Abstract

Dengue fever is a viral disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Specific tests for dengue are not usually performed due to high costs, complicated procedures and, in some cases, long time to yield a result. For widespread use of specific tests to be possible, fast, reliable and fairly simple methods are needed. In this paper, we present a new dengue diagnostic method for the acute phase of the infection. The method proposed uses an all-optical fiber sensor based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) and specular reflection from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Dengue anti-NS1 antibody was immobilized on AuNPs deposited on the endface of a standard multimode fiber (62.5µm/125µm). The sensor is able to detect NS1 antigen at different concentrations, with limit of quantification estimated to be 0.074 μg/ml = 1.54 nM. These results indicate that the sensor could potentially be used for dengue diagnosis in the acute phase of the infection.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. M. S. Dias, S. L. R. Gomes-Filho, M. M. S. Silva, and R. F. Dutra, “A sensor tip based on carbon nanotube-ink printed electrode for the dengue virus NS1 protein,” Biosens. Bioelectron.44, 216–221 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

V. E. P. Martins, C. H. Alencar, M. T. Kamimura, F. M. de, C. Araújo, S. G. De Simone, R. F. Dutra, and M. I. F. Guedes, “Occurrence of natural vertical transmission of dengue-2 and dengue-3 viruses in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil,” PLoS ONE7, 1–9, e41386 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

S. D. Blacksell, “Commercial dengue rapid diagnostic tests for point-of-care application: recent evaluations and future needs?” J. Biomed. Biotechnol.2012, 151967 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

T. Q. Huy, N. T. H. Hanh, N. T. Thuy, P. V. Chung, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuan, “A novel biosensor based on serum antibody immobilization for rapid detection of viral antigens,” Talanta86, 271–277 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. L. Oliveira, M. L. Nogueira, M. T. S. Correia, L. C. B. B. Coelho, and C. A. S. Andrade, “Detection of dengue virus serotypes on the surface of gold electrode based on cratylia mollis lectin affinity,” Sens. Actuators B.155, 789–795 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

E. Huhtamo, E. Hasu, N. Y. Uzcátegui, E. Erra, S. Nikkari, A. Kantele, O. Vapalahti, and H. Piiparinen, “Early diagnosis of dengue in travelers: comparison of a novel real-time RT-PCR, NS1 antigen detection and serology,” J. Clin. Virol.47(1), 49–53 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vazquez, D. Ruiz, R. Barrero, R. Ramirez, N. Calzada, B. del Rosario Peña, S. Reyes, and M. G. Guzman, “Kinetics of dengue virus NS1 protein in dengue 4-confirmed adult patients,” Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.68(1), 46–49 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. Atias, Y. Liebes, V. Chalifa-Caspi, L. Bremand, L. Lobel, R. S. Marks, and P. Dussart, “Chemiluminescent optical fiber immunosensor for the detection of IgM antibody to dengue virus in humans,” Sens. Actuators B.140, 206–215 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

S. B. Halstead, “Dengue,” Lancet370(9599), 1644–1652 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

P. Philip Samuel and B. K. Tyagi, “Diagnostic methods for detection & isolation of dengue viruses from vector mosquitoes,” Indian J. Med. Res.123(5), 615–628 (2006).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. C. Su, T. Z. Wu, L. K. Chen, H. H. Yang, and D. F. Tai, “Development of immunochips for the detection of dengue viral antigens,” Anal. Chim. Acta479(2), 117–123 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alcon, A. Talarmin, M. Debruyne, A. Falconar, V. Deubel, and M. Flamand, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein NS1 reveals circulation of the antigen in the blood during the acute phase of disease in patients experiencing primary or secondary infections,” J. Clin. Microbiol.40(2), 376–381 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

N. J. Geddes, A. S. Martin, F. Caruso, R. S. Urquhart, D. N. Furlong, J. R. Sambles, K. A. Than, and J. A. Edgar, “Immobilisation of IgG onto gold surfaces and its interaction with anti-IgG studied by surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods175(2), 149–160 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

D. G. Kinniburgh, “General purpose adsorption isotherms,” Environ. Sci. Technol.20(9), 895–904 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alcon, S.

