silicon chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baus, M.

O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, T. Yioultsis, S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, G. D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Giannoulis, H. Apostolopoulos, T. Avramopoulos, M. Tekin, M. Baus, K. Karl, J.-C. Hassan, L. Weeber, A. Markey, S. Dereux, A. Kumar, Bozhevolnyi, N. Pleros, and E. Kriezis, “Interfacing dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides: Theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48, 678–687 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baus, T.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. Baus, M. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep.2, 1358–1361 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon polariton waves,” J. Lightwave Technol.24, 4391–4409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metals of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B61, 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernardin, T.

Boissière, C.

Boltasseva, A.

K. Leosson, T. Rosenzveig, P. G. Hermannsson, and A. Boltasseva, “Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator,” Opt. Express20, 15546–15552 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

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D. Kalavrouziotis, S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, L. Markey, A. Dereux, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Demonstration of a plasmonic MMI switch in 10-Gb/s true data traffic conditions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 1819–1822 (2012).
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S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. Baus, M. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci. Rep.2, 1358–1361 (2012).
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G. Giannoulis, D. Kalavrouziotis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, M. Dereux, A. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. K. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, K. Vyrsokinos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Data transmission and thermo-optic tuning performance of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures hetero-integrated on a silicon chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24, 374–376 (2012).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view of the experimental setup combining a leakage radiation microscope and a fiber-to-fiber detection scheme. (b) and (c) Typical leakage radiation images recorded during the alignment procedure of the two lensed-fibers. (b) The infrared signal coupled by means of the left grating creates the output scattering spot shown by the arrow. For alignment purposes the output fiber is also coupled to an infrared source to generate the spot surrounded by the dashed perimeter. (c) At the end of the coarse alignment procedure, the spots generated by the input and output fibers are respectively located on the input and output grating couplers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic view of the two-dimensional configuration for temperature distribution computation. The PLSPPW has a 0.5 μm×0.5μm cross-section. The computation windows shown by the dashed line perimeter has a width of 35μm and a total height 2hs=20μm and is discretized over up to 125×103 rectangular non-regular meshes. A Neumann condition (∂T/∂x = 0) is applied onto the x = 0 boundary in order to account for the symmetry of the configuration. Dirichlet conditions at the room temperature are applied on the three other boundaries. (b) Electric field distribution generated by the illumination of the PLSPPW by a gaussian beam with a waist of 10μm. (c)-(d)-(e) Temperature distribution in the PLSPPW for a 0.6ns-FWHM gaussian pulse reaching its maximum in the metal plane at t = 5ns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the in and out grating couplers (scale bar=50μm). (b) (resp. (c)) Typical leakage radiation microscope images of the plasmon jet (1540nm) propagating at the Au/air interface with the pump beam off (resp. on, cut-on filter off). The pump spot features a gaussian intensity distribution in I ( r ) = I ( 0 ) exp ( r 2 / w r 2 ) with a waist of wr = 50μm. (d)-(e)-(f) Observation of the thermo-absorption of the SPP signal under the nanosecond excitation at different time scales. In (d) and (e), the dashed lines are the experimental signal whereas the solid lines are the computed thermo-absorption profiles for an interface SPP. The dashed-dotted line in (d) shows the temporal profile of the incident pulse used in the calculations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of a typical PLSPPW equipped with grating couplers (scale bar=40μm). (b) (resp. (c)) Leakage radiation microscope images of the PLSPPW mode (1530nm) propagating at the Au/air interface with the pump beam off (resp. on, cut-on filter off). The excitation conditions are the same as in Fig. 3. (d) Depth of thermo-absorption of the PLSPPW mode as a function of the incident average pump power. The depth of modulation is defined with respect to the signal level in the cold sate. (e)-(f)-(g) Experimental and computed thermo-absorption of the PLSPPW signal under nanosecond excitation at different time scales. The solid lines are computed profiles whereas the dashed lines are experimental profiles. The dash-dotted line in Fig. 4(e) is the profile of the excitation pulse used in the calculations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the racetrack shaped resonator coupled to a straight bus waveguide (scale bar=40μm). The radius of the resonator is R=5.5μm, straight interaction length with the bus waveguide is 6μm long and the nominal gap between the resonator and the bus waveguide is 250nm. (b) (resp. (c)) Leakage radiation microscope image of the resonator at 1560nm (resp. 1565nm). (d) Cold state spectrum of the resonator. (e) (resp. (f)) Thermo-optical response of the resonator under ns excitation for blue-detuned (resp. red-detuned) wavelengths compared to the cold state resonance of 1538nm. The photo-excitation is achieved with a large pump spot exciting simultaneously the resonator and the bus waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Photo-thermal excitation of the resonator for a red-detuned signal wavelength (1541nm). The photo-excitation is achieved by using a large spot (wr =50μm) exciting the resonator and the bus waveguide (average power 7mW). The abrupt drop of the signal at t = 0 results from the thermo-absorption of the bus-waveguide mode and indicates the arrival time of the incident pulse. The activation (or heating) time of the resonator is 280ns. Long-time scale TO response of the resonator pump by a focused beam (wr ≃ 5μm) (see the inset) with an average power of 150μW. With the local excitation of the resonator, the thermo-absorption is not observed anymore. The characteristic cooling time is 18μs.(c) Comparison of the average temperature into the gold film and polymer slices of the PLSPPW with a thickness of 125nm for the photo-excitation by a nanosecond pulse (0.6ns FWHM) arriving onto the PLSPPW at t = 5ns. (d) Computation of the effective index of the PLSPPW mode from the temperature profiles displayed in (c). (e) Comparison of the average temperature profile of the first polymer slice (125nm) in contact with the metal film and different fit models inspired by Eq. (6).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Thermal and optical parameters of the materials used in our thermo-optical model.

Equations (6)

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ρ ( r ) C p ( r ) T t = Q ˜ E ( r , t ) + ( k ( r ) T )
Q ˜ E ( r , t ) = 1 2 ω ε 0 ε m E 2 ( r , t )
T k spp = k spp ( 3 2 T ε d ε d + T ε m ε m 2 T ε m ε m )
S N = 1 0 y out Δ T f ( y , t ) d y max ( 0 y out Δ T f ( y , t ) d y )
T k spp k spp 2 ( ε m + ε d ) ( T ε m ε m + T ε d ε d )
Δ T ( z , t ) = F ε π t exp ( z 2 4 α t )

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