Abstract

Although multi quantum well (MQW) structure is frequently suggested as the appropriate medium for providing optical gain in nanolasers with low threshold current, we demonstrate that in general bulk gain medium can be a better choice. We show that the high threshold gain required for nanolasers demands high threshold carrier concentrations and therefore a highly degenerate condition in which the barriers between the quantum wells are heavily pumped. As a result, there occurs spontaneous emission from the barrier in very dissipative low Q modes or undesired confined higher Q modes with resonance wavelengths close to the barrier bandgap. This results in a competition between wells and barriers that suppresses lasing. A complete model involving the optical properties of the resonant cavity combined with the carrier injection in the multilayer structure is presented to support our argument. With this theoretical model we show that while lasing is achieved in the nanolaser with bulk gain media, the nanolaser with MQW gain structure exhibits well emission saturation due to the onset of barrier emission.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

D. Bajoni, “Polariton lasers. Hybrid light-matter lasers without inversion,” J. Phys. D45(31), 313001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Matsudaira, C. Y. Lu, M. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, E. Stock, and D. Bimberg, “Cavity-volume scaling law of quantum-dot metal-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” IEEE Photon. J.4(4), 1103–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (6)

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing actions in GaN tiny hexagonal nanoring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 1027–1033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” Phys. Status Solidi B247, 774–788 (2010).

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. H. Chin, S. Vaddiraju, A. V. Maslov, C. Z. Ning, M. K. Sunkara, and M. Meyyappan, “Near-infrared semiconductor subwavelength-wire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, “Applied physics. Seeking the ultimate nanolaser,” Science314(5797), 260–261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, and T. Baba, “Ultrasmall and ultralow threshold GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection lasers: design, fabrication, lasing characteristics, and spontaneous emission factor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 673–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Nagarajan, M. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, R. S. Geels, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed quantum-well lasers and carrier transport effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 1990–2008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

W. Rideout, W. F. Sharfin, E. S. Koteles, M. O. Vassell, and B. Elman, “Well-barrier hole burning in quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(9), 784–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Rosenzweig, M. Möhrle, H. Düser, and H. Venghaus, “Threshold current analysis of InGaAs-InGaAsP multiquantum well separate-confinement lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1804–1811 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. R. Reisinger, P. S. Zory, and R. G. Waters, “Cavity length dependence of the threshold behavior in thin quantum well semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(6), 993–999 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

N. K. Dutta, “Calculated temperature dependence of threshold current of GaAs- AlxGa1-xAs double heterostructure lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.52(1), 70–73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

C. M. Wu and E. S. Yang, “Physical mechanisms of carrier leakage in DH injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.49(31), 14–31 17 (1978).

H. C. Casey., “Room-temperature threshold current dependence of GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs double heterostructure lasers on x and active layer thickness,” J. Appl. Phys.49(7), 3684–3692 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, S. Otsuka, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Super-sensitivity in label-free protein sensing using a nanoslot nanolaser,” Opt. Express19(18), 17683–17690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, and T. Baba, “Ultrasmall and ultralow threshold GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection lasers: design, fabrication, lasing characteristics, and spontaneous emission factor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 673–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bajoni, D.

D. Bajoni, “Polariton lasers. Hybrid light-matter lasers without inversion,” J. Phys. D45(31), 313001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, P.

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(20), 206403 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bhowmick, S.

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(20), 206403 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

A. Matsudaira, C. Y. Lu, M. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, E. Stock, and D. Bimberg, “Cavity-volume scaling law of quantum-dot metal-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” IEEE Photon. J.4(4), 1103–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bondarenko, O.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Nagarajan, M. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, R. S. Geels, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed quantum-well lasers and carrier transport effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 1990–2008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Casey, H. C.

H. C. Casey., “Room-temperature threshold current dependence of GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs double heterostructure lasers on x and active layer thickness,” J. Appl. Phys.49(7), 3684–3692 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chin, A. H.

A. H. Chin, S. Vaddiraju, A. V. Maslov, C. Z. Ning, M. K. Sunkara, and M. Meyyappan, “Near-infrared semiconductor subwavelength-wire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

A. Matsudaira, C. Y. Lu, M. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, E. Stock, and D. Bimberg, “Cavity-volume scaling law of quantum-dot metal-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” IEEE Photon. J.4(4), 1103–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, A.