S. Alcon, A. Talarmin, M. Debruyne, A. Falconar, V. Deubel, and M. Flamand, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein NS1 reveals circulation of the antigen in the blood during the acute phase of disease in patients experiencing primary or secondary infections,” J. Clin. Microbiol.40(2), 376–381 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alencar, C. H.

V. E. P. Martins, C. H. Alencar, M. T. Kamimura, F. M. de, C. Araújo, S. G. De Simone, R. F. Dutra, and M. I. F. Guedes, “Occurrence of natural vertical transmission of dengue-2 and dengue-3 viruses in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil,” PLoS ONE7, 1–9, e41386 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Andrade, C. A. S.

M. D. L. Oliveira, M. L. Nogueira, M. T. S. Correia, L. C. B. B. Coelho, and C. A. S. Andrade, “Detection of dengue virus serotypes on the surface of gold electrode based on cratylia mollis lectin affinity,” Sens. Actuators B.155, 789–795 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Ang, X. M.

L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Araújo, C.

V. E. P. Martins, C. H. Alencar, M. T. Kamimura, F. M. de, C. Araújo, S. G. De Simone, R. F. Dutra, and M. I. F. Guedes, “Occurrence of natural vertical transmission of dengue-2 and dengue-3 viruses in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil,” PLoS ONE7, 1–9, e41386 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Artsob, H.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atias, D.

D. Atias, Y. Liebes, V. Chalifa-Caspi, L. Bremand, L. Lobel, R. S. Marks, and P. Dussart, “Chemiluminescent optical fiber immunosensor for the detection of IgM antibody to dengue virus in humans,” Sens. Actuators B.140, 206–215 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Balamurali, P.

L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Bañuls, M. J.

Barrero, R.

S. Vazquez, D. Ruiz, R. Barrero, R. Ramirez, N. Calzada, B. del Rosario Peña, S. Reyes, and M. G. Guzman, “Kinetics of dengue virus NS1 protein in dengue 4-confirmed adult patients,” Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.68(1), 46–49 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

Bhatt, S.

S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blacksell, S. D.

S. D. Blacksell, “Commercial dengue rapid diagnostic tests for point-of-care application: recent evaluations and future needs?” J. Biomed. Biotechnol.2012, 151967 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brady, O. J.

S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braga, A. M. B.

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Bremand, L.

D. Atias, Y. Liebes, V. Chalifa-Caspi, L. Bremand, L. Lobel, R. S. Marks, and P. Dussart, “Chemiluminescent optical fiber immunosensor for the detection of IgM antibody to dengue virus in humans,” Sens. Actuators B.140, 206–215 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Brownstein, J. S.

S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchy, P.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calzada, N.

S. Vazquez, D. Ruiz, R. Barrero, R. Ramirez, N. Calzada, B. del Rosario Peña, S. Reyes, and M. G. Guzman, “Kinetics of dengue virus NS1 protein in dengue 4-confirmed adult patients,” Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.68(1), 46–49 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carbonnier, B.

Cardosa, M. J.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caruso, F.

N. J. Geddes, A. S. Martin, F. Caruso, R. S. Urquhart, D. N. Furlong, J. R. Sambles, K. A. Than, and J. A. Edgar, “Immobilisation of IgG onto gold surfaces and its interaction with anti-IgG studied by surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods175(2), 149–160 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, I. C. S.

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

Chalifa-Caspi, V.

D. Atias, Y. Liebes, V. Chalifa-Caspi, L. Bremand, L. Lobel, R. S. Marks, and P. Dussart, “Chemiluminescent optical fiber immunosensor for the detection of IgM antibody to dengue virus in humans,” Sens. Actuators B.140, 206–215 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. H.

L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. K.

C. C. Su, T. Z. Wu, L. K. Chen, H. H. Yang, and D. F. Tai, “Development of immunochips for the detection of dengue viral antigens,” Anal. Chim. Acta479(2), 117–123 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chung, P. V.

T. Q. Huy, N. T. H. Hanh, N. T. Thuy, P. V. Chung, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuan, “A novel biosensor based on serum antibody immobilization for rapid detection of viral antigens,” Talanta86, 271–277 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coelho, L. C. B. B.

