Abstract

We report a free-space entanglement-based quantum key distribution experiment, implementing the biased basis protocol between two sites which are 15.3 km apart. Photon pairs from a polarization-entangled source are distributed through two 7.8-km free-space optical links. An optimal bias 20:80 between the X and Z basis is used. A post-processing scheme with finite-key analysis is applied to extract the final secure key. After three-hour continuous operation at night, a 4293-bit secure key is obtained, with a final key rate of 0.124 bit per raw key bit which increases the final key rate by 14.8% comparing to the standard BB84 case. Our results experimentally demonstrate that the efficient BB84 protocol, which increases key generation efficiency by biasing Alice and Bob’s basis choices, is potentially useful for the ground-satellite quantum communication.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum Cryptography: Public Key Distribution and Coin Tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (New York, 1985) p.175.
  2. C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121–3124 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” Journal of Cryptology (  5), 3–28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. In fact, commercial QKD systems have already been available in the market, for example, www.magiqtech.com ; www.idquantique.com ; www.quantum-info.com .
  7. A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16, 18790–18979 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes,” New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, W.-Q. Cai, X. Wan, L.-K. Chen, J.-H. Wang, S.-B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km,” Opt. Express 18, 8587–8594 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1514–1551 (2003).
  11. T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Erven, C. Couteau, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Entangled quantum key distribution over two free-space optical links,” Opt. Express 16, 16840–16853 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient quantum key distribution scheme and a proof of its unconditional security,” Journal of Cryptology 18, 133–165 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Erven, X. Ma, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice,” New J. Phys. 11, 045025 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, J.-C. Boileau, and H.F. Chau, “Universally composable and customizable post-processing for practical quantum key distribution,” Computers & Security 30, 172–177 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C.-H. F. Fung, X. Ma, and H. F. Chau, “Practical issues in quantum-key-distribution postprocessing,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 012318 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X.-Y. Hu, E. Eleftheriou, and D. M. Arnold, “Regular and irregular progressive edge-growth tanner graphs,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on 51, 386 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Koashi and J. Preskill, “Secure quantum key distribution with an uncharacterized source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. This can be simply calculated by comparing the basis-sift factor of 0.22+ 0.82= 0.68 to 1/2.
  26. F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. Xin, “Chinese academy takes space under its wing,” Science 332, 904 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. Stone, “Entangled Secret Messages From Space,” Science 336, 1632 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z.-P. Zhang, F.-M. Yang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 2120032–20040 (2013)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. J. LaGasse, “Secure use of a single single-photon detector in a QKD system,” US patent application 20050190922, (2005).
  32. B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).
  33. Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  35. N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z.-P. Zhang, F.-M. Yang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 2120032–20040 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Stone, “Entangled Secret Messages From Space,” Science 336, 1632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

H. Xin, “Chinese academy takes space under its wing,” Science 332, 904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, J.-C. Boileau, and H.F. Chau, “Universally composable and customizable post-processing for practical quantum key distribution,” Computers & Security 30, 172–177 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes,” New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Erven, X. Ma, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice,” New J. Phys. 11, 045025 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

X.-Y. Hu, E. Eleftheriou, and D. M. Arnold, “Regular and irregular progressive edge-growth tanner graphs,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on 51, 386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient quantum key distribution scheme and a proof of its unconditional security,” Journal of Cryptology 18, 133–165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1514–1551 (2003).

M. Koashi and J. Preskill, “Secure quantum key distribution with an uncharacterized source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” Journal of Cryptology (  5), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anisimov, A.

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anisimova, E.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ardehali, M.

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient quantum key distribution scheme and a proof of its unconditional security,” Journal of Cryptology 18, 133–165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, D. M.

X.-Y. Hu, E. Eleftheriou, and D. M. Arnold, “Regular and irregular progressive edge-growth tanner graphs,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on 51, 386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aspelmeyer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1514–1551 (2003).

Bao, X.-H.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbieri, C.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” Journal of Cryptology (  5), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum Cryptography: Public Key Distribution and Coin Tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (New York, 1985) p.175.

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” Journal of Cryptology (  5), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boileau, J.-C.

X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, J.-C. Boileau, and H.F. Chau, “Universally composable and customizable post-processing for practical quantum key distribution,” Computers & Security 30, 172–177 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonato, C.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” Journal of Cryptology (  5), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum Cryptography: Public Key Distribution and Coin Tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (New York, 1985) p.175.

Cai, W.-Q.

Cai, X.-D.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z.-P. Zhang, F.-M. Yang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 2120032–20040 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, H. F.

