Abstract

We demonstrate an amplitude-to-phase (AM-PM) conversion coefficient for a balanced optical-microwave phase detector (BOM-PD) of 0.001 rad, corresponding to AM-PM induced phase noise 60 dB below the single-sideband relative intensity noise of the laser. This enables us to generate 8 GHz microwave signals from a commercial Er-fibre comb with a single-sideband residual phase noise of –131 dBc Hz–1 at 1 Hz offset frequency and –148 dBc Hz–1 at 1 kHz offset frequency.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, “Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references,” Opt. Lett.30(6), 667–669 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B106(2), 301–308 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Haboucha, W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Optical-fiber pulse rate multiplier for ultralow phase-noise signal generation,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3654–3656 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. M. Fortier, F. Quinlan, A. Hati, C. Nelson, J. A. Taylor, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, “Photonic microwave generation with high-power photodiodes,” Opt. Lett.38(10), 1712–1714 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. L. Coq, “Sub-100 attoseconds stability optics-to-microwave synchronization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Jung and J. Kim, “Subfemtosecond synchronization of microwave oscillators with mode-locked Er-fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2958–2960 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Jung and J. Kim, “Long-term stable sub-femtosecond synchronization of microwave signals with mode-locked Er-fiber lasers,” in Proceedings of2012IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 1–4.
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. K. Kim, Y. Song, K. Jung, C. Kim, H. Kim, C. H. Nam, and J. Kim, “Sub-100-as timing jitter optical pulse trains from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.36(22), 4443–4445 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Jung and J. Kim, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305–701, South Korea (personal communication, 2013).
  14. E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 816–820 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, and R. A. Woode, “Microwave interferometry: application to precision measurements and noise reduction techniques,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control45(6), 1526–1536 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

2012

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B106(2), 301–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Jung and J. Kim, “Subfemtosecond synchronization of microwave oscillators with mode-locked Er-fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2958–2960 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

T. K. Kim, Y. Song, K. Jung, C. Kim, H. Kim, C. H. Nam, and J. Kim, “Sub-100-as timing jitter optical pulse trains from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.36(22), 4443–4445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haboucha, W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Optical-fiber pulse rate multiplier for ultralow phase-noise signal generation,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3654–3656 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. L. Coq, “Sub-100 attoseconds stability optics-to-microwave synchronization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 816–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

1998

E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, and R. A. Woode, “Microwave interferometry: application to precision measurements and noise reduction techniques,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control45(6), 1526–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, A.

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, “Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references,” Opt. Lett.30(6), 667–669 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudot, R.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. L. Coq, “Sub-100 attoseconds stability optics-to-microwave synchronization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

Coq, Y.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B106(2), 301–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coq, Y. L.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. L. Coq, “Sub-100 attoseconds stability optics-to-microwave synchronization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Datta, S.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

Fortier, T. M.

Fu, Y.

Haboucha, A.

Hati, A.

T. M. Fortier, F. Quinlan, A. Hati, C. Nelson, J. A. Taylor, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, “Photonic microwave generation with high-power photodiodes,” Opt. Lett.38(10), 1712–1714 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Ivanov, E. N.

E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, and R. A. Woode, “Microwave interferometry: application to precision measurements and noise reduction techniques,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control45(6), 1526–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, A.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, K.

Kersalé, Y.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. L. Coq, “Sub-100 attoseconds stability optics-to-microwave synchronization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Kim, T. K.

Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Coq, Y.

A. Haboucha, W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Optical-fiber pulse rate multiplier for ultralow phase-noise signal generation,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3654–3656 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemke, N.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B106(2), 301–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Optical-fiber pulse rate multiplier for ultralow phase-noise signal generation,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3654–3656 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lours, M.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B106(2), 301–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Optical-fiber pulse rate multiplier for ultralow phase-noise signal generation,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3654–3656 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. L. Coq, “Sub-100 attoseconds stability optics-to-microwave synchronization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A. D.

Luiten, A. N.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haboucha, W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Optical-fiber pulse rate multiplier for ultralow phase-noise signal generation,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3654–3656 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maleki, L.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 816–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

Nelson, C.

T. M. Fortier, F. Quinlan, A. Hati, C. Nelson, J. A. Taylor, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, “Photonic microwave generation with high-power photodiodes,” Opt. Lett.38(10), 1712–1714 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, J. C. Bergquist, W. H. Oskay, and L. Hollberg, “Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references,” Opt. Lett.30(6), 667–669 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskay, W. H.

Quinlan, F.

T. M. Fortier, F. Quinlan, A. Hati, C. Nelson, J. A. Taylor, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, “Photonic microwave generation with high-power photodiodes,” Opt. Lett.38(10), 1712–1714 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rubiola, E.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 816–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salik, E.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 816–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B106(2), 301–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haboucha, W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Optical-fiber pulse rate multiplier for ultralow phase-noise signal generation,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3654–3656 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. L. Coq, “Sub-100 attoseconds stability optics-to-microwave synchronization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seidelin, S.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B106(2), 301–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Taylor, J.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Photonics J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. A.

Thorpe, M. J.

Tobar, M. E.

E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, and R. A. Woode, “Microwave interferometry: application to precision measurements and noise reduction techniques,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control45(6), 1526–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilpers, G.

Woode, R. A.

E. N. Ivanov, M. E. Tobar, and R. A. Woode, “Microwave interferometry: application to precision measurements and noise reduction techniques,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control45(6), 1526–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. L. Coq, “Sub-100 attoseconds stability optics-to-microwave synchronization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Flicker noise in high-speed p-i-n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 816–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, S. Seidelin, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Amplitude to phase conversion of InGaAs pin photo-diodes for femtosecond lasers microwave signal generation,” Appl. Phys. B106(2), 301–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Haboucha, W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Optical-fiber pulse rate multiplier for ultralow phase-noise signal generation,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3654–3656 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, G. Santarelli, and Y. L. Coq, “Sub-100 attoseconds stability optics-to-microwave synchronization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of BOM-PD. EDFA: erbium-doped fibre amplifier; FR: Faraday rotator; QWP: quarter waveplate; DRO: dielectric-resonator oscillator; VOA: variable optical attenuator. All fibres after the polarizer are polarization maintaining. The inset shows the phase error θe between the microwave signal and the pulse train in the optical domain.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase noise measurement set-up. EDFA: erbium-doped fibre amplifier; AOM: acousto-optic modulator; PD: photodiode; DRO: dielectric-resonator oscillator, BOM-PD: balanced optical-microwave phase detector. Also shown is the setup used to generate and measure amplitude noise for the experiments described in section 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Residual phase noise results. Solid red: BOM-PD. To estimate the contribution from a single system, 3 dB has been subtracted from the measured phase noise. Dashed grey: typical photodiode performance, shown for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) AM-PM suppression results. Dashed red: RIN of modulated laser signal; solid blue: phase noise measured by phase detector BOM-PD2. (b) AM-PM conversion coefficient. Solid green: calculated AM-PM conversion coefficient; grey squares: AM-PM conversion coefficient from Jung and Kim [11].

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