Abstract

We present imaging cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (ImXFROG), a new method for the spatiotemporal phase retrieval of ultrashort pulses. It is demonstrated that ImXFROG can measure phase and intensity of arbitrary, spatiotemporally distorted pulses with femtosecond resolution and up to 107 independent variables. ImXFROG is implemented as a plug-in upgrade to an existing correlator and used to demonstrate the reconstruction of highly complex, optical pulses with femtosecond features and massive spatiotemporal distortion.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (5)

2010 (3)

B. Alonso, I. J. Sola, O. Varela, J. Hernández-Toro, C. Méndez, J. S. Román, A. Zaïr, and L. Roso, “Spatiotemporal amplitude-and-phase reconstruction by Fourier-transform of interference spectra of high-complex-beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(5), 933–940 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akturk, X. Gu, P. Bowlan, and R. Trebino, “Spatio-temporal couplings in ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Opt.12(9), 093001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

R. J. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, H. Gersen, N. Ikeda, K. Asakawa, and L. K. Kuipers, “Ultrafast evolution of photonic eigenstates in k-space,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

R. Grunwald, U. Neumann, U. Griebner, K. Reimann, G. Steinmeyer, and V. Kebbel, “Ultrashort-pulse wave-front autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett.28(23), 2399–2401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Red Solitons: Evidence of Spatiotemporal Instability In χ(2) Spatial Soliton Dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(12), 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, “Direct space time-characterization of the electric fields of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett.27(7), 548–550 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dorrer, E. Kosik, and I. Walmsley, “Spatio-temporal characterization of the electric field of ultrashort optical pulses using two-dimensional shearing interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B74(9), s209–s217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, T. Rupp, C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, and U. Keller, “Spatially resolved amplitude and phase characterization of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Lett.26(2), 96–98 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett.26(12), 932–934 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg.17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time,” Science294(5544), 1080–1082 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG — A New Method for Amplitude and Phase Characterization of Weak Ultrashort Pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi (B)206(1), 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett.23(10), 792–794 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Akturk, S.

Alonso, B.

Asakawa, K.

R. J. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, H. Gersen, N. Ikeda, K. Asakawa, and L. K. Kuipers, “Ultrafast evolution of photonic eigenstates in k-space,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Austin, D. R.

Balistreri, M. L. M.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time,” Science294(5544), 1080–1082 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartelt, H.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bates, P. K.

Berzanskis, A.

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Red Solitons: Evidence of Spatiotemporal Instability In χ(2) Spatial Soliton Dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(12), 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

Blasi, G.

M. A. C. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, “Three dimensional imaging of short pulses,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 381–390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Red Solitons: Evidence of Spatiotemporal Instability In χ(2) Spatial Soliton Dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(12), 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bock, M.

Bonaretti, F.

Börner, P.

Borrego-Varillas, R.

Bowlan, P.

Bragheri, F.

Bueno, J. M.

Chalus, O.

Clerici, M.

Cousin, S. L.

Crespo, H.

Dantus, M.

Das, S. K.

Degiorgio, V.

Di Trapani, P.

Diehl, M.

Dorrer, C.

Eilenberger, F.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelen, R. J.

R. J. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, H. Gersen, N. Ikeda, K. Asakawa, and L. K. Kuipers, “Ultrafast evolution of photonic eigenstates in k-space,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faccio, D.

Fischer, C.

Forget, N.

Fortin, M.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, U.

Gabolde, P.

Gallmann, L.

Gersen, H.

R. J. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, H. Gersen, N. Ikeda, K. Asakawa, and L. K. Kuipers, “Ultrafast evolution of photonic eigenstates in k-space,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time,” Science294(5544), 1080–1082 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG — A New Method for Amplitude and Phase Characterization of Weak Ultrashort Pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi (B)206(1), 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Neumann, U. Griebner, K. Reimann, G. Steinmeyer, and V. Kebbel, “Ultrashort-pulse wave-front autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett.28(23), 2399–2401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunwald, R.

M. Bock, S. K. Das, C. Fischer, M. Diehl, P. Börner, and R. Grunwald, “Reconfigurable wavefront sensor for ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1154–1156 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grunwald, U. Neumann, U. Griebner, K. Reimann, G. Steinmeyer, and V. Kebbel, “Ultrashort-pulse wave-front autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett.28(23), 2399–2401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

S. Akturk, X. Gu, P. Bowlan, and R. Trebino, “Spatio-temporal couplings in ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Opt.12(9), 093001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett.26(12), 932–934 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauri, C. P.

Henin, S.

Hernández-Toro, J.

Iaconis, C.

Ikeda, N.

