Abstract

We report direct observations of Rabi oscillations and self-induced transparency in a quantum dot optical amplifier operating at room temperature. The experiments make use of pulses whose durations are shorter than the coherence time which are characterized using Cross-Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating. A numerical model which solves the Maxwell and Schrödinger equations and accounts for the inhomogeneously broadened nature of the quantum dot gain medium confirms the experimental results. The model is also used to explain the relationship between the observability of Rabi oscillations, the pulse duration and the homogeneous and inhomogeneous spectral widths of the semiconductor.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. Capua, O. Karni, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Electron wavefunction probing in room-temperature semiconductors: direct observation of Rabi oscillations and self-induced transparency,” arXiv:1210.6803, October 2012.
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  3. A. Capua, O. Karni, and G. Eisenstein, “A Finite-difference time-domain model for quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers in the Maxwell–Schrödinger framework,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(5), 1900410 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Bayer and A. Forchel, “Temperature dependence of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in In0.60Ga0.40As/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B65(4), 041308 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Fürst, A. Leitenstorfer, A. Nutsch, G. Tränkle, and A. Zrenner, “Ultrafast Rabi oscillations of free-carrier transitions in InP,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.204(1), 20–22 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(8), 1178–1181 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Scholzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, M. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2346–2349 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(13), 133603 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Htoon, T. Takagahara, D. Kulik, O. Baklenov, A. L. Holmes, and C. K. Shih, “Interplay of Rabi oscillations and quantum interference in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(8), 087401 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, “Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms” (Dover books, 1987), Chap. 3.

2013 (3)

A. Capua, O. Karni, and G. Eisenstein, “A Finite-difference time-domain model for quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers in the Maxwell–Schrödinger framework,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(5), 1900410 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Karni, A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, D. Franke, J. Kreissl, H. Kuenzel, D. Arsenijević, H. Schmeckebier, M. Stubenrauch, M. Kleinert, D. Bimberg, C. Gilfert, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in a quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express21(5), 5715–5736 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

C. Gilfert, V. Ivanov, N. Oehl, M. Yacob, and J. P. Reithmaier, “High gain 1.55 μm diode lasers based on InAs quantum dot like active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. Gilfert, E. Pavelescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Influence of the As2/As4 growth modes on the formation of quantum dot-like InAs islands grown on InGaAs/InP (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 191903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum-dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. Bayer and A. Forchel, “Temperature dependence of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in In0.60Ga0.40As/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B65(4), 041308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Htoon, T. Takagahara, D. Kulik, O. Baklenov, A. L. Holmes, and C. K. Shih, “Interplay of Rabi oscillations and quantum interference in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(8), 087401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Rabi oscillations in the excitonic ground-state transition of InGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B66(8), 081306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(13), 133603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hughes, P. Borri, A. Knorr, F. Romstad, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultrashort pulse-propagation effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier: microscopic theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(4), 694–702 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. Romstad, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Measurement of pulse amplitude and phase distortion in a semiconductor optical amplifier: from pulse compression to breakup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(12), 1674–1676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Scholzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, M. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2346–2349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutte and W. von der Osten, “Self-induced transparency at bound excitons in CdS,” J. Lumin.83–84, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Fürst, A. Leitenstorfer, A. Nutsch, G. Tränkle, and A. Zrenner, “Ultrafast Rabi oscillations of free-carrier transitions in InP,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.204(1), 20–22 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(8), 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev.183(2), 457–485 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Alizon, R.

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andrzejewski, J.

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Arsenijevic, D.

Atiya, G.

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baklenov, O.

H. Htoon, T. Takagahara, D. Kulik, O. Baklenov, A. L. Holmes, and C. K. Shih, “Interplay of Rabi oscillations and quantum interference in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(8), 087401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bansropun, S.

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, P.

Bayer, M.

M. Bayer and A. Forchel, “Temperature dependence of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in In0.60Ga0.40As/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B65(4), 041308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bilenca, A.

