Abstract

Room-temperature large-scale highly ordered nanorod-patterned ZnO films directly integrated on III-nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are proposed and demonstrated via low-cost modified nanoimprinting, avoiding a high-temperature process. with a 600 nm pitch on top of a critical 200 nm thick Imprinting ZnO nanorods of 200 nm in diameter and 200 nm in height continuous ZnO wetting layer, the light output power of the resulting integrated ZnO-nanorod-film/semi-transparent metal/GaN/InGaN LED shows a two-fold enhancement (100% light extraction efficiency improvement) at the injection current of 150 mA, in comparison with the conventional LED without the imprint film. The increased optical output is well explained by the enhanced light scattering and outcoupling of the ZnO-rod structures along with the wetting film, as verified by the numerical simulations. The wetting layer is found to be essential for better impedance matching. The current-voltage characteristics and electroluminescence measurements confirm that there is no noticeable change in the electrical or spectral properties of the final LEDs after ZnO-nanorod film integration. These results suggest that the low-cost high-quality large-scale ZnO-nanorod imprints hold great promise for superior LED light extraction.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Boroditsky and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction efficiency from light-emitting diodes”, Proc. SPI 3003, 119–122 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Guo, Y. L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaNInGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(13), 1936–1938 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H707–H709 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of gan-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S.-H. Lee, K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, and H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of GaN-based lightemitting diode using ZnO sol-gel direct imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(11), 3278–3281 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, J.-W. Jung, J. H. Jeong, and J.-R. Jeong, “Conformally direct imprinted inorganic surface corrugation for light extraction enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express20(S5Suppl 5), A713–A721 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Direct Fabrication of Photonic Crystal on Glass Substrate by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45, 201–212 (2011).
  16. J. Strutt, “On the scattering of light by small particles,” Philos. Mag.41, 447–454 (1871).
  17. S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 063507 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H.-H. Park, D.-G. Choi, J.-W. Jung, J. H. Jeong, and J.-R. Jeong, “Conformally direct imprinted inorganic surface corrugation for light extraction enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express20(S5Suppl 5), A713–A721 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S.-H. Lee, K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, and H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of GaN-based lightemitting diode using ZnO sol-gel direct imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(11), 3278–3281 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Direct Fabrication of Photonic Crystal on Glass Substrate by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45, 201–212 (2011).

2010 (2)

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of gan-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H707–H709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

X. Guo, Y. L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaNInGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(13), 1936–1938 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1871 (1)

J. Strutt, “On the scattering of light by small particles,” Philos. Mag.41, 447–454 (1871).

An, S. J.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Direct Fabrication of Photonic Crystal on Glass Substrate by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45, 201–212 (2011).

Astles, M.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boroditsky, M.

M. Boroditsky and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction efficiency from light-emitting diodes”, Proc. SPI 3003, 119–122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, K.-J.

S.-H. Lee, K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, and H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of GaN-based lightemitting diode using ZnO sol-gel direct imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(11), 3278–3281 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chae, J. H.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. H.

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of gan-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.-Y.

S.-H. Lee, K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, and H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of GaN-based lightemitting diode using ZnO sol-gel direct imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(11), 3278–3281 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. K.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D.-G.

Dalui, S.

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of gan-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dikme, Y.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Direct Fabrication of Photonic Crystal on Glass Substrate by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45, 201–212 (2011).

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. Guo, Y. L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaNInGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(13), 1936–1938 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Häberlen, M.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heuken, M.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. Y.

H. Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H707–H709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Direct Fabrication of Photonic Crystal on Glass Substrate by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45, 201–212 (2011).

Jeong, J. H.

Jeong, J.-R.

Ji, Y.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Z. G.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.-W.

Kappers, M. J.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Kim, S.-M.

Kondo, M.

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kyaw, Z.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lane, P.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. T.

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of gan-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H707–H709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

S.-H. Lee, K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, and H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of GaN-based lightemitting diode using ZnO sol-gel direct imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(11), 3278–3281 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. Y.

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of gan-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H707–H709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-H.

S.-H. Lee, K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, and H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of GaN-based lightemitting diode using ZnO sol-gel direct imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(11), 3278–3281 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. L.

