Abstract

We demonstrate gigahertz electro-optic modulator fabricated on low temperature polysilicon using excimer laser annealing technique compatible with CMOS backend integration. Carrier injection modulation at 3 Gbps is achieved. These results open up an array of possibilities for silicon photonics including photonics on DRAM and on flexible substrates.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

J. S. Orcutt, S. D. Tang, S. Kramer, K. Mehta, H. Li, V. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Low-loss polysilicon waveguides fabricated in an emulated high-volume electronics process,” Opt. Express20(7), 7243–7254 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rao, G. Coppola, M. A. Gioffrè, and F. G. Della Corte, “A 2.5 ns switching time MachZehnder modulator in as-deposited a-Si:H,” Opt. Express20(9), 9351–9356 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, “Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates,” Sci. Rep.2, 622 (2012).

A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, M. Yang, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits47(1), 345–354 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

2007

2005

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. M. Smith, P. G. Carey, and T. W. Sigmon, “Excimer laser crystallization and doping of silicon films on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 342–344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

A. M. Agarwal, M. R. Black, J. S. Foresi, L. Liao, Y. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “Polysilicon waveguides for silicon photonics,” MRS Proc.403(1995).

Alloatti, L.

Asghari, M.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Assefa, S.

A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, M. Yang, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits47(1), 345–354 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Barklund, A.

Bellutti, P.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bhave, S. A.

Black, M. R.

A. M. Agarwal, M. R. Black, J. S. Foresi, L. Liao, Y. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “Polysilicon waveguides for silicon photonics,” MRS Proc.403(1995).

Bogaerts, W.

Bonifield, T.

Carey, P. G.

P. M. Smith, P. G. Carey, and T. W. Sigmon, “Excimer laser crystallization and doping of silicon films on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(3), 342–344 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, “Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates,” Sci. Rep.2, 622 (2012).

Coppola, G.

Costa, J.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Cunningham, J. E.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Daldosso, N.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Danziger, S.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Della Corte, F. G.

Delmdahl, R.

R. Delmdahl, “The excimer laser: Precision engineering,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 286 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, R.

Doany, F. E.

A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, M. Yang, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits47(1), 345–354 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Dumon, P.

Fedeli, J.

Feng, D.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Foresi, J. S.

A. M. Agarwal, M. R. Black, J. S. Foresi, L. Liao, Y. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “Polysilicon waveguides for silicon photonics,” MRS Proc.403(1995).

Fournier, M.

Freude, W.

Georgas, M.

Gioffrè, M. A.

Glebov, A. L.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Gondarenko, A.

Green, W. M. J.

A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, M. Yang, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits47(1), 345–354 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hillerkuss, D.

Ho, R.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, R.

Holzwarth, C. W.

Jahnes, C. V.

A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, M. Yang, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits47(1), 345–354 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kash, J. A.

A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, M. Yang, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits47(1), 345–354 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Khilo, A.

Kimerling, L. C.

A. M. Agarwal, M. R. Black, J. S. Foresi, L. Liao, Y. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “Polysilicon waveguides for silicon photonics,” MRS Proc.403(1995).

Kompocholis, C.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

Korn, D.

Kramer, S.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Lee, B. G.

A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, M. Yang, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits47(1), 345–354 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Lexau, J.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Li, G.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Li, H.

Li, J.

Li, M.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, “Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates,” Sci. Rep.2, 622 (2012).

Liao, L.

A. M. Agarwal, M. R. Black, J. S. Foresi, L. Liao, Y. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “Polysilicon waveguides for silicon photonics,” MRS Proc.403(1995).

Lipson, M.

Liu, F.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Liu, Y.

A. M. Agarwal, M. R. Black, J. S. Foresi, L. Liao, Y. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “Polysilicon waveguides for silicon photonics,” MRS Proc.403(1995).

Lo Guo-Qiang, P.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lui, A.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Manipatruni, S.

Meade, R.

Mehta, K.

Melchiorri, M.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J. G.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Moss, B.

Nammari, K.

Orcutt, J. S.

Palmer, R.

Patil, D.

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Pavesi, L.

M. Melchiorri, N. Daldosso, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, P. Bellutti, and A. Lui, “Propagation losses of silicon nitride waveguides in the near-infrared range,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(12), 121111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

Poitras, C. B.

Popovic, M. A.

Prather, D.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

Pucker, G.

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Ram, R. J.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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A. L. Glebov, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, and R. T. Chen, “Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow-energy inter-chip communications,” Proc. SPIE7944, 79440B (2011).

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A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, M. Yang, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits47(1), 345–354 (2012).
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A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, M. Yang, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits47(1), 345–354 (2012).
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A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, M. Yang, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits47(1), 345–354 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid State Circuits

A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, M. Yang, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits47(1), 345–354 (2012).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Backend deposited silicon photonics. Rendered image of polysilicon modulator integrated on CMOS BEOL. For clarity, we show only a part of the metal contacts. One can see that the grain boundaries and the dimensions of the cross-section of the device are comparable.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characterization of low temperature polysilicon devices. (a) Optical micrograph of the fabricated device (b) Transmission spectrum of polysilicon ring resonator with Qloaded ~12,000 (c) IV curve of the fabricated polysilicon ring modulator device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electro-optic modulation using polysilicon modulator. (a) Modulator output with square wave input signal. (b) Optical eye diagram of polysilicon ring modulator at 1598.9 nm (PRBS 27-1 pattern with pre-emphasis at 3 Gbps).

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