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

O. Karni, A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, D. Franke, J. Kreissl, H. Kuenzel, D. Arsenijević, H. Schmeckebier, M. Stubenrauch, M. Kleinert, D. Bimberg, C. Gilfert, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in a quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express21(5), 5715–5736 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum-dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Rabi oscillations in the excitonic ground-state transition of InGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B66(8), 081306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Binder, R.

A. Scholzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, M. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2346–2349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borri, P.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum-dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Rabi oscillations in the excitonic ground-state transition of InGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B66(8), 081306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, P. Borri, A. Knorr, F. Romstad, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultrashort pulse-propagation effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier: microscopic theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(4), 694–702 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Romstad, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Measurement of pulse amplitude and phase distortion in a semiconductor optical amplifier: from pulse compression to breakup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(12), 1674–1676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capua, A.

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Karni, A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, D. Franke, J. Kreissl, H. Kuenzel, D. Arsenijević, H. Schmeckebier, M. Stubenrauch, M. Kleinert, D. Bimberg, C. Gilfert, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in a quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express21(5), 5715–5736 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Capua, O. Karni, and G. Eisenstein, “A Finite-difference time-domain model for quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers in the Maxwell–Schrödinger framework,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(5), 1900410 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chi, Y.

Choi, H.

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, V. A.

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S.

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(8), 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. A.

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dery, H.

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dieh, L.

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Donovan, M. E.

A. Scholzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, M. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2346–2349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

O. Karni, A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, D. Franke, J. Kreissl, H. Kuenzel, D. Arsenijević, H. Schmeckebier, M. Stubenrauch, M. Kleinert, D. Bimberg, C. Gilfert, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in a quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express21(5), 5715–5736 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Capua, O. Karni, and G. Eisenstein, “A Finite-difference time-domain model for quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers in the Maxwell–Schrödinger framework,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(5), 1900410 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(8), 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forchel, A.

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer and A. Forchel, “Temperature dependence of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in In0.60Ga0.40As/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B65(4), 041308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Förstner, J.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum-dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franke, D.

Fürst, C.

C. Fürst, A. Leitenstorfer, A. Nutsch, G. Tränkle, and A. Zrenner, “Ultrafast Rabi oscillations of free-carrier transitions in InP,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.204(1), 20–22 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gammon, D.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(13), 133603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbs, H. M.

A. Scholzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, M. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2346–2349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gilfert, C.

O. Karni, A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, D. Franke, J. Kreissl, H. Kuenzel, D. Arsenijević, H. Schmeckebier, M. Stubenrauch, M. Kleinert, D. Bimberg, C. Gilfert, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in a quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express21(5), 5715–5736 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Gilfert, V. Ivanov, N. Oehl, M. Yacob, and J. P. Reithmaier, “High gain 1.55 μm diode lasers based on InAs quantum dot like active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Gilfert, E. Pavelescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Influence of the As2/As4 growth modes on the formation of quantum dot-like InAs islands grown on InGaAs/InP (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 191903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gkortsas, V. M.

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Göbel, E. O.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(8), 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gready, D.

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hadass, D.

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, E. L.

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev.183(2), 457–485 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hannaford, P.

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helmy, A. S.

Hoefler, G.

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. L.

H. Htoon, T. Takagahara, D. Kulik, O. Baklenov, A. L. Holmes, and C. K. Shih, “Interplay of Rabi oscillations and quantum interference in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(8), 087401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Htoon, H.

H. Htoon, T. Takagahara, D. Kulik, O. Baklenov, A. L. Holmes, and C. K. Shih, “Interplay of Rabi oscillations and quantum interference in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(8), 087401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, S.

S. Hughes, P. Borri, A. Knorr, F. Romstad, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultrashort pulse-propagation effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier: microscopic theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(4), 694–702 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

S. Hughes, P. Borri, A. Knorr, F. Romstad, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultrashort pulse-propagation effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier: microscopic theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(4), 694–702 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Romstad, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Measurement of pulse amplitude and phase distortion in a semiconductor optical amplifier: from pulse compression to breakup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(12), 1674–1676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, M.

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, V.

