Abstract

We report the continuous control of the pulse width of a passively mode-locked fiber laser via polarization state adjustment in a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). The SWCNT, coated on the side-polished fiber, was fabricated with optimized conditions and used for stable mode-locking of the fiber laser without Q-switching instabilities for any polarization state of the laser intra-cavity. The 3-dB spectral bandwidth of the mode-locked pulses can be continuously tuned from 1.8 nm to 8.5 nm with the polarization control for a given laser cavity length and applied pump power. A pulse duration varying from 470 fs to 1.6 ps was also observed with a change in the spectral bandwidth. The linear and the nonlinear transmission properties of the SA were analyzed, and found to exhibit different modulation depths depending on the input polarization state in the SA. The largest modulation depth of the SA was observed at the polarization state of the transverse electric mode that delivers shortest pulses at the laser output.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2449–2451 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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  10. S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett.32(2), 148–150 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composite,” Opt. Lett.32(15), 2242–2244 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, H. Jung, K. Oh, and D.-I. Yeom, “Femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser employing a hollow optical fiber filled with carbon nanotube dispersion as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express17(24), 21788–21793 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express20(5), 5652–5657 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Churin, K. Kieu, and N. Peyghambarian, “The role of the saturable absorber in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823722, 823722-6 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J.-C. Chiu, Y.-F. Lan, C.-M. Chang, X.-Z. Chen, C.-Y. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, G.-R. Lin, J.-J. Lin, and W.-H. Cheng, “Concentration effect of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber on stabilizing and shortening mode-locked pulse,” Opt. Express18(4), 3592–3600 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B16(1), 46–56 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035103 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Im, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber Er-doped dissipative soliton laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express18(21), 22141–22146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Chiu, Y.-F. Lan, C.-M. Chang, X.-Z. Chen, C.-Y. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, G.-R. Lin, J.-J. Lin, and W.-H. Cheng, “Concentration effect of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber on stabilizing and shortening mode-locked pulse,” Opt. Express18(4), 3592–3600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2004 (1)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

B. K. Garside and T. K. Lim, “Laser mode locking using saturable absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.44(5), 2335 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, B.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. P.

Chang, C.-M.

Chen, X.-Z.

Cheng, W.-H.

Chiu, J.-C.

Cho, D. K.

Cho, W. B.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2449–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. Y.

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express20(5), 5652–5657 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Jun, J. H. Im, S. H. Yoo, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “Low noise GHz passive harmonic mode-locking of soliton fiber laser using evanescent wave interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express19(20), 19775–19780 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Im, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber Er-doped dissipative soliton laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express18(21), 22141–22146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, H. Jung, K. Oh, and D.-I. Yeom, “Femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser employing a hollow optical fiber filled with carbon nanotube dispersion as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express17(24), 21788–21793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2449–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churin, D.

D. Churin, K. Kieu, and N. Peyghambarian, “The role of the saturable absorber in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823722, 823722-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Debnath, P.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast Fiber Laser Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garside, B. K.

B. K. Garside and T. K. Lim, “Laser mode locking using saturable absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.44(5), 2335 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Goh, C. S.

Griebner, U.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2449–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakulinen, T.

Härkönen, A.

Hartl, I.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast Fiber Laser Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hönninger, C.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Im, J. H.

Jablonski, M.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jun, C. S.

Jung, H.

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaskela, A.

Kauppinen, E. I.

Keller, U.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kieu, K.

D. Churin, K. Kieu, and N. Peyghambarian, “The role of the saturable absorber in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823722, 823722-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composite,” Opt. Lett.32(15), 2242–2244 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, K.

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express20(5), 5652–5657 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kivistö, S.

Koo, J.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y.-F.

Lee, C.-K.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2449–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, T. K.

B. K. Garside and T. K. Lim, “Laser mode locking using saturable absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.44(5), 2335 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-R.

Lin, J.-J.

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Maruyama, S.

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsas, V. J.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

Moser, M.

Nasibulin, A. G.

Newson, T. P.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Paschotta, R.

Payne, D. N.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2449–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

D. Churin, K. Kieu, and N. Peyghambarian, “The role of the saturable absorber in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823722, 823722-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rotermund, F.

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express20(5), 5652–5657 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Jun, J. H. Im, S. H. Yoo, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “Low noise GHz passive harmonic mode-locking of soliton fiber laser using evanescent wave interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express19(20), 19775–19780 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Im, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber Er-doped dissipative soliton laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express18(21), 22141–22146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, H. Jung, K. Oh, and D.-I. Yeom, “Femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser employing a hollow optical fiber filled with carbon nanotube dispersion as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express17(24), 21788–21793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2449–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, A.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Set, S. Y.

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett.32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express20(5), 5652–5657 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett.32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yaguchi, H.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett.32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.-Y.

Yeom, D. I.

Yeom, D.-I.

Yim, J. H.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2449–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, S. H.

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fiber ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast Fiber Laser Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 191–206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. K. Garside and T. K. Lim, “Laser mode locking using saturable absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.44(5), 2335 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

J.-C. Chiu, Y.-F. Lan, C.-M. Chang, X.-Z. Chen, C.-Y. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, G.-R. Lin, J.-J. Lin, and W.-H. Cheng, “Concentration effect of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber on stabilizing and shortening mode-locked pulse,” Opt. Express18(4), 3592–3600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Im, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber Er-doped dissipative soliton laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express18(21), 22141–22146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Jun, J. H. Im, S. H. Yoo, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “Low noise GHz passive harmonic mode-locking of soliton fiber laser using evanescent wave interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express19(20), 19775–19780 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, H. Jung, K. Oh, and D.-I. Yeom, “Femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser employing a hollow optical fiber filled with carbon nanotube dispersion as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express17(24), 21788–21793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express20(5), 5652–5657 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Churin, K. Kieu, and N. Peyghambarian, “The role of the saturable absorber in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE8237, 823722, 823722-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and G. Sucha, “Overview of Industrial and Medical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers,” in Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic image of the SWCNT-SA using a side-polished fiber (b) Configuration of the constructed soliton fiber laser with the SWCNT-SA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode-locked soliton pulse laser using the SWCNT-SA (a) optical spectrum (inset: autocorrelation trace) (b) RF spectrum characteristics (inset: pulse train).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse width control of the passively mode-locked soliton laser by adjusting the polarization state of the laser intra-cavity at the applied pump power of 112 mW (a) optical spectra (b) pulse durations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average output power of the mode-locked laser vs. 3-dB spectral bandwidth for applied pump powers of 112 mW (black square) and 153 mW (red circle).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimental set-up for nonlinear transmission measurement of the SA and the results for several input polarization states from (b) the TE-mode (c) intermediate state and (d) close to the TM mode

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