Abstract

High-resolution microscopy for biological specimens was performed using cathodoluminescence (CL) of Y2O3:Eu, Zn nanophosphors, which have high CL intensity due to the incorporation of Zn. The intensity of Y2O3:Eu nanophosphors at low acceleration voltage (3 kV) was increased by adding Zn. The CL intensity was high enough for imaging even with a phosphor size as small as about 30 nm. The results show the possibility of using CL microscopy for biological specimens at single-protein-scale resolution. CL imaging of HeLa cells containing laser-ablated Y2O3:Eu, Zn nanophosphors achieved a spatial resolution of a few tens of nanometers. Y2O3:Eu, Zn nanophosphors in HeLa cells were also imaged with 254 nm ultraviolet light excitation. The results suggest that correlative microscopy using CL, secondary electrons and fluorescence imaging could enable multi-scale investigation of molecular localization from the nanoscale to the microscale.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. W. Stirling, “Immuno- and affinity probes for electron microscopy: a review of labeling and preparation techniques,” J. Histochem. Cytochem.38(2), 145–157(1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. C. Risueño and P. S. Testillano, “Cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry of nucleolar chromatin in plants,” Micron25(4), 331–360(1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. L. Wang and L. I. Larsson, “Simultaneous demonstration of multiple antigens by indirect immunofluorescence or immunogold staining. Novel light and electron microscopical double and triple staining method employing primary antibodies from the same species,” Histochemistry83(1), 47–56(1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. S. Petralia, J. A. Esteban, Y. X. Wang, J. G. Partridge, H. M. Zhao, R. J. Wenthold, and R. Malinow, “Selective acquisition of AMPA receptors over postnatal development suggests a molecular basis for silent synapses,” Nat. Neurosci.2(1), 31–36(1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. J. Geuze, J. W. Slot, P. A. van der Ley, R. C. Scheffer, and J. M. Griffith, “Use of colloidal gold particles in double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy of ultrathin frozen tissue sections,” J. Cell Biol.89(3), 653–665(1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Huang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.78(1), 993–1016(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. O. Leung and K. C. Chou, “Review of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy for biology,” Appl. Spectrosc.65(9), 967–980(2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. M. Svitkina and G. G. Borisy, “Correlative light and electron microscopy of the cytoskeleton of cultured cells,” Methods Enzymol.298, 570–592(1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. M. Svitkina, E. A. Bulanova, O. Y. Chaga, D. M. Vignjevic, S. Kojima, J. M. Vasiliev, and G. G. Borisy, “Mechanism of filopodia initiation by reorganization of a dendritic network,” J. Cell Biol.160(3), 409–421(2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. G. Yacobi and D. B. Holt, Cathodoluminescence Microscopy of Inorganic Solids(Plenum, 1990).
  11. H. Niioka, T. Furukawa, M. Ichimiya, M. Ashida, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Multicolor cathodoluminescence microscopy for biological imaging with nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 112402(2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Enhanced biological cathodoluminescence,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1901–1908(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Nawa, W. Inami, A. Chiba, A. Ono, A. Miyakawa, Y. Kawata, S. Lin, and S. Terakawa, “Dynamic and high-resolution live cell imaging by direct electron beam excitation,” Opt. Express20(5), 5629–5635(2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Niitsuma, H. Oikawa, E. Kimura, T. Ushiki, and T. Sekiguchi, “Cathodoluminescence investigation of organic materials,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo)54(4), 325–330(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Immuno-fluorescence scanning electron microscopy of biological cells,” Opt. Commun.18(5), 8–13(2010).
  16. W. M. Yen, S. Shionoya, and H. Yamamoto, Phosphor Handbook(CRC, 2007).
  17. J. Hao, S. A. Studenikin, and M. J. Cocivera, “Blue, green and red cathodoluminescence of Y2O3phosphor films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Lumin.93(4), 313–319(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Nagata, T. Nakayama, and H. Murakami, “Low voltage cathodoluminescent properties of Y2O3-based nano-particle phosphors,” SID’ 07 Digest(2007), 1328-1331(2007).
  19. S. Sakuma, H. Kominami, Y. Neo, T. Aoki, Y. Nakanishi, and H. Mimura, “Effect of La and Zn addition on Y2O3:Eu phosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci.244(1-4), 458–460(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Mafuné, J. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and size control of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in aqueous solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Murali, A. Barve, V. J. Leppert, S. H. Risbud, I. M. Kennedy, and H. W. H. Lee, “Synthesis and characterization of indium oxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.1(6), 287–289(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Zeng, S. Yang, and W. Cai, “Reshaping formation and luminescence evolution of ZnO quantum dots by laser-induced fragmentation in liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5038–5043(2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Niioka, N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Femtosecond laser nano-ablation in fixed and non-fixed cultured cells,” Opt. Express16(19), 14476–14495(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. C. Joy, Monte Carlo Modeling for Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis(Oxford, 1995).
  26. N. Yamamoto, K. Araya, and F. García de Abajo, “Photon emission from silver particles induced by a high-energy electron beam,” J. Phys. Rev. B64(20), 205419(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. N. Yamamoto, S. Ohtani, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gap and Mie plasmons in individual silver nanospheres near a silver surface,” Nano Lett.11(1), 91–95(2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Chandra, F. L. Deepak, J. B. Gruber, and D. K. Sardar, “Synthesis, morphology, and optical characterization of nanocrystalline Er3+:Y2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(2), 874–880(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.6(2), 169–174(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. N. de Jonge and F. M. Ross, “Electron microscopy of specimens in liquid,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(11), 695–704(2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