C. Gilfert, V. Ivanov, N. Oehl, M. Yacob, and J. P. Reithmaier, “High gain 1.55 μm diode lasers based on InAs quantum dot like active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jutte, M.

M. Jutte and W. von der Osten, “Self-induced transparency at bound excitons in CdS,” J. Lumin.83–84, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, W. D.

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Karni, O.

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Karni, A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, D. Franke, J. Kreissl, H. Kuenzel, D. Arsenijević, H. Schmeckebier, M. Stubenrauch, M. Kleinert, D. Bimberg, C. Gilfert, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in a quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express21(5), 5715–5736 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Capua, O. Karni, and G. Eisenstein, “A Finite-difference time-domain model for quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers in the Maxwell–Schrödinger framework,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(5), 1900410 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Katzer, D. S.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(13), 133603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khitrova, G.

A. Scholzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, M. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2346–2349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kleinert, M.

Knorr, A.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum-dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, P. Borri, A. Knorr, F. Romstad, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultrashort pulse-propagation effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier: microscopic theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(4), 694–702 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(8), 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(8), 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koike, K.

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krakowski, M.

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kreissl, J.

Kuenzel, H.

Kulik, D.

H. Htoon, T. Takagahara, D. Kulik, O. Baklenov, A. L. Holmes, and C. K. Shih, “Interplay of Rabi oscillations and quantum interference in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(8), 087401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langbein, W.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum-dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Rabi oscillations in the excitonic ground-state transition of InGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B66(8), 081306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Romstad, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Measurement of pulse amplitude and phase distortion in a semiconductor optical amplifier: from pulse compression to breakup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(12), 1674–1676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

C. Fürst, A. Leitenstorfer, A. Nutsch, G. Tränkle, and A. Zrenner, “Ultrafast Rabi oscillations of free-carrier transitions in InP,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.204(1), 20–22 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(13), 133603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindberg, M.

A. Scholzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, M. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2346–2349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

Marynski, A.

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev.183(2), 457–485 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

Mikhelashvili, V.

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Misiewicz, J.

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mojahedi, M.

Mørk, J.

F. Romstad, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Measurement of pulse amplitude and phase distortion in a semiconductor optical amplifier: from pulse compression to breakup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(12), 1674–1676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Musial, A.

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nickel, H.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(8), 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, T. B.

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nutsch, A.

C. Fürst, A. Leitenstorfer, A. Nutsch, G. Tränkle, and A. Zrenner, “Ultrafast Rabi oscillations of free-carrier transitions in InP,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.204(1), 20–22 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oehl, N.

C. Gilfert, V. Ivanov, N. Oehl, M. Yacob, and J. P. Reithmaier, “High gain 1.55 μm diode lasers based on InAs quantum dot like active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, D.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum-dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Rabi oscillations in the excitonic ground-state transition of InGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B66(8), 081306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, D.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(13), 133603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavelescu, E.

C. Gilfert, E. Pavelescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Influence of the As2/As4 growth modes on the formation of quantum dot-like InAs islands grown on InGaAs/InP (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 191903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

A. Scholzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, M. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2346–2349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piermarocchi, C.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(13), 133603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poitras, D.

Poole, P. J.

Reithmaier, J. P.

O. Karni, A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, D. Franke, J. Kreissl, H. Kuenzel, D. Arsenijević, H. Schmeckebier, M. Stubenrauch, M. Kleinert, D. Bimberg, C. Gilfert, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in a quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express21(5), 5715–5736 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Gilfert, V. Ivanov, N. Oehl, M. Yacob, and J. P. Reithmaier, “High gain 1.55 μm diode lasers based on InAs quantum dot like active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Gilfert, E. Pavelescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Influence of the As2/As4 growth modes on the formation of quantum dot-like InAs islands grown on InGaAs/InP (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 191903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romstad, F.

S. Hughes, P. Borri, A. Knorr, F. Romstad, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultrashort pulse-propagation effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier: microscopic theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(4), 694–702 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Romstad, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Measurement of pulse amplitude and phase distortion in a semiconductor optical amplifier: from pulse compression to breakup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(12), 1674–1676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rotter, T. J.