M. D. L. Oliveira, M. L. Nogueira, M. T. S. Correia, L. C. B. B. Coelho, and C. A. S. Andrade, “Detection of dengue virus serotypes on the surface of gold electrode based on cratylia mollis lectin affinity,” Sens. Actuators B.155, 789–795 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Correia, M. T. S.

M. D. L. Oliveira, M. L. Nogueira, M. T. S. Correia, L. C. B. B. Coelho, and C. A. S. Andrade, “Detection of dengue virus serotypes on the surface of gold electrode based on cratylia mollis lectin affinity,” Sens. Actuators B.155, 789–795 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Cremona, M.

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

de, F. M.

V. E. P. Martins, C. H. Alencar, M. T. Kamimura, F. M. de, C. Araújo, S. G. De Simone, R. F. Dutra, and M. I. F. Guedes, “Occurrence of natural vertical transmission of dengue-2 and dengue-3 viruses in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil,” PLoS ONE7, 1–9, e41386 (2012), doi:.
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V. E. P. Martins, C. H. Alencar, M. T. Kamimura, F. M. de, C. Araújo, S. G. De Simone, R. F. Dutra, and M. I. F. Guedes, “Occurrence of natural vertical transmission of dengue-2 and dengue-3 viruses in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil,” PLoS ONE7, 1–9, e41386 (2012), doi:.
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S. Alcon, A. Talarmin, M. Debruyne, A. Falconar, V. Deubel, and M. Flamand, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein NS1 reveals circulation of the antigen in the blood during the acute phase of disease in patients experiencing primary or secondary infections,” J. Clin. Microbiol.40(2), 376–381 (2002).
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S. Vazquez, D. Ruiz, R. Barrero, R. Ramirez, N. Calzada, B. del Rosario Peña, S. Reyes, and M. G. Guzman, “Kinetics of dengue virus NS1 protein in dengue 4-confirmed adult patients,” Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.68(1), 46–49 (2010), doi:.
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S. Alcon, A. Talarmin, M. Debruyne, A. Falconar, V. Deubel, and M. Flamand, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein NS1 reveals circulation of the antigen in the blood during the acute phase of disease in patients experiencing primary or secondary infections,” J. Clin. Microbiol.40(2), 376–381 (2002).
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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A. C. M. S. Dias, S. L. R. Gomes-Filho, M. M. S. Silva, and R. F. Dutra, “A sensor tip based on carbon nanotube-ink printed electrode for the dengue virus NS1 protein,” Biosens. Bioelectron.44, 216–221 (2013).
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L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
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S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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D. Atias, Y. Liebes, V. Chalifa-Caspi, L. Bremand, L. Lobel, R. S. Marks, and P. Dussart, “Chemiluminescent optical fiber immunosensor for the detection of IgM antibody to dengue virus in humans,” Sens. Actuators B.140, 206–215 (2009), doi:.
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A. C. M. S. Dias, S. L. R. Gomes-Filho, M. M. S. Silva, and R. F. Dutra, “A sensor tip based on carbon nanotube-ink printed electrode for the dengue virus NS1 protein,” Biosens. Bioelectron.44, 216–221 (2013).
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N. J. Geddes, A. S. Martin, F. Caruso, R. S. Urquhart, D. N. Furlong, J. R. Sambles, K. A. Than, and J. A. Edgar, “Immobilisation of IgG onto gold surfaces and its interaction with anti-IgG studied by surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods175(2), 149–160 (1994).
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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E. Huhtamo, E. Hasu, N. Y. Uzcátegui, E. Erra, S. Nikkari, A. Kantele, O. Vapalahti, and H. Piiparinen, “Early diagnosis of dengue in travelers: comparison of a novel real-time RT-PCR, NS1 antigen detection and serology,” J. Clin. Virol.47(1), 49–53 (2010).
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S. Alcon, A. Talarmin, M. Debruyne, A. Falconar, V. Deubel, and M. Flamand, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein NS1 reveals circulation of the antigen in the blood during the acute phase of disease in patients experiencing primary or secondary infections,” J. Clin. Microbiol.40(2), 376–381 (2002).
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S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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Flamand, M.