C.-H. F. Fung, X. Ma, and H. F. Chau, “Practical issues in quantum-key-distribution postprocessing,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 012318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient quantum key distribution scheme and a proof of its unconditional security,” Journal of Cryptology 18, 133–165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chau, H.F.

X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, J.-C. Boileau, and H.F. Chau, “Universally composable and customizable post-processing for practical quantum key distribution,” Computers & Security 30, 172–177 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, W.-Q. Cai, X. Wan, L.-K. Chen, J.-H. Wang, S.-B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km,” Opt. Express 18, 8587–8594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-K.

Chen, T.-Y.

Chen, Y.-A.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z.-P. Zhang, F.-M. Yang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 2120032–20040 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.-B.

Couteau, C.

Deppo, V. D.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes,” New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16, 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes,” New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16, 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ekert, A. K.

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eleftheriou, E.

X.-Y. Hu, E. Eleftheriou, and D. M. Arnold, “Regular and irregular progressive edge-growth tanner graphs,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on 51, 386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elser, D.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erven, C.

C. Erven, X. Ma, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice,” New J. Phys. 11, 045025 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Erven, C. Couteau, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Entangled quantum key distribution over two free-space optical links,” Opt. Express 16, 16840–16853 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, F.-Y.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frick, S.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Frst, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, C.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fung, C.-H. F.

X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, J.-C. Boileau, and H.F. Chau, “Universally composable and customizable post-processing for practical quantum key distribution,” Computers & Security 30, 172–177 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. F. Fung, X. Ma, and H. F. Chau, “Practical issues in quantum-key-distribution postprocessing,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 012318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

Furst, M.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herbst, T.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horwath, J.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.-F.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.-Y.

X.-Y. Hu, E. Eleftheriou, and D. M. Arnold, “Regular and irregular progressive edge-growth tanner graphs,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on 51, 386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.-H.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-M.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, N.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jennewein, T.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1514–1551 (2003).

Jia, J.-J.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, X.-M.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jofre, M.

Koashi, M.

M. Koashi and J. Preskill, “Secure quantum key distribution with an uncharacterized source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kofler, J.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kropatschek, S.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laflamme, R.

C. Erven, X. Ma, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice,” New J. Phys. 11, 045025 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Erven, C. Couteau, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Entangled quantum key distribution over two free-space optical links,” Opt. Express 16, 16840–16853 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaGasse, M. J.

M. J. LaGasse, “Secure use of a single single-photon detector in a QKD system,” US patent application 20050190922, (2005).

Leeb, W.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1514–1551 (2003).

Leuchs, G.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, N.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, W.-Q. Cai, X. Wan, L.-K. Chen, J.-H. Wang, S.-B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km,” Opt. Express 18, 8587–8594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.-K.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindenthal, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.-L.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.-B.

Liu, W.-Y.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lo, H.-K.

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient quantum key distribution scheme and a proof of its unconditional security,” Journal of Cryptology 18, 133–165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lydersen, L.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, J.-C. Boileau, and H.F. Chau, “Universally composable and customizable post-processing for practical quantum key distribution,” Computers & Security 30, 172–177 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. F. Fung, X. Ma, and H. F. Chau, “Practical issues in quantum-key-distribution postprocessing,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 012318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Erven, X. Ma, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice,” New J. Phys. 11, 045025 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

Ma, X.-S.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makarov, V.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, C.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mech, A.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mermin, N. D.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyenburg, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M. W.

Moll, F.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Naletto, G.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nauerth, S.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Naylor, W.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omer, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, G.-S.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z.-P. Zhang, F.-M. Yang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 2120032–20040 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, J.-W

Pan, J.-W.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, W.-Q. Cai, X. Wan, L.-K. Chen, J.-H. Wang, S.-B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km,” Opt. Express 18, 8587–8594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, C.-Z.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z.-P. Zhang, F.-M. Yang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 2120032–20040 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, W.-Q. Cai, X. Wan, L.-K. Chen, J.-H. Wang, S.-B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km,” Opt. Express 18, 8587–8594 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perdigues, J.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perez, D.

Pfennigbauer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1514–1551 (2003).

Preskill, J.

M. Koashi and J. Preskill, “Secure quantum key distribution with an uncharacterized source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pruneri, V.

Qi, B.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

Rarity, J.

F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rau, M.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.-G.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” Journal of Cryptology (  5), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scheidl, T.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes,” New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16, 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Q.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes,” New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16, 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skaar, J.

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” Journal of Cryptology (  5), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sodnik, Z.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinlechner, F.

Stone, R.

R. Stone, “Entangled Secret Messages From Space,” Science 336, 1632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, Y.-L.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.-L.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiefenbacher, F.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomaello, A.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

Trojek, P.