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(20), 206403 (2013).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, K.

Ding, Q.

Düser, H.

M. Rosenzweig, M. Möhrle, H. Düser, and H. Venghaus, “Threshold current analysis of InGaAs-InGaAsP multiquantum well separate-confinement lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1804–1811 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, N. K.

N. K. Dutta, “Calculated temperature dependence of threshold current of GaAs- AlxGa1-xAs double heterostructure lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.52(1), 70–73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, B.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elman, B.

W. Rideout, W. F. Sharfin, E. S. Koteles, M. O. Vassell, and B. Elman, “Well-barrier hole burning in quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(9), 784–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

Fainman, Y.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Ding, A. Mizrahi, Y. Fainman, and V. Lomakin, “Dielectric shielded nanoscale patch laser resonators,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1812–1814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, and T. Baba, “Ultrasmall and ultralow threshold GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection lasers: design, fabrication, lasing characteristics, and spontaneous emission factor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 673–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, T.

R. Nagarajan, M. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, R. S. Geels, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed quantum-well lasers and carrier transport effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 1990–2008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geels, R. S.

R. Nagarajan, M. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, R. S. Geels, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed quantum-well lasers and carrier transport effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 1990–2008 (1992).
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M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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Haller, E. E.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
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B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
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M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
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R. Nagarajan, M. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, R. S. Geels, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed quantum-well lasers and carrier transport effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 1990–2008 (1992).
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G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
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S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
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Katz, M.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
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M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
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O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
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S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
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M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
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T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing actions in GaN tiny hexagonal nanoring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 1027–1033 (2010).
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Kita, S.

Koch, B.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
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W. Rideout, W. F. Sharfin, E. S. Koteles, M. O. Vassell, and B. Elman, “Well-barrier hole burning in quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(9), 784–786 (1991).
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T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing actions in GaN tiny hexagonal nanoring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 1027–1033 (2010).
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Kwon, S. H.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
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M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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Lakhani, A.

Lee, J. H.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
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Lee, Y. H.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
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M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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Leong, E. S. P.

Liang, D.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
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Lieber, C. M.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
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G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
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Liu, Z. C.

Lomakin, V.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
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Q. Ding, A. Mizrahi, Y. Fainman, and V. Lomakin, “Dielectric shielded nanoscale patch laser resonators,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1812–1814 (2011).
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M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
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A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
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A. Matsudaira, C. Y. Lu, M. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, E. Stock, and D. Bimberg, “Cavity-volume scaling law of quantum-dot metal-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” IEEE Photon. J.4(4), 1103–1114 (2012).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
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Maslov, A. V.

A. H. Chin, S. Vaddiraju, A. V. Maslov, C. Z. Ning, M. K. Sunkara, and M. Meyyappan, “Near-infrared semiconductor subwavelength-wire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163115 (2006).
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A. Matsudaira, C. Y. Lu, M. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, E. Stock, and D. Bimberg, “Cavity-volume scaling law of quantum-dot metal-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” IEEE Photon. J.4(4), 1103–1114 (2012).
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B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
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A. H. Chin, S. Vaddiraju, A. V. Maslov, C. Z. Ning, M. K. Sunkara, and M. Meyyappan, “Near-infrared semiconductor subwavelength-wire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163115 (2006).
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Mizrahi, A.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Ding, A. Mizrahi, Y. Fainman, and V. Lomakin, “Dielectric shielded nanoscale patch laser resonators,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1812–1814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
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M. Rosenzweig, M. Möhrle, H. Düser, and H. Venghaus, “Threshold current analysis of InGaAs-InGaAsP multiquantum well separate-confinement lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1804–1811 (1991).
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R. Nagarajan, M. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, R. S. Geels, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed quantum-well lasers and carrier transport effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 1990–2008 (1992).
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M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
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M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oei, Y. S.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, S.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. G.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regreny, P.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
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A. R. Reisinger, P. S. Zory, and R. G. Waters, “Cavity length dependence of the threshold behavior in thin quantum well semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(6), 993–999 (1987).
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W. Rideout, W. F. Sharfin, E. S. Koteles, M. O. Vassell, and B. Elman, “Well-barrier hole burning in quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(9), 784–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenzweig, M.