H. Niioka, T. Furukawa, M. Ichimiya, M. Ashida, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Multicolor cathodoluminescence microscopy for biological imaging with nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 112402(2011).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Leung and K. C. Chou, “Review of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy for biology,” Appl. Spectrosc.65(9), 967–980(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zeng, S. Yang, and W. Cai, “Reshaping formation and luminescence evolution of ZnO quantum dots by laser-induced fragmentation in liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5038–5043(2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamamoto, S. Ohtani, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gap and Mie plasmons in individual silver nanospheres near a silver surface,” Nano Lett.11(1), 91–95(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. de Jonge and F. M. Ross, “Electron microscopy of specimens in liquid,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(11), 695–704(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. Chandra, F. L. Deepak, J. B. Gruber, and D. K. Sardar, “Synthesis, morphology, and optical characterization of nanocrystalline Er3+:Y2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(2), 874–880(2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Immuno-fluorescence scanning electron microscopy of biological cells,” Opt. Commun.18(5), 8–13(2010).

2009

B. Huang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.78(1), 993–1016(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Niioka, N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Femtosecond laser nano-ablation in fixed and non-fixed cultured cells,” Opt. Express16(19), 14476–14495(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Enhanced biological cathodoluminescence,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1901–1908(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Nagata, T. Nakayama, and H. Murakami, “Low voltage cathodoluminescent properties of Y2O3-based nano-particle phosphors,” SID’ 07 Digest(2007), 1328-1331(2007).

2006

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.6(2), 169–174(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. Sakuma, H. Kominami, Y. Neo, T. Aoki, Y. Nakanishi, and H. Mimura, “Effect of La and Zn addition on Y2O3:Eu phosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci.244(1-4), 458–460(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Niitsuma, H. Oikawa, E. Kimura, T. Ushiki, and T. Sekiguchi, “Cathodoluminescence investigation of organic materials,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo)54(4), 325–330(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. M. Svitkina, E. A. Bulanova, O. Y. Chaga, D. M. Vignjevic, S. Kojima, J. M. Vasiliev, and G. G. Borisy, “Mechanism of filopodia initiation by reorganization of a dendritic network,” J. Cell Biol.160(3), 409–421(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

A. Murali, A. Barve, V. J. Leppert, S. H. Risbud, I. M. Kennedy, and H. W. H. Lee, “Synthesis and characterization of indium oxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.1(6), 287–289(2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamamoto, K. Araya, and F. García de Abajo, “Photon emission from silver particles induced by a high-energy electron beam,” J. Phys. Rev. B64(20), 205419(2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, S. A. Studenikin, and M. J. Cocivera, “Blue, green and red cathodoluminescence of Y2O3phosphor films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Lumin.93(4), 313–319(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. Mafuné, J. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and size control of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in aqueous solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. S. Petralia, J. A. Esteban, Y. X. Wang, J. G. Partridge, H. M. Zhao, R. J. Wenthold, and R. Malinow, “Selective acquisition of AMPA receptors over postnatal development suggests a molecular basis for silent synapses,” Nat. Neurosci.2(1), 31–36(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

T. M. Svitkina and G. G. Borisy, “Correlative light and electron microscopy of the cytoskeleton of cultured cells,” Methods Enzymol.298, 570–592(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. C. Risueño and P. S. Testillano, “Cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry of nucleolar chromatin in plants,” Micron25(4), 331–360(1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

J. W. Stirling, “Immuno- and affinity probes for electron microscopy: a review of labeling and preparation techniques,” J. Histochem. Cytochem.38(2), 145–157(1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

B. L. Wang and L. I. Larsson, “Simultaneous demonstration of multiple antigens by indirect immunofluorescence or immunogold staining. Novel light and electron microscopical double and triple staining method employing primary antibodies from the same species,” Histochemistry83(1), 47–56(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

H. J. Geuze, J. W. Slot, P. A. van der Ley, R. C. Scheffer, and J. M. Griffith, “Use of colloidal gold particles in double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy of ultrathin frozen tissue sections,” J. Cell Biol.89(3), 653–665(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amans, D.