Sasa, S.

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmeckebier, H.

Schneider, S.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum-dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Rabi oscillations in the excitonic ground-state transition of InGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B66(8), 081306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scholzgen, A.

A. Scholzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, M. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2346–2349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schwertberger, R.

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sek, G.

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sellin, R. L.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum-dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Rabi oscillations in the excitonic ground-state transition of InGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B66(8), 081306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sham, L. J.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(13), 133603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, C. K.

H. Htoon, T. Takagahara, D. Kulik, O. Baklenov, A. L. Holmes, and C. K. Shih, “Interplay of Rabi oscillations and quantum interference in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(8), 087401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. W. E.

Somers, A.

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steel, D. G.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(13), 133603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stievater, T. H.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(13), 133603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stintz, A.

Stubenrauch, M.

Takagahara, T.

H. Htoon, T. Takagahara, D. Kulik, O. Baklenov, A. L. Holmes, and C. K. Shih, “Interplay of Rabi oscillations and quantum interference in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(8), 087401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, H. H.

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tränkle, G.

C. Fürst, A. Leitenstorfer, A. Nutsch, G. Tränkle, and A. Zrenner, “Ultrafast Rabi oscillations of free-carrier transitions in InP,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.204(1), 20–22 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Dao, L.

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

von der Osten, W.

M. Jutte and W. von der Osten, “Self-induced transparency at bound excitons in CdS,” J. Lumin.83–84, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wen, X.

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilde, L.

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum-dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Rabi oscillations in the excitonic ground-state transition of InGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B66(8), 081306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wundke, K.

A. Scholzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, M. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2346–2349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yacob, M.

C. Gilfert, V. Ivanov, N. Oehl, M. Yacob, and J. P. Reithmaier, “High gain 1.55 μm diode lasers based on InAs quantum dot like active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yano, M.

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zilkie, A. J.

Zrenner, A.

C. Fürst, A. Leitenstorfer, A. Nutsch, G. Tränkle, and A. Zrenner, “Ultrafast Rabi oscillations of free-carrier transitions in InP,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.204(1), 20–22 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum-dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Davis, L. Van Dao, X. Wen, P. Hannaford, V. A. Coleman, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of coherent biexcitons in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(18), 182109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Gilfert, E. Pavelescu, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Influence of the As2/As4 growth modes on the formation of quantum dot-like InAs islands grown on InGaAs/InP (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(19), 191903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Gilfert, V. Ivanov, N. Oehl, M. Yacob, and J. P. Reithmaier, “High gain 1.55 μm diode lasers based on InAs quantum dot like active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

S. Hughes, P. Borri, A. Knorr, F. Romstad, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultrashort pulse-propagation effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier: microscopic theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(4), 694–702 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Capua, O. Karni, and G. Eisenstein, “A Finite-difference time-domain model for quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers in the Maxwell–Schrödinger framework,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(5), 1900410 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, R. Alizon, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, A. Somers, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, S. Bansropun, and M. Krakowski, “Gain and Noise Sarturation of Wide-Band InAs-InP Quantum Dash Optical Amplifiers: Model and Experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(5), 1015–1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Romstad, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Measurement of pulse amplitude and phase distortion in a semiconductor optical amplifier: from pulse compression to breakup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(12), 1674–1676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Marynski, G. Sek, A. Musial, J. Andrzejewski, J. Misiewicz, C. Gilfert, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Capua, O. Karni, D. Gready, G. Eisenstein, G. Atiya, W. D. Kaplan, and L. Wilde, “Electronic Structure, Morphology and Emission Polarization of Enhanced Symmetry InAs Quantum-Dot-Like Structures Grown on InP Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.114(9), 094306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Lumin. (1)

M. Jutte and W. von der Osten, “Self-induced transparency at bound excitons in CdS,” J. Lumin.83–84, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Choi, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Dieh, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, F. X. Kartner, and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast Rabi floopping and coherent pulse propagation in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 706–710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev.183(2), 457–485 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Rabi oscillations in the excitonic ground-state transition of InGaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B66(8), 081306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer and A. Forchel, “Temperature dependence of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in In0.60Ga0.40As/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B65(4), 041308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(8), 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Scholzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, M. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, “Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2346–2349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(13), 133603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Htoon, T. Takagahara, D. Kulik, O. Baklenov, A. L. Holmes, and C. K. Shih, “Interplay of Rabi oscillations and quantum interference in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(8), 087401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

C. Fürst, A. Leitenstorfer, A. Nutsch, G. Tränkle, and A. Zrenner, “Ultrafast Rabi oscillations of free-carrier transitions in InP,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.204(1), 20–22 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement Of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002).