M. Rosenzweig, M. Möhrle, H. Düser, and H. Venghaus, “Threshold current analysis of InGaAs-InGaAsP multiquantum well separate-confinement lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1804–1811 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, A.

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, and T. Baba, “Ultrasmall and ultralow threshold GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection lasers: design, fabrication, lasing characteristics, and spontaneous emission factor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 673–681 (1999).
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Sakai, M.

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing actions in GaN tiny hexagonal nanoring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 1027–1033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sarmiento, T.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seassal, C.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shambat, G.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharfin, W. F.

W. Rideout, W. F. Sharfin, E. S. Koteles, M. O. Vassell, and B. Elman, “Well-barrier hole burning in quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(9), 784–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Simic, A.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B. A.

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stock, E.

A. Matsudaira, C. Y. Lu, M. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, E. Stock, and D. Bimberg, “Cavity-volume scaling law of quantum-dot metal-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” IEEE Photon. J.4(4), 1103–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, M.

Sunkara, M. K.

A. H. Chin, S. Vaddiraju, A. V. Maslov, C. Z. Ning, M. K. Sunkara, and M. Meyyappan, “Near-infrared semiconductor subwavelength-wire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, T.

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing actions in GaN tiny hexagonal nanoring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 1027–1033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaddiraju, S.

A. H. Chin, S. Vaddiraju, A. V. Maslov, C. Z. Ning, M. K. Sunkara, and M. Meyyappan, “Near-infrared semiconductor subwavelength-wire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

Vassell, M. O.

W. Rideout, W. F. Sharfin, E. S. Koteles, M. O. Vassell, and B. Elman, “Well-barrier hole burning in quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(9), 784–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Venghaus, H.

M. Rosenzweig, M. Möhrle, H. Düser, and H. Venghaus, “Threshold current analysis of InGaAs-InGaAsP multiquantum well separate-confinement lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1804–1811 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Waters, R. G.

A. R. Reisinger, P. S. Zory, and R. G. Waters, “Cavity length dependence of the threshold behavior in thin quantum well semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(6), 993–999 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C. M.

C. M. Wu and E. S. Yang, “Physical mechanisms of carrier leakage in DH injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.49(31), 14–31 17 (1978).

Wu, M. C.

Wu, Y. Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, B.

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(20), 206403 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H. Q.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, E. S.

C. M. Wu and E. S. Yang, “Physical mechanisms of carrier leakage in DH injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.49(31), 14–31 17 (1978).

Yang, P. D.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, L. J.

Yu, K.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

A. Matsudaira, C. Y. Lu, M. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, E. Stock, and D. Bimberg, “Cavity-volume scaling law of quantum-dot metal-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” IEEE Photon. J.4(4), 1103–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zory, P. S.

A. R. Reisinger, P. S. Zory, and R. G. Waters, “Cavity length dependence of the threshold behavior in thin quantum well semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(6), 993–999 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. H. Chin, S. Vaddiraju, A. V. Maslov, C. Z. Ning, M. K. Sunkara, and M. Meyyappan, “Near-infrared semiconductor subwavelength-wire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 163115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Rosenzweig, M. Möhrle, H. Düser, and H. Venghaus, “Threshold current analysis of InGaAs-InGaAsP multiquantum well separate-confinement lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1804–1811 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Reisinger, P. S. Zory, and R. G. Waters, “Cavity length dependence of the threshold behavior in thin quantum well semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(6), 993–999 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Nagarajan, M. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, R. S. Geels, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed quantum-well lasers and carrier transport effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 1990–2008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, and T. Baba, “Ultrasmall and ultralow threshold GaInAsP-InP microdisk injection lasers: design, fabrication, lasing characteristics, and spontaneous emission factor,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 673–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

T. Kouno, K. Kishino, T. Suzuki, and M. Sakai, “Lasing actions in GaN tiny hexagonal nanoring resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 1027–1033 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Matsudaira, C. Y. Lu, M. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, E. Stock, and D. Bimberg, “Cavity-volume scaling law of quantum-dot metal-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” IEEE Photon. J.4(4), 1103–1114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Rideout, W. F. Sharfin, E. S. Koteles, M. O. Vassell, and B. Elman, “Well-barrier hole burning in quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(9), 784–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. M. Wu and E. S. Yang, “Physical mechanisms of carrier leakage in DH injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.49(31), 14–31 17 (1978).