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, T.

S. Sakuma, H. Kominami, Y. Neo, T. Aoki, Y. Nakanishi, and H. Mimura, “Effect of La and Zn addition on Y2O3:Eu phosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci.244(1-4), 458–460(2005).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

H. Niioka, T. Furukawa, M. Ichimiya, M. Ashida, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Multicolor cathodoluminescence microscopy for biological imaging with nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 112402(2011).
[CrossRef]

Araya, K.

N. Yamamoto, K. Araya, and F. García de Abajo, “Photon emission from silver particles induced by a high-energy electron beam,” J. Phys. Rev. B64(20), 205419(2001).
[CrossRef]

Ashida, M.

H. Niioka, T. Furukawa, M. Ichimiya, M. Ashida, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Multicolor cathodoluminescence microscopy for biological imaging with nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 112402(2011).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. H.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.6(2), 169–174(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badie, L.

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
[CrossRef]

Barve, A.

A. Murali, A. Barve, V. J. Leppert, S. H. Risbud, I. M. Kennedy, and H. W. H. Lee, “Synthesis and characterization of indium oxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.1(6), 287–289(2001).
[CrossRef]

Bates, M.

B. Huang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.78(1), 993–1016(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behar, V.

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borisy, G. G.

T. M. Svitkina, E. A. Bulanova, O. Y. Chaga, D. M. Vignjevic, S. Kojima, J. M. Vasiliev, and G. G. Borisy, “Mechanism of filopodia initiation by reorganization of a dendritic network,” J. Cell Biol.160(3), 409–421(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Svitkina and G. G. Borisy, “Correlative light and electron microscopy of the cytoskeleton of cultured cells,” Methods Enzymol.298, 570–592(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulanova, E. A.

T. M. Svitkina, E. A. Bulanova, O. Y. Chaga, D. M. Vignjevic, S. Kojima, J. M. Vasiliev, and G. G. Borisy, “Mechanism of filopodia initiation by reorganization of a dendritic network,” J. Cell Biol.160(3), 409–421(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

H. Zeng, S. Yang, and W. Cai, “Reshaping formation and luminescence evolution of ZnO quantum dots by laser-induced fragmentation in liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5038–5043(2011).
[CrossRef]

Chaga, O. Y.

T. M. Svitkina, E. A. Bulanova, O. Y. Chaga, D. M. Vignjevic, S. Kojima, J. M. Vasiliev, and G. G. Borisy, “Mechanism of filopodia initiation by reorganization of a dendritic network,” J. Cell Biol.160(3), 409–421(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandra, S.

S. Chandra, F. L. Deepak, J. B. Gruber, and D. K. Sardar, “Synthesis, morphology, and optical characterization of nanocrystalline Er3+:Y2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(2), 874–880(2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, A.

Chou, K. C.

Chowers, Y.

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chucaci, J. F. D.

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
[CrossRef]

Cocivera, M. J.

J. Hao, S. A. Studenikin, and M. J. Cocivera, “Blue, green and red cathodoluminescence of Y2O3phosphor films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Lumin.93(4), 313–319(2001).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, N.

N. de Jonge and F. M. Ross, “Electron microscopy of specimens in liquid,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(11), 695–704(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deepak, F. L.

S. Chandra, F. L. Deepak, J. B. Gruber, and D. K. Sardar, “Synthesis, morphology, and optical characterization of nanocrystalline Er3+:Y2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(2), 874–880(2010).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, A. B.

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Immuno-fluorescence scanning electron microscopy of biological cells,” Opt. Commun.18(5), 8–13(2010).

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Enhanced biological cathodoluminescence,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1901–1908(2008).
[CrossRef]

Dujardin, C.

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esteban, J. A.

R. S. Petralia, J. A. Esteban, Y. X. Wang, J. G. Partridge, H. M. Zhao, R. J. Wenthold, and R. Malinow, “Selective acquisition of AMPA receptors over postnatal development suggests a molecular basis for silent synapses,” Nat. Neurosci.2(1), 31–36(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, P. J.

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Immuno-fluorescence scanning electron microscopy of biological cells,” Opt. Commun.18(5), 8–13(2010).

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Enhanced biological cathodoluminescence,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1901–1908(2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

Furukawa, T.

H. Niioka, T. Furukawa, M. Ichimiya, M. Ashida, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Multicolor cathodoluminescence microscopy for biological imaging with nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 112402(2011).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F.