F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ursin, R.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wan, X.

Wang, D.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, J.-H.

Wang, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weier, H.

F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

C. Erven, X. Ma, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice,” New J. Phys. 11, 045025 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Erven, C. Couteau, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Entangled quantum key distribution over two free-space optical links,” Opt. Express 16, 16840–16853 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiechers, C.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittmann, B.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittmann, C.

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.-C.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-P.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xin, H.

H. Xin, “Chinese academy takes space under its wing,” Science 332, 904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, P.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, F.-M.

Yang, J.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Yang, S.-J.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z.-P. Zhang, F.-M. Yang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 2120032–20040 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, H.

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z.-P. Zhang, F.-M. Yang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 2120032–20040 (2013)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yong, H.-L.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes,” New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16, 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1514–1551 (2003).

Zhang, J.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.-P.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, B.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, F.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Computers & Security (1)

X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, J.-C. Boileau, and H.F. Chau, “Universally composable and customizable post-processing for practical quantum key distribution,” Computers & Security 30, 172–177 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1514–1551 (2003).

Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on (1)

X.-Y. Hu, E. Eleftheriou, and D. M. Arnold, “Regular and irregular progressive edge-growth tanner graphs,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on 51, 386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Cryptology (2)

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient quantum key distribution scheme and a proof of its unconditional security,” Journal of Cryptology 18, 133–165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” Journal of Cryptology (  5), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Frst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (3)

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Practical gigahertz quantum key distribution based on avalanche photodiodes,” New J. Phys. 11, 045019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Erven, X. Ma, R. Laflamme, and G. Weihs, “Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice,” New J. Phys. 11, 045025 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

C.-H. F. Fung, X. Ma, and H. F. Chau, “Practical issues in quantum-key-distribution postprocessing,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 012318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, J.-G. Ren, H. Liang, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, C. Liu, Y.-P. Wu, G.-S. Pan, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Lower bound on the speed of nonlocal correlations without locality and measurement choice loopholes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260407 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koashi and J. Preskill, “Secure quantum key distribution with an uncharacterized source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Inf. Comput. (1)

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 073 (2007).

Science (2)

H. Xin, “Chinese academy takes space under its wing,” Science 332, 904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Stone, “Entangled Secret Messages From Space,” Science 336, 1632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

This can be simply calculated by comparing the basis-sift factor of 0.22+ 0.82= 0.68 to 1/2.

M. J. LaGasse, “Secure use of a single single-photon detector in a QKD system,” US patent application 20050190922, (2005).

In fact, commercial QKD systems have already been available in the market, for example, www.magiqtech.com ; www.idquantique.com ; www.quantum-info.com .

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum Cryptography: Public Key Distribution and Coin Tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (New York, 1985) p.175.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of the entanglement-based QKD setup. At the transmitter, a Sagnac PDC source generates entangled photon pairs. Two 80-mm-diameter telescopes are used to transmit photon pairs to two receiver sites, 7.8 km away from the transmitter each. The detector modules, employed in both receivers, consist of a Pockels Cell (PoC), a polarization beam splitter cube (PBS) with two collimators placed in the transmitted and the reflected output port of PBS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A Logic Module is applied for controlling the Pockels Cells, switching polarization bases and outputting measurement results. Commercial QRNGs are applied to choosing measurement basis. The logical operation and the human-computer interface are realized via a CPLD (Complex programmable logic device) chip and a Single-Chip Microcomputer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The coincident detection events between Alice and Bob in a 25-min continuous sampling test. After balancing the number of coincident events and the source visibility, we set the gate width to be 2.5 ns in our experiment.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of measurement and post-processing results. After taking into account of error correction and privacy amplification, we evaluate the final secure key length. The sifted key length are nx and nz in the X and Z bases, respectively. The error correction efficiencies, febx and febz, are evaluated by considering the low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and progressive edge-growth (PEG) algorithm [23]. The failure probability εph in phase error rate estimation processing is defined in [21]. The bit error rates in the X and Z bases are ebx and ebz, respectively. Denote qact to be the experimental value of basis bias and qopt to be the optimal value given by theoretical calculation.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Prob ( a k = 1 ) = N 0 × 2 10 .
δ px = e b z , δ pz = e b x .
N R N sift k e c k p r ,
n sift = n x + n z , k e c = n x f ( e b x ) H ( e b x ) + n z f ( e b z ) H ( e b z ) , k p r = n x H ( e b z + θ z ) + n z H ( e b x + θ x ) ,
P θ x < n x + n z n x n z e b x ( 1 e b x ) 2 ( n x + n z ) ξ x ( θ x )
ε p h P θ x + P θ z

Metrics