Abstract

A novel design for a polarization-independent SOI-based 2 × 2 3-dB adiabatic splitter with sub-micron-scale dimensions is proposed and modeled. To achieve slow and smooth mode evolution, a structure with simultaneous tapering of velocity and coupling is used. To reduce the adiabatic region length by adjusting the gap separation, the coupling strengths of TE and TM polarizations as a function of the gap value are analyzed. For both polarizations, a high uniformity within ± 0.2dB over a broad bandwidth from 1520 to 1650 nm is achieved with a 300-μm-long adiabatic region.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

2012 (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag.50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

X. K. Sun, H. C. Liu, and A. Yariv, “Adiabaticity criterion and the shortest adiabatic mode transformer in a coupled-waveguide system,” Opt. Lett.34(3), 280–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. J. Xu, S. W. Chen, J. Z. Yu, and X. G. Tu, “An investigation of the mode characteristics of SOI submicron rib waveguides using the film mode matching method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(1), 015508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2 x 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express17(26), 24020–24029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, “Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1600–1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2287–2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, “Propagation characteristics of ultrahigh-∆ optical waveguide on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2), L383–L385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aalto, T.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2287–2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aboketaf, A.

L. Cao, A. Elshaari, A. Aboketaf, and S. Preble, “Adiabatic couplers in SOI waveguides,” CLEO, paper CThAA2 (2011).

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Baba, T.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, “Propagation characteristics of ultrahigh-∆ optical waveguide on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2), L383–L385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, A. Elshaari, A. Aboketaf, and S. Preble, “Adiabatic couplers in SOI waveguides,” CLEO, paper CThAA2 (2011).

Cheben, P.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, “Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1600–1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. W.

X. J. Xu, S. W. Chen, J. Z. Yu, and X. G. Tu, “An investigation of the mode characteristics of SOI submicron rib waveguides using the film mode matching method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(1), 015508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeRose, C.

Dong, P.

Elshaari, A.

L. Cao, A. Elshaari, A. Aboketaf, and S. Preble, “Adiabatic couplers in SOI waveguides,” CLEO, paper CThAA2 (2011).

Feng, D.

Gan, F.

Geis, M. W.

Green, W. M. J.

Grein, M. E.

Halir, R.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, “Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1600–1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hara, G.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, “Propagation characteristics of ultrahigh-∆ optical waveguide on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2), L383–L385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harjanne, M.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2287–2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Janz, S.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, “Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1600–1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kapulainen, M.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2287–2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. Z.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Lamontagne, B.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, “Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1600–1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lennon, D. M.

Li, G.

Li, Z. Y.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lin, J.

J. Lin, “Theoretical investigation of polarization-insensitive multimode interference splitters on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(14), 1234–1236 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Molina-Fernández, I.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, “Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1600–1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nielson, G. N.

Ortega-Moñux, A.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, “Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1600–1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

Preble, S.

L. Cao, A. Elshaari, A. Aboketaf, and S. Preble, “Adiabatic couplers in SOI waveguides,” CLEO, paper CThAA2 (2011).

Sakai, A.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, “Propagation characteristics of ultrahigh-∆ optical waveguide on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2), L383–L385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Solehmainen, K.

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2287–2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

Sun, J.

Sun, X.

Sun, X. K.

Trotter, D. C.

Tu, X. G.

X. J. Xu, S. W. Chen, J. Z. Yu, and X. G. Tu, “An investigation of the mode characteristics of SOI submicron rib waveguides using the film mode matching method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(1), 015508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, “Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1600–1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Xiao, X.

Xing, J. J.

Xiong, K.

Xu, D.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, “Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1600–1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

Xu, X. J.

X. J. Xu, S. W. Chen, J. Z. Yu, and X. G. Tu, “An investigation of the mode characteristics of SOI submicron rib waveguides using the film mode matching method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(1), 015508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yoon, J. U.

Young, R. W.

Yu, J. Z.

J. J. Xing, K. Xiong, H. Xu, Z. Y. Li, X. Xiao, J. Z. Yu, and Y. D. Yu, “Silicon-on-insulator-based adiabatic splitter with simultaneous tapering of velocity and coupling,” Opt. Lett.38(13), 2221–2223 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. J. Xu, S. W. Chen, J. Z. Yu, and X. G. Tu, “An investigation of the mode characteristics of SOI submicron rib waveguides using the film mode matching method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(1), 015508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. D.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, G.-R.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag.50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, “Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1600–1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Solehmainen, M. Kapulainen, M. Harjanne, and T. Aalto, “Adiabatic and multimode interference couplers on Silicon-on-Insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2287–2289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, “Theoretical investigation of polarization-insensitive multimode interference splitters on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(14), 1234–1236 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

X. J. Xu, S. W. Chen, J. Z. Yu, and X. G. Tu, “An investigation of the mode characteristics of SOI submicron rib waveguides using the film mode matching method,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(1), 015508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, “Propagation characteristics of ultrahigh-∆ optical waveguide on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2), L383–L385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

L. Cao, A. Elshaari, A. Aboketaf, and S. Preble, “Adiabatic couplers in SOI waveguides,” CLEO, paper CThAA2 (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic diagrams of (a) two coupled waveguides and (b) an SOI-based 2 × 2 3-dB adiabatic splitter with simultaneous tapering of velocity and coupling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The coupling strength of the TE and TM polarizations as a function of the gap between the two waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The effective index and (b) coupling strength of the adiabatic splitter for both polarizations as a function of the propagation position in the adiabatic region at a wavelength of 1550 nm, when G = 50 nm and L = 300 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The simulated uniformity of both polarizations as a function of L (a) when G = 50 nm and (b) when G = 100 nm at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The simulated uniformity of both polarizations as a function of (a) wavelength when G = 50 nm and L = 300 μm and (b) G at a wavelength of 1550 nm when L = 300 μm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ε e (z)= 1 2 | (1+δ/S ) 1/2 (1δ/S ) 1/2 | e i β e z = Ε ˜ e e i β e z , Ε o (z)= 1 2 | (1+δ/S ) 1/2 (1δ/S ) 1/2 | e i β o z = Ε ˜ o e i β o z ,
Ε ˜ e =| 0 1 |, Ε ˜ o =| 1 0 |.
Ε ˜ e = 1 2 | 1 1 |, Ε ˜ o = 1 2 | 1 1 |.
Uniformity=10* log 10 ( P O1 / P O2 ),

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