H. C. Casey., “Room-temperature threshold current dependence of GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs double heterostructure lasers on x and active layer thickness,” J. Appl. Phys.49(7), 3684–3692 (1978).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Dutta, “Calculated temperature dependence of threshold current of GaAs- AlxGa1-xAs double heterostructure lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.52(1), 70–73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

D. Bajoni, “Polariton lasers. Hybrid light-matter lasers without inversion,” J. Phys. D45(31), 313001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vučković, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Bhattacharya, B. Xiao, A. Das, S. Bhowmick, and J. Heo, “Solid state electrically injected exciton-polariton laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(20), 206403 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” Phys. Status Solidi B247, 774–788 (2010).

Science (3)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, “Applied physics. Seeking the ultimate nanolaser,” Science314(5797), 260–261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

F. Vallini, Q. Gu, B. Wingad, B. Slutsky, M. Katz, Y. Fainman, and N. C. Frateschi, “Geometry optimization of nanopatch semiconductor lasers: the trade-off between quality factor and gain,” in Latin America Optics and Photonics Conference, Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper LT3B.2.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (New York, Wiley, 1995), Chap. 9.

K. Y. Lau, “Dynamics of quantum well lasers,” in Quantum Well Lasers, P. S. Zory ed., Quantum Well Lasers, (Academic, San Diego, Cal., 1993).

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mashanovitch, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits. (New York, Wiley, 2012), Chap. 5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated band diagrams with the electrons and holes quasi-Fermi levels (Efc and Efv) of a (a) unbiased MQW heterostructure; (b) forward biased MQW heterostructure; (c) unbiased bulk heterostructure and (d) forward biased bulk heterostructure. Red dashed lines are for 0.8 V bias and blue dashed lines are for 1.0 V bias.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of a nanopatch laser resonator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Material gain dependence with wavelength for (a) an InGaAsP MQW structure (red) and an InGaAsP barrier (blue) at the threshold carrier density for the first order mode and (b) an InGaAsP bulk material for two different carrier densities, one at the threshold (red) and other for an optimized cavity (black dashed line). The green curves are the threshold gain dependence with resonance wavelength. Insets: possible confined optical modes and their properties. The thermal color scale indicates the normalized power from 0 (white) to 1 (black). The rightmost inset of Fig. 3(a) shows the fundamental mode (well mode) with a quality factor (Q) of 2032, resonance wavelength of 1562.7 nm, a confinement factor (Γ) of 0.251 and a threshold gain (gth) of 292 cm−1. The leftmost inset of Fig. 3(a) shows the second longitudinal mode (along the height direction), (barrier mode), with a Q of 1038, resonance wavelength of 1305.8 nm, a Γ of 0.379 and a gth of 453 cm−1. The insets of Fig. 3(b) also contain the first order mode and second longitudinal order mode for the bulk core media. The first mode, labeled Bulk #1, has a Q of 1726, resonance wavelength of 1602.1 nm, a Γ of 0.736 and a gth of 114 cm−1. The second order mode, labeled Bulk #2, has a Q of 962, resonance wavelength of 1394.5 nm, a Γ of 0.378 and a gth of 459 cm−1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log-log curves of the light output power x injection current for (a) MQW gain media and (b) bulk gain media with several β’s. (c) and (d) are the carrier density x injection current for the MQW and bulk gain media respectively. The solid lines are for the first order mode while the dashed lines are for the second order mode. Note that in the MQW gain system, the second order mode is the barrier mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reservoir schematics to illustrate the interchange of carriers between the well and barrier. The red and blue dashed lines represents the threshold gain for the well and the barrier mode, respectively, while the green dashed line represents the pumping level Δμ that increases from (a) to (d). The lower figures show a reservoir where the threshold gain for the first mode is (e) lower and (f) much higher than the reservoir interconnection.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d n barrier dt = I q V barrier R NR R barrier n barrier τ cap + n wells τ esc ( V wells V barrier ) v g p barrier g barrier
d n wells dt = n barrier τ cap ( V barrier V wells ) R NR R wells n wells τ esc v g p wells g wells
d p barrier dt = Γ 2 β 2 R barrier +[ Γ 2 v g g barrier ω 2 Q 2 ] p barrier
d p wells dt = Γ 1 β 1 R wells +[ Γ 1 v g g wells ω 1 Q 1 ] p wells

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