Abstract

We propose a cladding engineering method that flexibly modifies the radiation patterns and rates of metal-clad nanoscale optical cavity. Optimally adjusting the cladding symmetry of the metal-clad nanoscale optical cavity modifies the modal symmetry and produces highly directional radiation that leads to 90% coupling efficiency into an integrated waveguide. In addition, the radiation rate of the cavity mode can be matched to its absorption rate by adjusting the thickness of the bottom-cladding layer. This approach optimizes the energy-flow rate from the waveguide and maximizes the energy confined inside the nanoscale optical cavity.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

2010

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. Choi, B.-H. Ahn, N. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and B. Min, “Low-loss surface-plasmonic nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Express18(11), 11089–11096 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H.-H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express17(22), 20355–20364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, P. R. A. Binetti, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, R. P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel, L. É. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, M. K. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Footprint Optical Interconnect on an SOI Chip Through Heterogeneous Integration of InP-Based Microdisk Lasers and Microdetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(8), 522–524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing Visible Light Waves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “Coupling of small, low-loss hexapole mode with photonic crystal slab waveguide mode,” Opt. Express12(26), 6624–6631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, B.-H.

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

J. Van Campenhout, P. R. A. Binetti, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, R. P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel, L. É. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, M. K. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Footprint Optical Interconnect on an SOI Chip Through Heterogeneous Integration of InP-Based Microdisk Lasers and Microdetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(8), 522–524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binetti, P. R. A.

J. Van Campenhout, P. R. A. Binetti, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, R. P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel, L. É. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, M. K. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Footprint Optical Interconnect on an SOI Chip Through Heterogeneous Integration of InP-Based Microdisk Lasers and Microdetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(8), 522–524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bondarenko, O.

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-H.

Chen, Y.-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M.

Cohen, O.

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colace, L.

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

J. Van Campenhout, P. R. A. Binetti, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, R. P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel, L. É. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, M. K. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Footprint Optical Interconnect on an SOI Chip Through Heterogeneous Integration of InP-Based Microdisk Lasers and Microdetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(8), 522–524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Cioccio, L.

Di Cioccio, L. É.

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M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
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L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
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Liu, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
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Liu, L.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
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M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
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S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(4), 586–588 (2002).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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Masini, G.

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(4), 586–588 (2002).
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L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
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Min, B.

Miyazaki, H. T.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing Visible Light Waves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
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J. S. Orcutt, A. Khilo, M. A. Popovic, C. W. Holzwarth, B. Moss, and M. S. Hanqing Li, Dahlem, T.D. Bonifield, F.X. Kartner, E.P. Ippen, J.L. Hoyt, R.J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, “Demonstration of an electronic photonic integrated circuit in a commercial scaled bulk CMOS process,” Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2008).

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M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
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M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
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L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196 (2007).
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K. Ding and C. Z. Ning, “Metallic subwavelength-cavity semiconductor nanolasers,” Light: Sci. Appl.1(7), e20 (2012), doi:.
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Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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Notzel, R.

J. Van Campenhout, P. R. A. Binetti, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, R. P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel, L. É. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, M. K. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Footprint Optical Interconnect on an SOI Chip Through Heterogeneous Integration of InP-Based Microdisk Lasers and Microdetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(8), 522–524 (2009).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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Oei, Y. S.

J. Van Campenhout, P. R. A. Binetti, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, R. P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel, L. É. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, M. K. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Footprint Optical Interconnect on an SOI Chip Through Heterogeneous Integration of InP-Based Microdisk Lasers and Microdetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(8), 522–524 (2009).
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M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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Okumura, T.

Orcutt, J. S.

J. S. Orcutt, A. Khilo, M. A. Popovic, C. W. Holzwarth, B. Moss, and M. S. Hanqing Li, Dahlem, T.D. Bonifield, F.X. Kartner, E.P. Ippen, J.L. Hoyt, R.J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, “Demonstration of an electronic photonic integrated circuit in a commercial scaled bulk CMOS process,” Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2008).

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of metallic III-V cubic nanocavity. Energy-density distributions (major electric field arrows overlaid) and corresponding far-field radiation patterns in the −z direction for (b, e) cladding layers a = b1 = b2 = 150 nm around the III-V cubic nanocavity, (c, f) a = 60 nm, b1 = b2 = 150 nm, and (d, g) a = 60 nm, b1 = 150 nm, b2 = 60 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a, b) Perspective and (c, d) cross-sectional schematic views of metal-clad III-V nanocavities integrated onto a bidirectional and unidirectional silicon-on-insulator waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a, d) Coupling efficiencies and Q factors as a function of a and b1 in a metal-clad III-V cavity coupled with bidirectional and unidirectional Si waveguide, respectively. In the bidirectional case, b1 and b2 are fixed at 150 nm and, in the unidirectional case, a and b2 are fixed at 90 and 150 nm, respectively. (b, e) Profiles of E2 on logarithmic scale along x-z plane (in the bidirectional case, a = 60 nm, in the unidirectional case, b1 = 180 nm): Insets show the energy-density profiles along the x-y plane at the center of cavity. (c, f) Far-field patterns toward bottom direction (−z direction) calculated right above the waveguide, for the cases given for panels (b) and (e), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Coupling efficiencies ηuni and ηbi and quality factors Quni and Qbi as a function of g for structures of Figs. 3(e) and 3(b), respectively. (b) Radiation rates γrad,uni and γrad,bi and absorption rates γabs,uni and γabs,bi of cavity modes in panel (a) as a function of g, respectively. (c) Profile of E2 on logarithmic scale along x-z plane for unidirectional and bidirectional cases for g = 400 nm when light is coupled from waveguide. (d) Total energies |ψuni|2 and |ψbi|2 inside cavity for 10-mW waveguide input as a function of g.

Equations (2)

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d ψ i dt =j ω i ψ i 1 2 ( γ rad,i ( g )+ γ abs,i ) ψ i + ξ γ waveguide,i ( g ) s input .
| ψ i | 2 =4 η i ξ γ rad,i (g) ( γ rad,i (g)+ γ abs,i ) 2 | s input | 2 .

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