Abstract

We describe a novel approach for CMOS-compatible passively temperature insensitive silicon based optical devices using titanium oxide cladding which has a negative thermo-optic (TO) effect. We engineer the mode confinement in Si and TiO2 such that positive TO of Si is exactly cancelled out by negative TO of TiO2. We demonstrate robust operation of the resulting device over 35 degrees.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34, 149–154 (1967)
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).
  3. M. Han and A. Wang, “Temperature compensation of optical microresonators using a surface layer with negative thermo-optic coefficient,” Opt. Lett.32, 1800–1802 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. B. Zhang, X. G. Jian, X. Y. Han, M. S. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express17, 14627–14633 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).
  6. P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low power and compact reconfigurable multiplexing devices based on silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express18, 9852–9858 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Padmaraju, J. Chan, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermal stabilization of a microring modulator using feedback control,” Opt. Express20, 27999–28008 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).
  9. W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).
  10. C. Qiu and Q. Xu, “Wavelength tracking with thermally controlled silicon resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2011).
  11. E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).
  12. B. Guha, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Minimizing temperature sensitivity of silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express18, 1879–1887 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Guha, B. B. C. Kyotoku, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express18, 3487–3493 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Guha, K. Preston, and M. Lipson, “Athermal silicon microring electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett.37, 2253–2255 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Guha and M. Lipson, “Athermal silicon ring resonator with bi-material cantilever for passive thermal feedback,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2013).
  18. S. S. Djordjevic, K. Shang, B. Guan, S. T. Cheung, L. Liao, J. Basak, H.-F. Liu, and S. Yoo, “CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide,” Opt. Express21, 13958–13968 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. T. Choy, J. D. Bradley, P. B. Deotare, I. B. Burgess, C. C. Evans, E. Mazur, and M. Loncar, “Integrated TiO2resonators for visible photonics,” Opt. Lett.37, 539–541 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. D. Bradley, C. C. Evans, J. T. Choy, O. Reshef, P. B. Deotare, F. Parsy, K. C. Phillips, M. Loncar, and E. Mazur, “Submicrometer-wide amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2waveguides for microphotonic devices,” Opt. Express20, 23821–23831 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Djordjevic, K. Shang, B. Guan, S. T. Cheung, L. Liao, J. Basak, H.-F. Liu, and S. Yoo, “CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide,” Opt. Express21, 13958–13968 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. B. Zhang, X. G. Jian, X. Y. Han, M. S. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express17, 14627–14633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

1999 (1)

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34, 149–154 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Ackert, J. J.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Adibi, A.

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Alipour, P.

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Asghari, M.

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

Bergman, K.

K. Padmaraju, J. Chan, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermal stabilization of a microring modulator using feedback control,” Opt. Express20, 27999–28008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Biberman, A.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Bogaerts, W.

Bradley, J. D.

Burgess, I. B.

Campbell, S. A.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

Chen, L.

Cheung, S. T.

Choy, J. T.

Dejneka, A.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deotare, P. B.

DeRose, C. T.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Djordjevic, S. S.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Eftekhar, A. A.

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Evans, C. C.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Gilmer, D. C.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gladfelter, W. L.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Guan, B.

Guha, B.

Han, M.

Han, X. Y.

He, B.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jastrabik, L.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jian, X. G.

Kim, H.-S.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kyotoku, B. B. C.

Lentine, A.

W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

Lipson, M.

Liu, H.-F.

Logan, D. F.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Loncar, M.

Luck, D. L.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Lynnyk, A.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, T.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Markovin, P.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Momeni, B.

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Moresco, M.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Morthier, G.

Nielson, G. N.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Padmaraju, K.

K. Padmaraju, J. Chan, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermal stabilization of a microring modulator using feedback control,” Opt. Express20, 27999–28008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Parsy, F.

Phillips, K. C.

Preston, K.

Qian, W.

Qiu, C.

C. Qiu and Q. Xu, “Wavelength tracking with thermally controlled silicon resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Qiu, F.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reshef, O.

Shafiiha, R.

Shah Hosseini, E.

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Shang, K.

Spring, A. M.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stojanovic, V.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Sun, C.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Teng, J.

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Trepakov, V.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D.

W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Trotter, D. C.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Varshni, Y.

Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34, 149–154 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Watts, M.

W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Xu, Q.

C. Qiu and Q. Xu, “Wavelength tracking with thermally controlled silicon resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Yokoyama, S.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

Young, R. W.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Yu, F.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. B.

Zhao, M. S.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, X.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Zortman, W.

W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IBM journal of research and development (1)

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

J. D. Bradley, C. C. Evans, J. T. Choy, O. Reshef, P. B. Deotare, F. Parsy, K. C. Phillips, M. Loncar, and E. Mazur, “Submicrometer-wide amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2waveguides for microphotonic devices,” Opt. Express20, 23821–23831 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, J. Chan, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermal stabilization of a microring modulator using feedback control,” Opt. Express20, 27999–28008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Djordjevic, K. Shang, B. Guan, S. T. Cheung, L. Liao, J. Basak, H.-F. Liu, and S. Yoo, “CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide,” Opt. Express21, 13958–13968 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. B. Zhang, X. G. Jian, X. Y. Han, M. S. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express17, 14627–14633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Guha, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Minimizing temperature sensitivity of silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express18, 1879–1887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Guha, B. B. C. Kyotoku, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express18, 3487–3493 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low power and compact reconfigurable multiplexing devices based on silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express18, 9852–9858 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Physica (1)

Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34, 149–154 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).

C. Qiu and Q. Xu, “Wavelength tracking with thermally controlled silicon resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2011).

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

B. Guha and M. Lipson, “Athermal silicon ring resonator with bi-material cantilever for passive thermal feedback,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2013).

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

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