N. Yamamoto, K. Araya, and F. García de Abajo, “Photon emission from silver particles induced by a high-energy electron beam,” J. Phys. Rev. B64(20), 205419(2001).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

N. Yamamoto, S. Ohtani, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gap and Mie plasmons in individual silver nanospheres near a silver surface,” Nano Lett.11(1), 91–95(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geuze, H. J.

H. J. Geuze, J. W. Slot, P. A. van der Ley, R. C. Scheffer, and J. M. Griffith, “Use of colloidal gold particles in double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy of ultrathin frozen tissue sections,” J. Cell Biol.89(3), 653–665(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gileadi, O.

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffith, J. M.

H. J. Geuze, J. W. Slot, P. A. van der Ley, R. C. Scheffer, and J. M. Griffith, “Use of colloidal gold particles in double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy of ultrathin frozen tissue sections,” J. Cell Biol.89(3), 653–665(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, J. B.

S. Chandra, F. L. Deepak, J. B. Gruber, and D. K. Sardar, “Synthesis, morphology, and optical characterization of nanocrystalline Er3+:Y2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(2), 874–880(2010).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

J. Hao, S. A. Studenikin, and M. J. Cocivera, “Blue, green and red cathodoluminescence of Y2O3phosphor films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Lumin.93(4), 313–319(2001).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

H. Niioka, T. Furukawa, M. Ichimiya, M. Ashida, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Multicolor cathodoluminescence microscopy for biological imaging with nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 112402(2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, B.

B. Huang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.78(1), 993–1016(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichimiya, M.

H. Niioka, T. Furukawa, M. Ichimiya, M. Ashida, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Multicolor cathodoluminescence microscopy for biological imaging with nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 112402(2011).
[CrossRef]

Inami, W.

Inouye, Y.

Ivanova, S.

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Kawata, Y.

Kennedy, I. M.

A. Murali, A. Barve, V. J. Leppert, S. H. Risbud, I. M. Kennedy, and H. W. H. Lee, “Synthesis and characterization of indium oxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.1(6), 287–289(2001).
[CrossRef]

Khanarian, N.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.6(2), 169–174(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, E.

J. Niitsuma, H. Oikawa, E. Kimura, T. Ushiki, and T. Sekiguchi, “Cathodoluminescence investigation of organic materials,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo)54(4), 325–330(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohno, J.

F. Mafuné, J. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and size control of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in aqueous solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117(2000).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, S.

T. M. Svitkina, E. A. Bulanova, O. Y. Chaga, D. M. Vignjevic, S. Kojima, J. M. Vasiliev, and G. G. Borisy, “Mechanism of filopodia initiation by reorganization of a dendritic network,” J. Cell Biol.160(3), 409–421(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kominami, H.

S. Sakuma, H. Kominami, Y. Neo, T. Aoki, Y. Nakanishi, and H. Mimura, “Effect of La and Zn addition on Y2O3:Eu phosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci.244(1-4), 458–460(2005).
[CrossRef]

Kondow, T.

F. Mafuné, J. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and size control of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in aqueous solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117(2000).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, L. I.

B. L. Wang and L. I. Larsson, “Simultaneous demonstration of multiple antigens by indirect immunofluorescence or immunogold staining. Novel light and electron microscopical double and triple staining method employing primary antibodies from the same species,” Histochemistry83(1), 47–56(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ledoux, G.

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ledoux-Rak, I.

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W. H.

A. Murali, A. Barve, V. J. Leppert, S. H. Risbud, I. M. Kennedy, and H. W. H. Lee, “Synthesis and characterization of indium oxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.1(6), 287–289(2001).
[CrossRef]

Leppert, V. J.

A. Murali, A. Barve, V. J. Leppert, S. H. Risbud, I. M. Kennedy, and H. W. H. Lee, “Synthesis and characterization of indium oxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.1(6), 287–289(2001).
[CrossRef]

Leung, B. O.

Lim, S. F.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.6(2), 169–174(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

Mafuné, F.

F. Mafuné, J. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and size control of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in aqueous solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117(2000).
[CrossRef]

Malinow, R.

R. S. Petralia, J. A. Esteban, Y. X. Wang, J. G. Partridge, H. M. Zhao, R. J. Wenthold, and R. Malinow, “Selective acquisition of AMPA receptors over postnatal development suggests a molecular basis for silent synapses,” Nat. Neurosci.2(1), 31–36(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masenelli-Varlot, K.

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michaeli, S.

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mimura, H.

S. Sakuma, H. Kominami, Y. Neo, T. Aoki, Y. Nakanishi, and H. Mimura, “Effect of La and Zn addition on Y2O3:Eu phosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci.244(1-4), 458–460(2005).
[CrossRef]

Miyakawa, A.

