Abstract

To achieve an immersive natural 3D experience on a large screen, a 300-Mpixel multi-projection 3D display that has a 100-inch screen and a 40° viewing angle has been developed. To increase the number of rays emanating from each pixel to 300 in the horizontal direction, three hundred projectors were used. The projector configuration is an important issue in generating a high-quality 3D image, the luminance characteristics were analyzed and the design was optimized to minimize the variation in the brightness of projected images. The rows of the projector arrays were repeatedly changed according to a predetermined row interval and the projectors were arranged in an equi-angular pitch toward the constant central point. As a result, we acquired very smooth motion parallax images without discontinuity. There is no limit of viewing distance, so natural 3D images can be viewed from 2 m to over 20 m.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE5664, 28–35 (2005).
  4. M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.
  5. T. Balogh, “The holovizio system,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550U, 60550U-12 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE8288, 82880B, 82880B-8 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Kikuta and Y. Takaki, “Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900U (2007).
  9. Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE5664, 56–63 (2005).
  10. K. Nagano, A. Jones, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “An autostereoscopic projector array optimized for 3D facial display,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH (2013), Emerging Technologies Article No.3.
  11. J. Jurik, A. Jones, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Prototyping a light field display involving direct observation of a video projector array,” in Proceedings of Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW) (2011), 15–20.
  12. S. Yoshida, M. Kawakita, and H. Ando, “Light-field generation by several screen types for glasses-free tabletop 3D display,” in Proceedings of 3DTV Conference (2011), 1–4.
  13. G. Wetztein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. O. Willemsen, S. de Zwart, M. Hiddink, D. de Boer, and M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2007), 1154–1157.
  16. N. A. Dodgson, “Analysis of the viewing zone of multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE4660, 254–265 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. de Boer, R. Verleur, A. Heuvelman, and I. Heynderickx, “Added value of an autostereoscopic multiview 3-D display for advertising in a public environment,” Displays31(1), 1–8 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Okano, “3DTV with integral imaging,” Proc. SPIE6983, 69830N (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Ito, “Future television, Super Hi-vision and beyond,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference (2010), 1–4.
  20. Projector keystone correction: http://www.projectorpeople.com/resources/keystone-correction.asp .
  21. J. Park, D. Nam, S. Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, D. S. Park, and C. Y. Kim, “Light field rendering of multi-view contents for high density light field 3D display,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2013), 667–670.

2013

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

G. Wetztein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE8288, 82880B, 82880B-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. de Boer, R. Verleur, A. Heuvelman, and I. Heynderickx, “Added value of an autostereoscopic multiview 3-D display for advertising in a public environment,” Displays31(1), 1–8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Takaki, “Super multi-view display with 128 viewpoints and viewpoint formation,” Proc. SPIE7237, 72371T, 72371T-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Okano, “3DTV with integral imaging,” Proc. SPIE6983, 69830N (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Kikuta and Y. Takaki, “Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900U (2007).

2006

T. Balogh, “The holovizio system,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550U, 60550U-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE5664, 56–63 (2005).

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE5664, 28–35 (2005).

2002

N. A. Dodgson, “Analysis of the viewing zone of multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE4660, 254–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

Balogh, T.

T. Balogh, “The holovizio system,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550U, 60550U-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brug, J.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chikama, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.

Choi, S. Y.

J. Park, D. Nam, S. Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, D. S. Park, and C. Y. Kim, “Light field rendering of multi-view contents for high density light field 3D display,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2013), 667–670.

de Boer, C.

C. de Boer, R. Verleur, A. Heuvelman, and I. Heynderickx, “Added value of an autostereoscopic multiview 3-D display for advertising in a public environment,” Displays31(1), 1–8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, D.

O. Willemsen, S. de Zwart, M. Hiddink, D. de Boer, and M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2007), 1154–1157.

de Zwart, S.

O. Willemsen, S. de Zwart, M. Hiddink, D. de Boer, and M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2007), 1154–1157.

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “Analysis of the viewing zone of multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE4660, 254–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiorentino, M.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurbuz, S.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.

Haino, Y.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE8288, 82880B, 82880B-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.

Heuvelman, A.

C. de Boer, R. Verleur, A. Heuvelman, and I. Heynderickx, “Added value of an autostereoscopic multiview 3-D display for advertising in a public environment,” Displays31(1), 1–8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heynderickx, I.

C. de Boer, R. Verleur, A. Heuvelman, and I. Heynderickx, “Added value of an autostereoscopic multiview 3-D display for advertising in a public environment,” Displays31(1), 1–8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hiddink, M.

O. Willemsen, S. de Zwart, M. Hiddink, D. de Boer, and M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2007), 1154–1157.