S. Alcon, A. Talarmin, M. Debruyne, A. Falconar, V. Deubel, and M. Flamand, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein NS1 reveals circulation of the antigen in the blood during the acute phase of disease in patients experiencing primary or secondary infections,” J. Clin. Microbiol.40(2), 376–381 (2002).
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P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011), doi:.
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N. J. Geddes, A. S. Martin, F. Caruso, R. S. Urquhart, D. N. Furlong, J. R. Sambles, K. A. Than, and J. A. Edgar, “Immobilisation of IgG onto gold surfaces and its interaction with anti-IgG studied by surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods175(2), 149–160 (1994).
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N. J. Geddes, A. S. Martin, F. Caruso, R. S. Urquhart, D. N. Furlong, J. R. Sambles, K. A. Than, and J. A. Edgar, “Immobilisation of IgG onto gold surfaces and its interaction with anti-IgG studied by surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods175(2), 149–160 (1994).
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S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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A. C. M. S. Dias, S. L. R. Gomes-Filho, M. M. S. Silva, and R. F. Dutra, “A sensor tip based on carbon nanotube-ink printed electrode for the dengue virus NS1 protein,” Biosens. Bioelectron.44, 216–221 (2013).
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P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011), doi:.
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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V. E. P. Martins, C. H. Alencar, M. T. Kamimura, F. M. de, C. Araújo, S. G. De Simone, R. F. Dutra, and M. I. F. Guedes, “Occurrence of natural vertical transmission of dengue-2 and dengue-3 viruses in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil,” PLoS ONE7, 1–9, e41386 (2012), doi:.
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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T. Q. Huy, N. T. H. Hanh, N. T. Thuy, P. V. Chung, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuan, “A novel biosensor based on serum antibody immobilization for rapid detection of viral antigens,” Talanta86, 271–277 (2011).
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E. Huhtamo, E. Hasu, N. Y. Uzcátegui, E. Erra, S. Nikkari, A. Kantele, O. Vapalahti, and H. Piiparinen, “Early diagnosis of dengue in travelers: comparison of a novel real-time RT-PCR, NS1 antigen detection and serology,” J. Clin. Virol.47(1), 49–53 (2010).
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S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
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E. Huhtamo, E. Hasu, N. Y. Uzcátegui, E. Erra, S. Nikkari, A. Kantele, O. Vapalahti, and H. Piiparinen, “Early diagnosis of dengue in travelers: comparison of a novel real-time RT-PCR, NS1 antigen detection and serology,” J. Clin. Virol.47(1), 49–53 (2010).
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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T. Q. Huy, N. T. H. Hanh, N. T. Thuy, P. V. Chung, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuan, “A novel biosensor based on serum antibody immobilization for rapid detection of viral antigens,” Talanta86, 271–277 (2011).
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Jaenisch, T.

S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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Jang, H.

P. M. P. Gouvêa, H. Jang, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. Cremona, A. M. B. Braga, and M. Fokine, “Internal specular reflection from nanoparticle layers on the end face of optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103114 (2011), doi:.
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V. E. P. Martins, C. H. Alencar, M. T. Kamimura, F. M. de, C. Araújo, S. G. De Simone, R. F. Dutra, and M. I. F. Guedes, “Occurrence of natural vertical transmission of dengue-2 and dengue-3 viruses in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil,” PLoS ONE7, 1–9, e41386 (2012), doi:.
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E. Huhtamo, E. Hasu, N. Y. Uzcátegui, E. Erra, S. Nikkari, A. Kantele, O. Vapalahti, and H. Piiparinen, “Early diagnosis of dengue in travelers: comparison of a novel real-time RT-PCR, NS1 antigen detection and serology,” J. Clin. Virol.47(1), 49–53 (2010).
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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Laffont, G.

Leong, K. C.

L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
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Li, T.

L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Liebes, Y.

D. Atias, Y. Liebes, V. Chalifa-Caspi, L. Bremand, L. Lobel, R. S. Marks, and P. Dussart, “Chemiluminescent optical fiber immunosensor for the detection of IgM antibody to dengue virus in humans,” Sens. Actuators B.140, 206–215 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Lobel, L.