Moses, E.

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakami, H.

T. Nagata, T. Nakayama, and H. Murakami, “Low voltage cathodoluminescent properties of Y2O3-based nano-particle phosphors,” SID’ 07 Digest(2007), 1328-1331(2007).

Murali, A.

A. Murali, A. Barve, V. J. Leppert, S. H. Risbud, I. M. Kennedy, and H. W. H. Lee, “Synthesis and characterization of indium oxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.1(6), 287–289(2001).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, T.

T. Nagata, T. Nakayama, and H. Murakami, “Low voltage cathodoluminescent properties of Y2O3-based nano-particle phosphors,” SID’ 07 Digest(2007), 1328-1331(2007).

Nakanishi, Y.

S. Sakuma, H. Kominami, Y. Neo, T. Aoki, Y. Nakanishi, and H. Mimura, “Effect of La and Zn addition on Y2O3:Eu phosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci.244(1-4), 458–460(2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, T.

T. Nagata, T. Nakayama, and H. Murakami, “Low voltage cathodoluminescent properties of Y2O3-based nano-particle phosphors,” SID’ 07 Digest(2007), 1328-1331(2007).

Nawa, Y.

Nechushtan, A.

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neo, Y.

S. Sakuma, H. Kominami, Y. Neo, T. Aoki, Y. Nakanishi, and H. Mimura, “Effect of La and Zn addition on Y2O3:Eu phosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci.244(1-4), 458–460(2005).
[CrossRef]

Niioka, H.

H. Niioka, T. Furukawa, M. Ichimiya, M. Ashida, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Multicolor cathodoluminescence microscopy for biological imaging with nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 112402(2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Niioka, N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Femtosecond laser nano-ablation in fixed and non-fixed cultured cells,” Opt. Express16(19), 14476–14495(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niitsuma, J.

J. Niitsuma, H. Oikawa, E. Kimura, T. Ushiki, and T. Sekiguchi, “Cathodoluminescence investigation of organic materials,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo)54(4), 325–330(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtani, S.

N. Yamamoto, S. Ohtani, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gap and Mie plasmons in individual silver nanospheres near a silver surface,” Nano Lett.11(1), 91–95(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oikawa, H.

J. Niitsuma, H. Oikawa, E. Kimura, T. Ushiki, and T. Sekiguchi, “Cathodoluminescence investigation of organic materials,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo)54(4), 325–330(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ono, A.

Partridge, J. G.

R. S. Petralia, J. A. Esteban, Y. X. Wang, J. G. Partridge, H. M. Zhao, R. J. Wenthold, and R. Malinow, “Selective acquisition of AMPA receptors over postnatal development suggests a molecular basis for silent synapses,” Nat. Neurosci.2(1), 31–36(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelle, F.

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
[CrossRef]

Petralia, R. S.

R. S. Petralia, J. A. Esteban, Y. X. Wang, J. G. Partridge, H. M. Zhao, R. J. Wenthold, and R. Malinow, “Selective acquisition of AMPA receptors over postnatal development suggests a molecular basis for silent synapses,” Nat. Neurosci.2(1), 31–36(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prendergast, F. G.

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Immuno-fluorescence scanning electron microscopy of biological cells,” Opt. Commun.18(5), 8–13(2010).

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Enhanced biological cathodoluminescence,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1901–1908(2008).
[CrossRef]

Rai, V. K.

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
[CrossRef]

Rao, T. K. G.

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
[CrossRef]

Riehn, R.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.6(2), 169–174(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Risbud, S. H.

A. Murali, A. Barve, V. J. Leppert, S. H. Risbud, I. M. Kennedy, and H. W. H. Lee, “Synthesis and characterization of indium oxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.1(6), 287–289(2001).
[CrossRef]

Risueño, M. C.

M. C. Risueño and P. S. Testillano, “Cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry of nucleolar chromatin in plants,” Micron25(4), 331–360(1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, F. M.

N. de Jonge and F. M. Ross, “Electron microscopy of specimens in liquid,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(11), 695–704(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, W. S.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.6(2), 169–174(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakuma, S.

S. Sakuma, H. Kominami, Y. Neo, T. Aoki, Y. Nakanishi, and H. Mimura, “Effect of La and Zn addition on Y2O3:Eu phosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci.244(1-4), 458–460(2005).
[CrossRef]

Sardar, D. K.

S. Chandra, F. L. Deepak, J. B. Gruber, and D. K. Sardar, “Synthesis, morphology, and optical characterization of nanocrystalline Er3+:Y2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(2), 874–880(2010).
[CrossRef]

Sawabe, H.