Hirsch, M.

G. Wetztein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, N.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE8288, 82880B, 82880B-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.

Inoue, T.

Ito, T.

T. Ito, “Future television, Super Hi-vision and beyond,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference (2010), 1–4.

Iwasawa, S.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE8288, 82880B, 82880B-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.

Kamei, H.

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE5664, 28–35 (2005).

Kawakita, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE8288, 82880B, 82880B-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.

Kikuta, K.

K. Kikuta and Y. Takaki, “Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900U (2007).

Kim, C. Y.

J. Park, D. Nam, S. Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, D. S. Park, and C. Y. Kim, “Light field rendering of multi-view contents for high density light field 3D display,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2013), 667–670.

Krijn, M.

O. Willemsen, S. de Zwart, M. Hiddink, D. de Boer, and M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2007), 1154–1157.

Lanman, D.

G. Wetztein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

J. Park, D. Nam, S. Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, D. S. Park, and C. Y. Kim, “Light field rendering of multi-view contents for high density light field 3D display,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2013), 667–670.

Lopez-Gulliver, R.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.

Makino, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.

Nago, N.

Nakanuma, H.

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE5664, 28–35 (2005).

Nam, D.

J. Park, D. Nam, S. Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, D. S. Park, and C. Y. Kim, “Light field rendering of multi-view contents for high density light field 3D display,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2013), 667–670.

Ohzu, H.

Okano, F.

F. Okano, “3DTV with integral imaging,” Proc. SPIE6983, 69830N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. S.

J. Park, D. Nam, S. Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, D. S. Park, and C. Y. Kim, “Light field rendering of multi-view contents for high density light field 3D display,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2013), 667–670.

Park, J.

J. Park, D. Nam, S. Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, D. S. Park, and C. Y. Kim, “Light field rendering of multi-view contents for high density light field 3D display,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2013), 667–670.

Peng, Z.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raskar, R.

G. Wetztein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE8288, 82880B, 82880B-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.

Sato, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE8288, 82880B, 82880B-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takaki, “Super multi-view display with 128 viewpoints and viewpoint formation,” Proc. SPIE7237, 72371T, 72371T-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuta and Y. Takaki, “Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900U (2007).

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE5664, 28–35 (2005).

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE5664, 56–63 (2005).

Tran, T.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verleur, R.

C. de Boer, R. Verleur, A. Heuvelman, and I. Heynderickx, “Added value of an autostereoscopic multiview 3-D display for advertising in a public environment,” Displays31(1), 1–8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vo, S.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wetztein, G.

G. Wetztein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, O.

O. Willemsen, S. de Zwart, M. Hiddink, D. de Boer, and M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2007), 1154–1157.

ACM Trans. Graph.

G. Wetztein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: Compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph.31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Displays

C. de Boer, R. Verleur, A. Heuvelman, and I. Heynderickx, “Added value of an autostereoscopic multiview 3-D display for advertising in a public environment,” Displays31(1), 1–8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

T. Balogh, “The holovizio system,” Proc. SPIE6055, 60550U, 60550U-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE8288, 82880B, 82880B-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, “Super multi-view display with 128 viewpoints and viewpoint formation,” Proc. SPIE7237, 72371T, 72371T-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE5664, 28–35 (2005).

F. Okano, “3DTV with integral imaging,” Proc. SPIE6983, 69830N (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuta and Y. Takaki, “Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900U (2007).

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE5664, 56–63 (2005).

N. A. Dodgson, “Analysis of the viewing zone of multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE4660, 254–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Nagano, A. Jones, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “An autostereoscopic projector array optimized for 3D facial display,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH (2013), Emerging Technologies Article No.3.

J. Jurik, A. Jones, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Prototyping a light field display involving direct observation of a video projector array,” in Proceedings of Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW) (2011), 15–20.

S. Yoshida, M. Kawakita, and H. Ando, “Light-field generation by several screen types for glasses-free tabletop 3D display,” in Proceedings of 3DTV Conference (2011), 1–4.

T. Ito, “Future television, Super Hi-vision and beyond,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference (2010), 1–4.

Projector keystone correction: http://www.projectorpeople.com/resources/keystone-correction.asp .

J. Park, D. Nam, S. Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, D. S. Park, and C. Y. Kim, “Light field rendering of multi-view contents for high density light field 3D display,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2013), 667–670.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, R. Lopez-Gulliver, M. Makino, M. Chikama, S. Gurbuz, N. Inoue, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, and M. Sato, “200-inch glasses-free 3D display with wide viewing angle,” in Proceedings of NAB BEC (2012), 455–460.

O. Willemsen, S. de Zwart, M. Hiddink, D. de Boer, and M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech Papers (2007), 1154–1157.

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