Abstract

We report experimental observation of new tightly and loosely bound state vector solitons with locked and precessing states of polarization in a carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser in the anomalous dispersion regime.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(3), 354–365 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 3988–3991 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Wong, K. Wu, H. H. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, H. H. Wang, S. Aditya, P. Shum, S. N. Fu, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. Chernov, and E. D. Obraztsova, “Vector solitons in a laser passively mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 2007–2011 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and X. Wu, “Polarization rotation locking of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express16(14), 10053–10058 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, “Fourier transform spectroscopy with a laser frequency comb,” Nat. Photonics3(2), 99–102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s(−1) line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. M. Tong, V. D. Miljković, and M. Käll, “Alignment, Rotation, and Spinning Of Single Plasmonic Nanoparticles and Nanowires Using Polarization Dependent Optical Forces,” Nano Lett.10(1), 268–273 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Spanner, K. M. Davitt, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Stability of angular confinement and rotational acceleration of a diatomic molecule in an optical centrifuge,” J. Chem. Phys.115(18), 8403–8410 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Kanda, T. Higuchi, H. Shimizu, K. Konishi, K. Yoshioka, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “The vectorial control of magnetization by light,” Nat Commun2, 362 (2011).
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  11. G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, “Communication with dynamically fluctuating states of light polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(9), 097903 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, “Dissipative soliton molecules with independently evolving or flipping phases in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A80(4), 043829 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Ortaç, A. Zaviyalov, C. K. Nielsen, O. Egorov, R. Iliew, J. Limpert, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Observation of soliton molecules with independently evolving phase in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1578–1580 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. A. Malomed, “Bound Solitons in the Nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau Equation,” Phys. Rev. A44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
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  16. N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton solutions of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(21), 4047–4051 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Stable soliton pairs in optical transmission lines and fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B15(2), 515–523 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Phase-locked soliton pairs in a stretched-pulse fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.27(11), 966–968 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, “Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(), 016616 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, P. Shum, X. Guo, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, “Bound twin-pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.70(6), 067602 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A68(1), 013816 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. H. Seong and D. Y. Kim, “Experimental observation of stable bound solitons in a figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.27(15), 1321–1323 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. J. Guy, D. U. Noske, and J. R. Taylor, “Generation of Femtosecond Soliton Pulses by Passive Mode Locking of an Ytterbium-Erbium Figure-of-eight Fiber Laser,” Opt. Lett.18(17), 1447–1449 (1993).
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  24. X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, and Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode locked with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun.284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. X. L. Li, S. M. Zhang, Y. C. Meng, Y. P. Hao, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Z. J. Yang, “Observation of soliton bound states in a graphene mode locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys.22(4), 774–777 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. L. Gui, X. S. Xiao, and C. X. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B30(1), 158–164 (2013).
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  27. T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 51–56 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant10(1), 137–146 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O'Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(25), 253102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. Mou, S. Sergeyev, A. Rozhin, and S. Turistyn, “All-fiber polarization locked vector soliton laser using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3831–3833 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. M. Grapinet and P. Grelu, “Vibrating soliton pairs in a mode-locked laser cavity,” Opt. Lett.31(14), 2115–2117 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of Solitonlike Pulse Propagation in Birefringent Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics49(6), 5742–5754 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. V. Sergeyev, “Spontaneous light-polarization symmetry breaking for an anisotropic ring-cavity dye laser,” Phys. Rev. A59(5), 3909–3917 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  38. S. Sergeyev, “Interplay of an Anisotropy and Orientational Relaxation Processes in Luminescence and Lasing of Dyes,” in Liquid Crystals, Display, and Laser Materials, H. S. Nalwa, ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 2001), pp. 247–276.

2013

2012

X. L. Li, S. M. Zhang, Y. C. Meng, Y. P. Hao, H. F. Li, J. Du, and Z. J. Yang, “Observation of soliton bound states in a graphene mode locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys.22(4), 774–777 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, and Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode locked with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun.284(14), 3615–3618 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Mou, S. Sergeyev, A. Rozhin, and S. Turistyn, “All-fiber polarization locked vector soliton laser using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3831–3833 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Wong, K. Wu, H. H. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, H. H. Wang, S. Aditya, P. Shum, S. N. Fu, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. Chernov, and E. D. Obraztsova, “Vector solitons in a laser passively mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 2007–2011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s(−1) line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kanda, T. Higuchi, H. Shimizu, K. Konishi, K. Yoshioka, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “The vectorial control of magnetization by light,” Nat Commun2, 362 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

L. M. Tong, V. D. Miljković, and M. Käll, “Alignment, Rotation, and Spinning Of Single Plasmonic Nanoparticles and Nanowires Using Polarization Dependent Optical Forces,” Nano Lett.10(1), 268–273 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ortaç, A. Zaviyalov, C. K. Nielsen, O. Egorov, R. Iliew, J. Limpert, F. Lederer, and A. Tünnermann, “Observation of soliton molecules with independently evolving phase in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1578–1580 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, “Fourier transform spectroscopy with a laser frequency comb,” Nat. Photonics3(2), 99–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, “Dissipative soliton molecules with independently evolving or flipping phases in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A80(4), 043829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O'Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(25), 253102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(6), 061114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and X. Wu, “Polarization rotation locking of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express16(14), 10053–10058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Grapinet and P. Grelu, “Vibrating soliton pairs in a mode-locked laser cavity,” Opt. Lett.31(14), 2115–2117 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, “Soliton interaction in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(), 016616 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

B. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, P. Shum, X. Guo, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, “Bound twin-pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.70(6), 067602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 51–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A68(1), 013816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. H. Seong and D. Y. Kim, “Experimental observation of stable bound solitons in a figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.27(15), 1321–1323 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, “Communication with dynamically fluctuating states of light polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(9), 097903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Phase-locked soliton pairs in a stretched-pulse fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.27(11), 966–968 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Spanner, K. M. Davitt, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Stability of angular confinement and rotational acceleration of a diatomic molecule in an optical centrifuge,” J. Chem. Phys.115(18), 8403–8410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Sergeyev, “Spontaneous light-polarization symmetry breaking for an anisotropic ring-cavity dye laser,” Phys. Rev. A59(5), 3909–3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton solutions of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(21), 4047–4051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of Solitonlike Pulse Propagation in Birefringent Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics49(6), 5742–5754 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1991

B. A. Malomed, “Bound Solitons in the Nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau Equation,” Phys. Rev. A44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achiba, Y.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aditya, S.

J. H. Wong, K. Wu, H. H. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, H. H. Wang, S. Aditya, P. Shum, S. N. Fu, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. Chernov, and E. D. Obraztsova, “Vector solitons in a laser passively mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 2007–2011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of Solitonlike Pulse Propagation in Birefringent Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics49(6), 5742–5754 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmediev, N. N.

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(3), 354–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Stable soliton pairs in optical transmission lines and fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B15(2), 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton solutions of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(21), 4047–4051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Stable soliton pairs in optical transmission lines and fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B15(2), 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton solutions of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(21), 4047–4051 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Becker, J.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s(−1) line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Belhache, F.

Ben Ezra, S.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s(−1) line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(3), 354–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonk, R.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s(−1) line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chernov, A.

J. H. Wong, K. Wu, H. H. Liu, C. M. Ouyang, H. H. Wang, S. Aditya, P. Shum, S. N. Fu, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. Chernov, and E. D. Obraztsova, “Vector solitons in a laser passively mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 2007–2011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Collings, B. C.

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(3), 354–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(3), 354–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davitt, K. M.

M. Spanner, K. M. Davitt, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Stability of angular confinement and rotational acceleration of a diatomic molecule in an optical centrifuge,” J. Chem. Phys.115(18), 8403–8410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dreschmann, M.

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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s(−1) line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental set-up.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization locked vector bound state soliton. (a) output optical spectrum, (b) measured auto-correlation trace, (c) single pulse train. Polarization dynamics in the time frame of 40-40 000 round trips (1 µs – 1 ms) in terms of (d) optical power of orthogonally polarized modes Ix (blue dotted line) and Iy (red dashed line), total power I = Ix + Iy (black solid line), (e) phase difference and degree of polarization, and (f) normalized Stokes parameters at Poincaré sphere. Parameters: pump current Ip = 240mA, period T = 38.9 ns, pulse width Tp = 494 fs, output power I = 0.25 mW, phase difference Δ ϕ 1.125 π .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vector soliton with slowly evolving state of polarization of bistable operation (a) output optical spectrum of bound soliton (blue solid line) and twin pulse operation (red solid line), (b) measured auto-correlation trace for bound soliton, (c) single pulse train of bound soliton (blue dashed line) and twin pulse operation (red solid line). Polarization dynamics in the time frame of 40-40 000 round trips (1 µs – 1 ms) in terms of (d) optical power of orthogonally polarized modes Ix (blue dotted line) and Iy (red dashed line), total power I = Ix + Iy (black solid line), (e) phase difference and degree of polarization, and (f) normalized Stokes parameters at Poincaré sphere. Parameters: pump current Ip = 240 mA, period T = 38.9 ns, pulse width Tp = 494 fs, output power I≈0.25 mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vector soliton with slowly evolving state of polarization for multiple bound states operation. (a) output optical spectrum, (b) measured auto-correlation trace, (c) single pulse train. Polarization dynamics in the time frame of 40-40 000 round trips (1 µs – 1 ms) in terms of (d) optical power of orthogonally polarized modes Ix (blue dotted line) and Iy (red dashed line), total power I = Ix + Iy (black solid line), (e) phase difference and degree of polarization, and (f) normalized Stokes parameters at Poincaré sphere. Parameters: pump current Ip = 320 mA, period T = 38.9 ns, pulse width Tp = 383 fs, output power I≈0.62 mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Vector soliton with slowly evolving state of polarization for three-pulse operation. (a) output optical spectrum, (b) measured auto-correlation trace, (c) single pulse train. Polarization dynamics in the time frame of 40-40 000 round trips (1 µs – 1 ms) in terms of (d) optical power of orthogonally polarized modes Ix (solid line) and Iy (dashed line), total power I = Ix + Iy (dotted line), (e) phase difference and degree of polarization, and (f) normalized Stokes parameters at Poincaré sphere. Parameters: pump current Ip = 355 mA, period T = 13 ns, pulse width Tp = 383 fs, output power I≈0.8 mW.

Equations (2)

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S 0 = | u | 2 + | v | 2 , S 1 = | u | 2 | v | 2 , S = 2 2 | u | | v | cos Δ ϕ , S = 3 2 | u | | v | sin Δ ϕ , s i = S i S 1 2 + S 2 2 + S 3 2 , D O P = S 1 2 + S 2 2 + S 3 2 S 0 , ( i = 1 , 2 , 3 )
S ( 1 , 2 ) = ( S 0 ± S 0 0 0 ) , S ( 3 , 4 ) = ( S 0 α 0 ± S 0 2 α 2 ) .

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