F. Mafuné, J. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and size control of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in aqueous solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117(2000).
[CrossRef]

Scheffer, R. C.

H. J. Geuze, J. W. Slot, P. A. van der Ley, R. C. Scheffer, and J. M. Griffith, “Use of colloidal gold particles in double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy of ultrathin frozen tissue sections,” J. Cell Biol.89(3), 653–665(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlessinger, J.

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekiguchi, T.

J. Niitsuma, H. Oikawa, E. Kimura, T. Ushiki, and T. Sekiguchi, “Cathodoluminescence investigation of organic materials,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo)54(4), 325–330(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, V.

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
[CrossRef]

Slot, J. W.

H. J. Geuze, J. W. Slot, P. A. van der Ley, R. C. Scheffer, and J. M. Griffith, “Use of colloidal gold particles in double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy of ultrathin frozen tissue sections,” J. Cell Biol.89(3), 653–665(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, N. I.

Sprinzak, D.

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stirling, J. W.

J. W. Stirling, “Immuno- and affinity probes for electron microscopy: a review of labeling and preparation techniques,” J. Histochem. Cytochem.38(2), 145–157(1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Studenikin, S. A.

J. Hao, S. A. Studenikin, and M. J. Cocivera, “Blue, green and red cathodoluminescence of Y2O3phosphor films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Lumin.93(4), 313–319(2001).
[CrossRef]

Svitkina, T. M.

T. M. Svitkina, E. A. Bulanova, O. Y. Chaga, D. M. Vignjevic, S. Kojima, J. M. Vasiliev, and G. G. Borisy, “Mechanism of filopodia initiation by reorganization of a dendritic network,” J. Cell Biol.160(3), 409–421(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Svitkina and G. G. Borisy, “Correlative light and electron microscopy of the cytoskeleton of cultured cells,” Methods Enzymol.298, 570–592(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, Y.

F. Mafuné, J. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and size control of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in aqueous solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117(2000).
[CrossRef]

Tank, D.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.6(2), 169–174(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terakawa, S.

Testillano, P. S.

M. C. Risueño and P. S. Testillano, “Cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry of nucleolar chromatin in plants,” Micron25(4), 331–360(1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiberge, S.

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, C. K.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.6(2), 169–174(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ushiki, T.

J. Niitsuma, H. Oikawa, E. Kimura, T. Ushiki, and T. Sekiguchi, “Cathodoluminescence investigation of organic materials,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo)54(4), 325–330(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Ley, P. A.

H. J. Geuze, J. W. Slot, P. A. van der Ley, R. C. Scheffer, and J. M. Griffith, “Use of colloidal gold particles in double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy of ultrathin frozen tissue sections,” J. Cell Biol.89(3), 653–665(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasiliev, J. M.

T. M. Svitkina, E. A. Bulanova, O. Y. Chaga, D. M. Vignjevic, S. Kojima, J. M. Vasiliev, and G. G. Borisy, “Mechanism of filopodia initiation by reorganization of a dendritic network,” J. Cell Biol.160(3), 409–421(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vignjevic, D. M.

T. M. Svitkina, E. A. Bulanova, O. Y. Chaga, D. M. Vignjevic, S. Kojima, J. M. Vasiliev, and G. G. Borisy, “Mechanism of filopodia initiation by reorganization of a dendritic network,” J. Cell Biol.160(3), 409–421(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B. L.

B. L. Wang and L. I. Larsson, “Simultaneous demonstration of multiple antigens by indirect immunofluorescence or immunogold staining. Novel light and electron microscopical double and triple staining method employing primary antibodies from the same species,” Histochemistry83(1), 47–56(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. X.

R. S. Petralia, J. A. Esteban, Y. X. Wang, J. G. Partridge, H. M. Zhao, R. J. Wenthold, and R. Malinow, “Selective acquisition of AMPA receptors over postnatal development suggests a molecular basis for silent synapses,” Nat. Neurosci.2(1), 31–36(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
[CrossRef]

Wenthold, R. J.

R. S. Petralia, J. A. Esteban, Y. X. Wang, J. G. Partridge, H. M. Zhao, R. J. Wenthold, and R. Malinow, “Selective acquisition of AMPA receptors over postnatal development suggests a molecular basis for silent synapses,” Nat. Neurosci.2(1), 31–36(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wessels, W. S.

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Immuno-fluorescence scanning electron microscopy of biological cells,” Opt. Commun.18(5), 8–13(2010).

