Abstract

High-voltage thin-film GaN LEDs with the emission wavelength of 455 nm were fabricated on ceramic substrates (230 W/m·K). The high-voltage operation was achieved by three cascaded sub-LEDs with dielectric passivation and metal bridges conformally deposited on the side walls. Under the driving power of 670 W/cm2, the high-voltage LEDs exhibit much alleviated efficiency droop and the operative temperature below 80 °C. The excellent performances were attributed to the improved current spreading within each sub-LED and the superior heat sinking of the ceramic substrate.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. S. Strite and H. Morkoç, “GaN, AlN, and InN: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10(4), 1237–1266 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354002 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of processes limiting quantum efficiency of AlGaInN LEDs at high pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 227–230 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161106 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express4(8), 082104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, and A. D. Podoltsev, “Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 251110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041112 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1−xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y.-J. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, T.-C. Lu, and S.-C. Wang, “High light-extraction GaN-based vertical LEDs with double diffuse surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(12), 1196–1201 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Z. Qu, Q. S. Zhu, X. H. Sun, S. K. Wan, Z. G. Wang, H. Nagai, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Photoluminescence of Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(4), 838–841 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Götz, N. M. Johnson, J. Walker, D. P. Bour, and R. A. Street, “Activation of acceptors in Mg‐doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 667–669 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

G. B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express4(8), 082104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, and A. D. Podoltsev, “Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 251110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of processes limiting quantum efficiency of AlGaInN LEDs at high pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y.-J. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, T.-C. Lu, and S.-C. Wang, “High light-extraction GaN-based vertical LEDs with double diffuse surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(12), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. Z. Qu, Q. S. Zhu, X. H. Sun, S. K. Wan, Z. G. Wang, H. Nagai, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Photoluminescence of Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(4), 838–841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1−xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

W. Götz, N. M. Johnson, J. Walker, D. P. Bour, and R. A. Street, “Activation of acceptors in Mg‐doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 667–669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Strite and H. Morkoç, “GaN, AlN, and InN: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10(4), 1237–1266 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bolgov, S. S.

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, and A. D. Podoltsev, “Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 251110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1−xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Götz, N. M. Johnson, J. Walker, D. P. Bour, and R. A. Street, “Activation of acceptors in Mg‐doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 667–669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. P.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-P.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. T.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. L.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-R.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1−xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

G. B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express4(8), 082104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Q.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express4(8), 082104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express4(8), 082104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Götz, W.

W. Götz, N. M. Johnson, J. Walker, D. P. Bour, and R. A. Street, “Activation of acceptors in Mg‐doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 667–669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hader, J.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. H.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hiramatsu, K.

B. Z. Qu, Q. S. Zhu, X. H. Sun, S. K. Wan, Z. G. Wang, H. Nagai, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Photoluminescence of Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(4), 838–841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W. H.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1−xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Götz, N. M. Johnson, J. Walker, D. P. Bour, and R. A. Street, “Activation of acceptors in Mg‐doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 667–669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

B. Z. Qu, Q. S. Zhu, X. H. Sun, S. K. Wan, Z. G. Wang, H. Nagai, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Photoluminescence of Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(4), 838–841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M.

K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. J.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1−xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, K.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, K.

K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kunzer, M.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. T.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, T.-C. Lu, and S.-C. Wang, “High light-extraction GaN-based vertical LEDs with double diffuse surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(12), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. Y.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. Y.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. P.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, T.-C. Lu, and S.-C. Wang, “High light-extraction GaN-based vertical LEDs with double diffuse surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(12), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, T. S.

K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. W.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. B.

G. B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ling, S.-C.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-C.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, T.-C. Lu, and S.-C. Wang, “High light-extraction GaN-based vertical LEDs with double diffuse surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(12), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. S.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malyutenko, V. K.

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, and A. D. Podoltsev, “Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 251110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mei, P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1−xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D.

G. B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D. S.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Strite and H. Morkoç, “GaN, AlN, and InN: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10(4), 1237–1266 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Munkholm, A.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, H.

B. Z. Qu, Q. S. Zhu, X. H. Sun, S. K. Wan, Z. G. Wang, H. Nagai, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Photoluminescence of Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(4), 838–841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express4(8), 082104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noh, D. Y.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. C.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express4(8), 082104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

S. H. Han, D. Y. Lee, S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D. J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pletschen, W.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Podoltsev, A. D.

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, and A. D. Podoltsev, “Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 251110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qu, B. Z.

B. Z. Qu, Q. S. Zhu, X. H. Sun, S. K. Wan, Z. G. Wang, H. Nagai, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Photoluminescence of Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(4), 838–841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romano, L. T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1−xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rozhansky, V.

V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of processes limiting quantum efficiency of AlGaInN LEDs at high pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1−xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, N.

B. Z. Qu, Q. S. Zhu, X. H. Sun, S. K. Wan, Z. G. Wang, H. Nagai, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Photoluminescence of Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(4), 838–841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

G. B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, K. H.

K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from X-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films345(2), 273–277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shan, Q.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.

G. B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, R.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

G. B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(16), 161106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, and C. Sone, “On the temperature dependence of electron leakage from the active region of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express4(8), 082104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Street, R. A.

W. Götz, N. M. Johnson, J. Walker, D. P. Bour, and R. A. Street, “Activation of acceptors in Mg‐doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 667–669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strite, S.

S. Strite and H. Morkoç, “GaN, AlN, and InN: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10(4), 1237–1266 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. H.

B. Z. Qu, Q. S. Zhu, X. H. Sun, S. K. Wan, Z. G. Wang, H. Nagai, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Photoluminescence of Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(4), 838–841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express4(8), 082104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. A.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(4), 041103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J.

W. Götz, N. M. Johnson, J. Walker, D. P. Bour, and R. A. Street, “Activation of acceptors in Mg‐doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(5), 667–669 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wan, S. K.

B. Z. Qu, Q. S. Zhu, X. H. Sun, S. K. Wan, Z. G. Wang, H. Nagai, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Photoluminescence of Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(4), 838–841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and droop improvement in GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-C.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, H.-C. Kuo, T.-C. Lu, and S.-C. Wang, “High light-extraction GaN-based vertical LEDs with double diffuse surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(12), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. G.

B. Z. Qu, Q. S. Zhu, X. H. Sun, S. K. Wan, Z. G. Wang, H. Nagai, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Hiramatsu, and N. Sawaki, “Photoluminescence of Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(4), 838–841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1−xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd–In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Y. S. Lu, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Efficiency droop alleviation in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-thickness multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zakheim, D. A.

V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of processes limiting quantum efficiency of AlGaInN LEDs at high pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 227–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express4(8), 082104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q. S.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic device structures for the three types of LEDs: (a) the sapphire-based, (b) Ceramic-LV, and (c) Ceramic-HV.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Forward voltage vs. current density and (b) Forward voltage per cell vs. current density for the three types of LEDs. The inset in (b) shows normalized optical intensities of the LEDs driven by the current density of 28 A/cm2. P and N denote p-pad and n-pad, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical output power vs. current density and (b) Wall-plug efficiency vs. current density for the three types of LEDs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Steady-state thermograms of the LEDs at J = 80 A/cm2 (the upper row) and 230 A/cm2 (the lower row).

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