X. Guo, Y. L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaNInGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(13), 1936–1938 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of gan-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lui, W.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mackie, D. M.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin, T.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, I.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Direct Fabrication of Photonic Crystal on Glass Substrate by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45, 201–212 (2011).

McAleese, C.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, K. K.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minowa, A.

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Direct Fabrication of Photonic Crystal on Glass Substrate by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45, 201–212 (2011).

Nunomura, S.

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oder, T. N.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pakes, A.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, G. H.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

S.-H. Lee, K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, and H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of GaN-based lightemitting diode using ZnO sol-gel direct imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(11), 3278–3281 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-H.

Phillips, W. A.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sai, H.

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salcianu, C. O.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, G.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

X. Guo, Y. L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaNInGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(13), 1936–1938 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. J.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strutt, J.

J. Strutt, “On the scattering of light by small particles,” Philos. Mag.41, 447–454 (1871).

Sun, X. W.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. T.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thrush, E. J.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wallis, D. J.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

M. Boroditsky and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction efficiency from light-emitting diodes”, Proc. SPI 3003, 119–122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.-Y.

S.-H. Lee, K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, and H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of GaN-based lightemitting diode using ZnO sol-gel direct imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(11), 3278–3281 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G. C.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, J.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, Y. L. Li, and E. F. Schubert, “Efficiency of GaNInGaN light-emitting diodes with interdigitated mesa geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(13), 1936–1938 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G. C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nunomura, A. Minowa, H. Sai, and M. Kondo, “Mie scattering enhanced near-infrared light response of thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(6), 063507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED Materials and Architectures for Energy-Saving Solid-State Lighting Toward “Lighting Revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Dalui, C. C. Lin, H. Y. Lee, C. H. Chao, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of gan-based light-emitting diodes using ZnO nanorod arrays produced by aqueous solution growth technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1220–1222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technology (1)

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Lui, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the Effect of Step-Doped Quantum Barriers in InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Display Technology9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

H. Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H707–H709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Direct Fabrication of Photonic Crystal on Glass Substrate by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45, 201–212 (2011).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

S.-H. Lee, K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, and H. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of GaN-based lightemitting diode using ZnO sol-gel direct imprinting,” Microelectron. Eng.88(11), 3278–3281 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Philos. Mag. (1)

J. Strutt, “On the scattering of light by small particles,” Philos. Mag.41, 447–454 (1871).

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Zhu, C. McAleese, K. K. McLaughlin, M. Häberlen, C. O. Salcianu, E. J. Thrush, M. J. Kappers, W. A. Phillips, P. Lane, D. J. Wallis, T. Martin, M. Astles, S. Thomas, A. Pakes, M. Heuken, and C. J. Humphreys, “GaN-based LEDs grown on 6-inch diameter Si (111) substrates by MOVPE,” Proc. SPIE7231, 723118, 723118-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Boroditsky and E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction efficiency from light-emitting diodes”, Proc. SPI 3003, 119–122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Modified imprinting process of ZnO-nanorod arrays: (I)-(III) illustrate the processes of transferring the pattern from the master plate to the PDMS mold, and (IV)-(VI) illustrate the processes of transferring the pattern from the PDMS mold to a GaN LED. (b) Schematic drawing of the nanorod-imprinted ZnO film directly integrated on a GaN LED.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a). Optical image of the ZnO-nanorod arrays imprinted on the GaN LED. (b) Top view micrograph image of the ZnO-nanorod arrays, along with their enlarged (c) top view and (d) tilt view SEM images.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light output power as a function of injection current for the NR-LED (with the ZnO wetting layer plus ZnO nanorods) and the C-LED (without ZnO film). The inset shows the I-V characteristics of LED samples, which are similar with and without ZnO nanorods.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of (a) the NR-LED with wetting layer plus ZnO nanorods and (b) the C-LED without wetting layer and ZnO nanorods.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Numerical FDTD simulation results of light extraction enhancements as a function of wavelength for the.LEDs with wetting layer plus ZnO nanorods, with only ZnO nanorods and with only wetting layer, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

2D light intensity pattern from numerical FDTD simulation in case of (a) C-LED, (b) C-LED with ZnO wetting layer, (c) C-LED with ZnO nanorod array and (d) C-LED with ZnO nanorod array on top of ZnO wetting layer.

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