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Enhanced biological cathodoluminescence,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1901–1908(2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

N. Yamamoto, S. Ohtani, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gap and Mie plasmons in individual silver nanospheres near a silver surface,” Nano Lett.11(1), 91–95(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yamamoto, K. Araya, and F. García de Abajo, “Photon emission from silver particles induced by a high-energy electron beam,” J. Phys. Rev. B64(20), 205419(2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

H. Zeng, S. Yang, and W. Cai, “Reshaping formation and luminescence evolution of ZnO quantum dots by laser-induced fragmentation in liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5038–5043(2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, S. Yang, and W. Cai, “Reshaping formation and luminescence evolution of ZnO quantum dots by laser-induced fragmentation in liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5038–5043(2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H. M.

R. S. Petralia, J. A. Esteban, Y. X. Wang, J. G. Partridge, H. M. Zhao, R. J. Wenthold, and R. Malinow, “Selective acquisition of AMPA receptors over postnatal development suggests a molecular basis for silent synapses,” Nat. Neurosci.2(1), 31–36(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, X.

B. Huang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.78(1), 993–1016(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zik, O.

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biochem.

B. Huang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.78(1), 993–1016(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express

H. Niioka, T. Furukawa, M. Ichimiya, M. Ashida, T. Araki, and M. Hashimoto, “Multicolor cathodoluminescence microscopy for biological imaging with nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Express4(11), 112402(2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Appl. Surf. Sci.

S. Sakuma, H. Kominami, Y. Neo, T. Aoki, Y. Nakanishi, and H. Mimura, “Effect of La and Zn addition on Y2O3:Eu phosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci.244(1-4), 458–460(2005).
[CrossRef]

Histochemistry

B. L. Wang and L. I. Larsson, “Simultaneous demonstration of multiple antigens by indirect immunofluorescence or immunogold staining. Novel light and electron microscopical double and triple staining method employing primary antibodies from the same species,” Histochemistry83(1), 47–56(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Biol.

T. M. Svitkina, E. A. Bulanova, O. Y. Chaga, D. M. Vignjevic, S. Kojima, J. M. Vasiliev, and G. G. Borisy, “Mechanism of filopodia initiation by reorganization of a dendritic network,” J. Cell Biol.160(3), 409–421(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Geuze, J. W. Slot, P. A. van der Ley, R. C. Scheffer, and J. M. Griffith, “Use of colloidal gold particles in double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy of ultrathin frozen tissue sections,” J. Cell Biol.89(3), 653–665(1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo)

J. Niitsuma, H. Oikawa, E. Kimura, T. Ushiki, and T. Sekiguchi, “Cathodoluminescence investigation of organic materials,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo)54(4), 325–330(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Histochem. Cytochem.

J. W. Stirling, “Immuno- and affinity probes for electron microscopy: a review of labeling and preparation techniques,” J. Histochem. Cytochem.38(2), 145–157(1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B

F. Mafuné, J. Kohno, Y. Takeda, T. Kondow, and H. Sawabe, “Formation and size control of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in aqueous solution,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(39), 9111–9117(2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

H. Zeng, S. Yang, and W. Cai, “Reshaping formation and luminescence evolution of ZnO quantum dots by laser-induced fragmentation in liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(12), 5038–5043(2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chandra, F. L. Deepak, J. B. Gruber, and D. K. Sardar, “Synthesis, morphology, and optical characterization of nanocrystalline Er3+:Y2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(2), 874–880(2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

V. Singh, V. K. Rai, I. Ledoux-Rak, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chucaci, L. Badie, F. Pelle, and S. Ivanova, “NIR to visible up-conversion, infrared luminescence, thermoluminescence and defect centres in Y2O3: Er phosphor,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(6), 065104(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Rev. B

N. Yamamoto, K. Araya, and F. García de Abajo, “Photon emission from silver particles induced by a high-energy electron beam,” J. Phys. Rev. B64(20), 205419(2001).
[CrossRef]

Lumin.

J. Hao, S. A. Studenikin, and M. J. Cocivera, “Blue, green and red cathodoluminescence of Y2O3phosphor films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Lumin.93(4), 313–319(2001).
[CrossRef]

Methods Enzymol.

T. M. Svitkina and G. G. Borisy, “Correlative light and electron microscopy of the cytoskeleton of cultured cells,” Methods Enzymol.298, 570–592(1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Micron

M. C. Risueño and P. S. Testillano, “Cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry of nucleolar chromatin in plants,” Micron25(4), 331–360(1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

A. Murali, A. Barve, V. J. Leppert, S. H. Risbud, I. M. Kennedy, and H. W. H. Lee, “Synthesis and characterization of indium oxide nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.1(6), 287–289(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett.6(2), 169–174(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yamamoto, S. Ohtani, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gap and Mie plasmons in individual silver nanospheres near a silver surface,” Nano Lett.11(1), 91–95(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

G. Ledoux, D. Amans, C. Dujardin, and K. Masenelli-Varlot, “Facile and rapid synthesis of highly luminescent nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid,” Nanotechnology20(44), 445605(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

N. de Jonge and F. M. Ross, “Electron microscopy of specimens in liquid,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(11), 695–704(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Neurosci.

