Abstract

We present a silicon microring resonator with a lithium niobate top cladding and integrated tuning electrodes. Submicrometer thin films of z-cut lithium niobate are bonded to silicon microring resonators via benzocyclobutene. Integrated electrodes are incorporated to confine voltage controlled electric fields within the lithium niobate thin film. The electrode design utilizes thin film metal electrodes and an optically transparent electrode wherein the silicon waveguide core serves as both an optical waveguide medium and as a conductive electrode medium. The hybrid material system combines the electro-optic functionality of lithium niobate with the high index contrast of silicon waveguides, enabling compact low tuning voltage microring resonators. Optical characterization of fabricated devices results in a measured loaded quality factor of 11,500 and a free spectral range of 7.15 nm in the infrared. The demonstrated tunability is 12.5 pm/V, which is over an order of magnitude greater than electrode-free designs.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

2010

2009

2007

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express15(13), 8401–8410 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys.99(3), 031101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Jazbinšek and M. Zgonik, “Material tensor parameters of LiNbO3 relevant for electro- and elasto-optics,” Appl. Phys. B74(4-5), 407–414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “Electro-optic modulation in crystal-ion-sliced z-cut LiNbO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1407–1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. F. Ceiler, P. A. Kohl, and S. A. Bidstrup, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon dioxide deposited at low temperatures,” J. Electrochem. Soc.142(6), 2067–2071 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Atwater, H. A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bidstrup, S. A.

M. F. Ceiler, P. A. Kohl, and S. A. Bidstrup, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon dioxide deposited at low temperatures,” J. Electrochem. Soc.142(6), 2067–2071 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

Brimont, A.

Ceiler, M. F.

M. F. Ceiler, P. A. Kohl, and S. A. Bidstrup, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon dioxide deposited at low temperatures,” J. Electrochem. Soc.142(6), 2067–2071 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarty, S.

Chen, H.-W.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, R. T.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dahlem, M. S.

Dalton, L.

Degl’Innocenti, R.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, R.

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fedeli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fournier, M.

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. T. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

Gould, M.

Guarino, A.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gutmann, R. J.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys.99(3), 031101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heck, M. J. R.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Holzwarth, C. W.

Hu, H.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Huang, S.

Ippen, E. P.

Jazbinšek, M.

M. Jazbinšek and M. Zgonik, “Material tensor parameters of LiNbO3 relevant for electro- and elasto-optics,” Appl. Phys. B74(4-5), 407–414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Kärtner, F. X.

Khilo, A.

Kim, G.-D.

Kim, W.-J.

Koch, B. R.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, P. A.

M. F. Ceiler, P. A. Kohl, and S. A. Bidstrup, “Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon dioxide deposited at low temperatures,” J. Electrochem. Soc.142(6), 2067–2071 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Lee, S.-S.

Lee, W.-G.

Lee, Y. S.

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Levy, M.

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “Electro-optic modulation in crystal-ion-sliced z-cut LiNbO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1407–1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liang, D.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lin, C.-Y.

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L. R.

Lu, J.-Q.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys.99(3), 031101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Luo, Y.

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. T. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niklaus, F.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys.99(3), 031101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Osgood, R. M.

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “Electro-optic modulation in crystal-ion-sliced z-cut LiNbO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1407–1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poberaj, G.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pryce, I. M.

Qian, W.

Raj, K.

Ramadan, T. A.

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “Electro-optic modulation in crystal-ion-sliced z-cut LiNbO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1407–1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rasigade, G.

Reano, R. M.

Reed, G. T.

Rezzonico, D.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafiiha, R.

Shubin, I.

Smith, H. I.

Sohler, W.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Stemme, G.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys.99(3), 031101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P.

Sun, P.

Sysak, M.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. T. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Wang, X.

Wood, M.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Zgonik, M.

M. Jazbinšek and M. Zgonik, “Material tensor parameters of LiNbO3 relevant for electro- and elasto-optics,” Appl. Phys. B74(4-5), 407–414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Jazbinšek and M. Zgonik, “Material tensor parameters of LiNbO3 relevant for electro- and elasto-optics,” Appl. Phys. B74(4-5), 407–414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood., “Electro-optic modulation in crystal-ion-sliced z-cut LiNbO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1407–1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonics for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 333–346 (2011).
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