R. J. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, H. Gersen, N. Ikeda, K. Asakawa, and L. K. Kuipers, “Ultrafast evolution of photonic eigenstates in k-space,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jedrkiewicz, O.

Kartashov, Y. V.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kebbel, V.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Neumann, U. Griebner, K. Reimann, G. Steinmeyer, and V. Kebbel, “Ultrashort-pulse wave-front autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett.28(23), 2399–2401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

Kimmel, M.

Kobelke, J.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korterik, J. P.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time,” Science294(5544), 1080–1082 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosik, E.

C. Dorrer, E. Kosik, and I. Walmsley, “Spatio-temporal characterization of the electric field of ultrashort optical pulses using two-dimensional shearing interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B74(9), s209–s217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kosik, E. M.

Kuhl, J.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG — A New Method for Amplitude and Phase Characterization of Weak Ultrashort Pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi (B)206(1), 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time,” Science294(5544), 1080–1082 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L. K.

R. J. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, H. Gersen, N. Ikeda, K. Asakawa, and L. K. Kuipers, “Ultrafast evolution of photonic eigenstates in k-space,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kummrow, A.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liberale, C.

Linden, S.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG — A New Method for Amplitude and Phase Characterization of Weak Ultrashort Pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi (B)206(1), 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lotti, A.

Lozovoy, V. V.

Mann, K.

Marowski, G.

McGresham, K.

Méndez, C.

Mendoza-Yero, O.

Meshulach, D.

Minardi, S.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. C. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, “Three dimensional imaging of short pulses,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 381–390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Red Solitons: Evidence of Spatiotemporal Instability In χ(2) Spatial Soliton Dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(12), 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mínguez-Vega, G.

Miranda, M.

Neumann, U.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Neumann, U. Griebner, K. Reimann, G. Steinmeyer, and V. Kebbel, “Ultrashort-pulse wave-front autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett.28(23), 2399–2401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Shea, P.

Pastirk, I.

Pertsch, T.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piché, M.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A.

M. A. C. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, “Three dimensional imaging of short pulses,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 381–390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Red Solitons: Evidence of Spatiotemporal Instability In χ(2) Spatial Soliton Dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(12), 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Platt, B. C.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg.17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

Potenza, M. A. C.

M. A. C. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, “Three dimensional imaging of short pulses,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 381–390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radunsky, A. S.

Reimann, K.

Rini, M.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Román, J. S.

Röpke, U.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roso, L.

Rousseau, G.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rubino, E.

Rupp, T.

Salerno, D.

M. A. C. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, “Three dimensional imaging of short pulses,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 381–390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, B.

Schuster, K.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shack, R.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg.17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

Shreenath, A.

Silberberg, Y.

Sola, I. J.

Steinmeyer, G.

Stibenz, G.

Sugimoto, Y.

R. J. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, H. Gersen, N. Ikeda, K. Asakawa, and L. K. Kuipers, “Ultrafast evolution of photonic eigenstates in k-space,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

Szameit, A.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tartara, L.

Torner, L.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trapani, P. D.

M. A. C. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, “Three dimensional imaging of short pulses,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 381–390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Trull, J.

M. A. C. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, “Three dimensional imaging of short pulses,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 381–390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valiulis, G.

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Red Solitons: Evidence of Spatiotemporal Instability In χ(2) Spatial Soliton Dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(12), 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time,” Science294(5544), 1080–1082 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varanavicius, A.

M. A. C. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, “Three dimensional imaging of short pulses,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 381–390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Red Solitons: Evidence of Spatiotemporal Instability In χ(2) Spatial Soliton Dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(12), 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varela, O.

Walmsley, I.

C. Dorrer, E. Kosik, and I. Walmsley, “Spatio-temporal characterization of the electric field of ultrashort optical pulses using two-dimensional shearing interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B74(9), s209–s217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wyatt, A. S.

Yelin, D.

Yu, J.

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Red Solitons: Evidence of Spatiotemporal Instability In χ(2) Spatial Soliton Dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(12), 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaïr, A.

Zeitner, U. D.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Dorrer, E. Kosik, and I. Walmsley, “Spatio-temporal characterization of the electric field of ultrashort optical pulses using two-dimensional shearing interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B74(9), s209–s217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

S. Akturk, X. Gu, P. Bowlan, and R. Trebino, “Spatio-temporal couplings in ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Opt.12(9), 093001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg.17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

R. J. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, H. Gersen, N. Ikeda, K. Asakawa, and L. K. Kuipers, “Ultrafast evolution of photonic eigenstates in k-space,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 401–405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. A. C. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, “Three dimensional imaging of short pulses,” Opt. Commun.229(1-6), 381–390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (14)