R. S. Petralia, J. A. Esteban, Y. X. Wang, J. G. Partridge, H. M. Zhao, R. J. Wenthold, and R. Malinow, “Selective acquisition of AMPA receptors over postnatal development suggests a molecular basis for silent synapses,” Nat. Neurosci.2(1), 31–36(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Immuno-fluorescence scanning electron microscopy of biological cells,” Opt. Commun.18(5), 8–13(2010).

P. J. Fisher, W. S. Wessels, A. B. Dietz, and F. G. Prendergast, “Enhanced biological cathodoluminescence,” Opt. Commun.281(7), 1901–1908(2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

S. Thiberge, A. Nechushtan, D. Sprinzak, O. Gileadi, V. Behar, O. Zik, Y. Chowers, S. Michaeli, J. Schlessinger, and E. Moses, “Scanning electron microscopy of cells and tissues under fully hydrated conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(10), 3346–3351(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SID’ 07 Digest

T. Nagata, T. Nakayama, and H. Murakami, “Low voltage cathodoluminescent properties of Y2O3-based nano-particle phosphors,” SID’ 07 Digest(2007), 1328-1331(2007).

Other

D. C. Joy, Monte Carlo Modeling for Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis(Oxford, 1995).

W. M. Yen, S. Shionoya, and H. Yamamoto, Phosphor Handbook(CRC, 2007).

B. G. Yacobi and D. B. Holt, Cathodoluminescence Microscopy of Inorganic Solids(Plenum, 1990).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CL microscopy and CL imaging using Y2O3:Eu nanophosphors. (a) Schematic diagram of CL microscope. CL from a sample excited by a focused electron beam is collected by an ellipsoidal mirror and is then focused into an optical fiber bundle. After spectral separation with a spectrometer, the CL is detected by a CCD (for the spectrum) and a PMT (for imaging). (b) CL spectrum of Y2O3:Eu ((Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3) (acceleration voltage: 3 kV; current: 85 pA; exposure time: 20 s; slit size: 25 μm). (c),(d) SEM and CL images of Y2O3:Eu ((Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3) (acceleration voltage: 3 kV; current: 85 pA; acquisition wavelength: 614 nm; exposure time: 10 ms/pixel; slit size: 2 mm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relationship between CL intensity and beam current with different concentrations of Zn in Y2O3:Eu. The CL intensity increased with increasing Zn concentration. (Acceleration voltage: 3 kV.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM (a) and CL (b) images of Y2O3:Eu, Zn ((Y0.8Eu0.05Zn0.15)2O3) (acceleration voltage: 3 kV; current: 165 pA; acquisition wavelength: 614 nm; exposure time: 1 ms/pixel; slit size: 2 mm). Nanophosphors of less than 100 nm were observed in CL image, even when the phosphor size was about 30 nm (white arrow).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM (a, c) and TEM (b, d) images of Y2O3:Eu, Zn before laser ablation (a, b) and after laser ablation (c, d). Well-dispersed spherical nanophosphors were obtained by laser ablation method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM (a, b) and CL (c) images of 100 nm sliced section of a HeLa cell specimen containing laser-ablated Y2O3:Eu, Zn nanophosphors on a P-doped Si substrate (acceleration voltage: 3 kV; current: 53 pA; exposure time: 100 ms/pixel; slit width: 2 mm; acquisition wavelength: 614 nm). The gap between the phosphors was about 100 nm. The spatial resolution of this CL image was at least a few tens of nanometers, as indicated by the clearly resolved gap.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM (a) and CL (b, c, d) images of 100 nm sliced HeLa cell sample containing laser-ablated Y2O3:Eu, Zn ((Y0.8Eu0.05Zn0.15)2O3) nanophosphors on a P-doped Si substrate at various acceleration voltages (exposure time: 100 ms/pixel; slit width: 2 mm; acquisition wavelength: 614 nm). (e) Secondary electron (dotted line) and CL (solid lines) intensity profiles along lines A-B on SEM and CL images in (a)-(d). The spatial resolution of the CL image became worse with increasing acceleration voltage due to scattering of electrons.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Excitation and emission spectra of laser-ablated Y2O3:Eu, Zn. (b) Transmission, (c) fluorescence, and (d) combined images of Y2O3:Eu, Zn nanophosphors contained in a HeLa cells. Y2O3:Eu, Zn nanophosphors were excited by 254 nm UV light. The Y2O3:Eu, Zn nanophosphors can be used for fluorescence imaging.

Metrics