D. Atias, Y. Liebes, V. Chalifa-Caspi, L. Bremand, L. Lobel, R. S. Marks, and P. Dussart, “Chemiluminescent optical fiber immunosensor for the detection of IgM antibody to dengue virus in humans,” Sens. Actuators B.140, 206–215 (2009), doi:.
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Maguis, S.

Maquieira, A.

Margolis, H. S.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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Marks, R. S.

D. Atias, Y. Liebes, V. Chalifa-Caspi, L. Bremand, L. Lobel, R. S. Marks, and P. Dussart, “Chemiluminescent optical fiber immunosensor for the detection of IgM antibody to dengue virus in humans,” Sens. Actuators B.140, 206–215 (2009), doi:.
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N. J. Geddes, A. S. Martin, F. Caruso, R. S. Urquhart, D. N. Furlong, J. R. Sambles, K. A. Than, and J. A. Edgar, “Immobilisation of IgG onto gold surfaces and its interaction with anti-IgG studied by surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods175(2), 149–160 (1994).
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V. E. P. Martins, C. H. Alencar, M. T. Kamimura, F. M. de, C. Araújo, S. G. De Simone, R. F. Dutra, and M. I. F. Guedes, “Occurrence of natural vertical transmission of dengue-2 and dengue-3 viruses in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil,” PLoS ONE7, 1–9, e41386 (2012), doi:.
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Menon, R.

L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
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S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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Moyes, C. L.

S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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Myers, M. F.

S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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T. Q. Huy, N. T. H. Hanh, N. T. Thuy, P. V. Chung, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuan, “A novel biosensor based on serum antibody immobilization for rapid detection of viral antigens,” Talanta86, 271–277 (2011).
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

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E. Huhtamo, E. Hasu, N. Y. Uzcátegui, E. Erra, S. Nikkari, A. Kantele, O. Vapalahti, and H. Piiparinen, “Early diagnosis of dengue in travelers: comparison of a novel real-time RT-PCR, NS1 antigen detection and serology,” J. Clin. Virol.47(1), 49–53 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nogueira, M. L.

M. D. L. Oliveira, M. L. Nogueira, M. T. S. Correia, L. C. B. B. Coelho, and C. A. S. Andrade, “Detection of dengue virus serotypes on the surface of gold electrode based on cratylia mollis lectin affinity,” Sens. Actuators B.155, 789–795 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, M. D. L.

M. D. L. Oliveira, M. L. Nogueira, M. T. S. Correia, L. C. B. B. Coelho, and C. A. S. Andrade, “Detection of dengue virus serotypes on the surface of gold electrode based on cratylia mollis lectin affinity,” Sens. Actuators B.155, 789–795 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelegrino, J. L.

R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philip Samuel, P.

P. Philip Samuel and B. K. Tyagi, “Diagnostic methods for detection & isolation of dengue viruses from vector mosquitoes,” Indian J. Med. Res.123(5), 615–628 (2006).
[PubMed]

Piiparinen, H.

E. Huhtamo, E. Hasu, N. Y. Uzcátegui, E. Erra, S. Nikkari, A. Kantele, O. Vapalahti, and H. Piiparinen, “Early diagnosis of dengue in travelers: comparison of a novel real-time RT-PCR, NS1 antigen detection and serology,” J. Clin. Virol.47(1), 49–53 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
[CrossRef]

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S. Vazquez, D. Ruiz, R. Barrero, R. Ramirez, N. Calzada, B. del Rosario Peña, S. Reyes, and M. G. Guzman, “Kinetics of dengue virus NS1 protein in dengue 4-confirmed adult patients,” Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.68(1), 46–49 (2010), doi:.
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S. Vazquez, D. Ruiz, R. Barrero, R. Ramirez, N. Calzada, B. del Rosario Peña, S. Reyes, and M. G. Guzman, “Kinetics of dengue virus NS1 protein in dengue 4-confirmed adult patients,” Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.68(1), 46–49 (2010), doi:.
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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S. Vazquez, D. Ruiz, R. Barrero, R. Ramirez, N. Calzada, B. del Rosario Peña, S. Reyes, and M. G. Guzman, “Kinetics of dengue virus NS1 protein in dengue 4-confirmed adult patients,” Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.68(1), 46–49 (2010), doi:.
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N. J. Geddes, A. S. Martin, F. Caruso, R. S. Urquhart, D. N. Furlong, J. R. Sambles, K. A. Than, and J. A. Edgar, “Immobilisation of IgG onto gold surfaces and its interaction with anti-IgG studied by surface plasmon resonance,” J. Immunol. Methods175(2), 149–160 (1994).
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Sankoh, O.