S. L. Cousin, J. M. Bueno, N. Forget, D. R. Austin, and J. Biegert, “Three-dimensional spatiotemporal pulse characterization with an acousto-optic pulse shaper and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3291–3293 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, “Direct space time-characterization of the electric fields of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett.27(7), 548–550 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett.29(7), 775–777 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rubino, D. Faccio, L. Tartara, P. K. Bates, O. Chalus, M. Clerici, F. Bonaretti, J. Biegert, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatiotemporal amplitude and phase retrieval of space-time coupled ultrashort pulses using the Shackled-FROG technique,” Opt. Lett.34(24), 3854–3856 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett.23(10), 792–794 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Kosik, A. S. Radunsky, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Dorrer, “Interferometric technique for measuring broadband ultrashort pulses at the sampling limit,” Opt. Lett.30(3), 326–328 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett.26(12), 932–934 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive femtosecond pulse compression,” Opt. Lett.22(23), 1793–1795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bragheri, D. Faccio, F. Bonaretti, A. Lotti, M. Clerici, O. Jedrkiewicz, C. Liberale, S. Henin, L. Tartara, V. Degiorgio, and P. Di Trapani, “Complete retrieval of the field of ultrashort optical pulses using the angle-frequency spectrum,” Opt. Lett.33(24), 2952–2954 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, T. Rupp, C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, and U. Keller, “Spatially resolved amplitude and phase characterization of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Lett.26(2), 96–98 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1914–1916 (2006).
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M. Bock, S. K. Das, C. Fischer, M. Diehl, P. Börner, and R. Grunwald, “Reconfigurable wavefront sensor for ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1154–1156 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grunwald, U. Neumann, U. Griebner, K. Reimann, G. Steinmeyer, and V. Kebbel, “Ultrashort-pulse wave-front autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett.28(23), 2399–2401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, J. Biegert, U. Keller, B. Schaefer, K. Mann, and G. Marowski, “Validity of wave-front reconstruction and propagation of ultrabroadband pulses measured with a Hartmann-Shack sensor,” Opt. Lett.30(12), 1563–1565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, “Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A67(6), 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Red Solitons: Evidence of Spatiotemporal Instability In χ(2) Spatial Soliton Dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(12), 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minardi, F. Eilenberger, Y. V. Kartashov, A. Szameit, U. Röpke, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, L. Torner, F. Lederer, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Three-Dimensional Light Bullets in Arrays of Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (B) (1)

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG — A New Method for Amplitude and Phase Characterization of Weak Ultrashort Pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi (B)206(1), 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time,” Science294(5544), 1080–1082 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics (Academic press, 2003).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MP4 (3820 KB)     
» Media 2: MP4 (344 KB)     
» Media 3: MP4 (3160 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

– Artist’s impression of the ImXFROG setup. A known reference pulse (green) with delay is used to gate an unknown signal pulse (red) using sum-frequency generation in a BBO crystal. Only a certain wavelength (dark blue) of the sum-frequency pulse (light blue) can pass a spectral filter and is imaged onto a CCD camera. The filter (inset) consists of two mirrors forming a tunable Fabry-Perot-Interferometer. Cross-polarized white light and a spectrometer form a feedback loop, used to tune mirror parallelity and transmitted wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

– ImXFROG reconstruction of LB in a 30 mm fiber array sample. The excitation pulse is a 50 fs Gaussian pulse at 1550 nm. (a) Temporal, (b) spectral, and (c) spectrographic representation of the pulse. The measured pulse is composed of an advanced, blue-shifted, dispersive pulse, trailed by a red-shifted LB. The pulse duration of 25 fs is accordance with predictions and essentially transform-limited. Linear dispersion would broaden the pulse to more than 50 fs over the sample length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

– ImXFROG reconstruction of an Airy pulse with complex spatiotemporal distortion (see also Media 1 and Media 3). (a) Isointensity plot of the spatiotemporal intensity (see also Media 2). (b) Locally resolved third order chirp superimposed on map of the spatiotemporal intensity. (c) Local mean wavelength. (d) Local mean time of arrival. (e) Local width of the spectrum. (c-e) The (white line) marks the region which contains 90% of the pulse energy; (black regions) denote areas with insufficient power for pulse retrieval.

Equations (5)

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I SF iXCorr (x,y,τ) | A Ref ( tτ ) A Sig ( t,x,y ) | 2 dt.
I SF iXFROG (x,y,τ,ω) | A Ref ( tτ ) A Sig ( t,x,y )exp(iωt) dt | 2 .
δT λ SF 2 cΔλ 9fs ΔT=FδT= Δλ δλ δT900fs.
N X = D λ SF 2 n F FPI 300 N= N T N X 2 = ( D λ ) 2 2F n F FPI 10 7 .
N ( D λ ) 2 ,

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