Capua, O. Karni, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Electron wavefunction probing in room-temperature semiconductors: direct observation of Rabi oscillations and self-induced transparency,” arXiv:1210.6803, October 2012.

G. Eisenstein, A. Capua, O. Karni, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Highly Nonlinear phenomena and coherent effects in 1550 nm QD lasers and amplifiers,” The 25th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) May 2013.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, “Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms” (Dover books, 1987), Chap. 3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic description of the X-FROG set-up characterizing the complex envelope of the electric field of the output pulses from the QD amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized amplitude (upper plot) and instantaneous frequency (lower plot) profiles of the pulses at the output of the SOA biased in the gain regime at 250 mA, for various input energies. Pulses are centered at 1530 nm. The different traces are separated for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplitude (upper plot) and instantaneous frequency (lower plot) profiles of the pulses at the output of the SOA biased in the gain regime at 150 mA, for various input energies. Pulses are centered at 1530 nm. The different traces are separated for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized amplitude (upper plot) and instantaneous frequency (lower plot) profiles of the pulses at the output of the SOA biased in the absorption regime at 60 mA, for various input energies. Pulses are centered at 1530 nm. The different traces are separated for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) A schematic description of the distribution of homogeneous resonant transitions, which construct a Gaussian shaped inhomogeneously broadened gain spectrum. The spectrum of a short electromagnetic pulse is also illustrated. (b) An ensemble of two-level systems having different transition energies placed within a heterostructure through which the carriers are injected. Gray arrows represent resonant transitions while black arrows describe some of the incoherent relaxations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Calculated spectral profile of population inversion for the entire spectrum of accounted two-level systems, along the interaction with a 150 fs pulse. (b) The same, interacting with a 500 fs pulse. Initial conditions are of population inversion (red shades). Blue shades represent negative population inversion.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated amplitude envelopes (upper plot) and instantaneous frequency profiles (lower plot) of the output pulses. The short pulse (blue trace) shows clear Rabi oscillations. The longer pulse (green trace) shows the decay of the oscillations along the pulse.

Equations (9)

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N d ( f i ) N d i =A e 4ln2 ( f i f peak ) 2 Δ f inhom 2
N res t = η i J qd N res τ res N res N d_total τ cap i=1 M N d i ( 1 ρ 11 i ) + V D V res ( 1 N res D res ) i=1 M 2 N d i ρ 11 i τ i esc
ρ i 11 t = = γ c ρ i 11 + N res 2 N d ( ω i ) τ cap V res V D ( 1 ρ i 11 ) ρ i 11 τ esc i ( 1 N res D res )j μ E ( ρ 12 ρ 21 )
ρ i 22 t = = γ v ρ i 22 P res τ h cap V res V D ρ i 22 2 N d_total + ( 1 ρ i 22 ) τ h esc ( 1 P res D res )+j μ E ( ρ 12 ρ 21 )
P res t = η i J qd N res τ res V D V res i=1 M 2 N d i ( γ c ρ i 11 + γ v ρ i 22 ) P res τ h cap 1 N d_total i=1 M N d i ρ i 22 + V D V res ( 1 P res D res ) 1 τ h esc i=1 M 2 N d i ( 1 ρ i 22 )
ρ 12 i t =( j2π f i + γ h ) ρ 12 i j μ E ( ρ 11 i ρ 22 i )
P QD i =2 μ ( ρ 12 i + ρ 21 i )
× E = μ 0 H t
× H =σ E + ε 0 E t + P bgnd t + i P QD i t

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