S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
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A. C. M. S. Dias, S. L. R. Gomes-Filho, M. M. S. Silva, and R. F. Dutra, “A sensor tip based on carbon nanotube-ink printed electrode for the dengue virus NS1 protein,” Biosens. Bioelectron.44, 216–221 (2013).
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L. H. Chen, C. C. Chan, K. Ni, P. B. Hu, T. Li, W. C. Wong, P. Balamurali, R. Menon, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, C. L. Poh, X. Y. Dong, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, Z. Q. Tou, and K. C. Leong, “Label-free fiber-optic interferometric immunosensors based on waist-enlarged fusion taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.178, 176–184 (2013), doi:.
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T. Q. Huy, N. T. H. Hanh, N. T. Thuy, P. V. Chung, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuan, “A novel biosensor based on serum antibody immobilization for rapid detection of viral antigens,” Talanta86, 271–277 (2011).
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A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
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E. Huhtamo, E. Hasu, N. Y. Uzcátegui, E. Erra, S. Nikkari, A. Kantele, O. Vapalahti, and H. Piiparinen, “Early diagnosis of dengue in travelers: comparison of a novel real-time RT-PCR, NS1 antigen detection and serology,” J. Clin. Virol.47(1), 49–53 (2010).
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S. Vazquez, D. Ruiz, R. Barrero, R. Ramirez, N. Calzada, B. del Rosario Peña, S. Reyes, and M. G. Guzman, “Kinetics of dengue virus NS1 protein in dengue 4-confirmed adult patients,” Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.68(1), 46–49 (2010), doi:.
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R. W. Peeling, H. Artsob, J. L. Pelegrino, P. Buchy, M. J. Cardosa, S. Devi, D. A. Enria, J. Farrar, D. J. Gubler, M. G. Guzman, S. B. Halstead, E. Hunsperger, S. Kliks, H. S. Margolis, C. M. Nathanson, V. C. Nguyen, N. Rizzo, S. Vázquez, and S. Yoksan, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests: dengue,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol.8(12Suppl), S30–S37 (2010), doi:.
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S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, A. W. Farlow, C. L. Moyes, J. M. Drake, J. S. Brownstein, A. G. Hoen, O. Sankoh, M. F. Myers, D. B. George, T. Jaenisch, G. R. Wint, C. P. Simmons, T. W. Scott, J. J. Farrar, and S. I. Hay, “The global distribution and burden of dengue,” Nature496(7446), 504–507 (2013), doi:.
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of AuNPs (white spots) on the endface of an optical fiber [courtesy of Van der Graaff Lab/PUC-Rio]. (b) Schematic diagram of the fiber endface with AuNPs, ligand, anti-NS1 antibody, Glycine and adsorbed dengue NS1 antigen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LSPR-based all-optical fiber sensor: white light source, optical fiber coupler (OFC) and spectrum analyzer (detector). The fiber sample, with the sensing element on its tip, is spliced to Fiber 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflected signals for a typical fiber sample after (a) Steps 1 to 5 at ligand Cysteamine concentration of 1μg/ml (Step 3) and anti-NS1 antibody concentration of 1μg/ml (Step 4), and (b) when testing the sensor with NS1 antigen with concentration of 1μg/ml.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LSPR wavelength shift (Δλ) at different concentrations of NS1 antigen (CNS1) in PBS solutions (black squares) fitted by the Langmuir Isotherm (red curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Zoomed-in view of the LSPR dip after Step 5 (pink curve) and after a 60 min long immersion in PBS solution without NS1 antigen (CNS1 = 0, olive curve). Inset graph shows the full reflected spectra.

Equations (4)

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Δλ=Δ λ MAX ( K C NS1 1+K C NS1 ) Langmuir isotherm equation
S= |Δ λ MAX | σ MAX
σ MAX = M NS1 N A P NS1 2
C lim = Δ λ RES K(Δ λ MAX Δ λ RES )

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