Abstract

We study numerically low-order harmonic generation in noble gases pumped by intense femtosecond laser pulses in the tunneling ionization regime. We analyze the influence of the phase-mismatching on this process, caused by the generated plasma, and study in dependence on the pump intensity the origin of harmonic generation arising either from the bound-electron nonlinearity or the tunnel-ionization current. It is shown that in argon the optimum pump intensity of about 100 TW/cm2 leads to the maximum efficiency, where the main contribution to low-order harmonics originates from the bound-electron third and fifth order susceptibilities, while for intensities higher than 300 TW/cm2 the tunnel-ionization current plays the dominant role. Besides, we predict that VUV pulses at 133 nm can be generated with relatively high efficiency of about 1.5 × 10−3 by 400 nm pump pulses.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. V. Hertel and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast dynamics in isolated molecules and molecular clusters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.69, 1897–2003 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “16-fs, 1-J ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air,” Opt. Lett.21, 665–667 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Trushin, K. Kosma, W. Fuß, and W. E. Schmid, “Sub-10-fs supercontinuum radiation generated by filamentation of few-cycle 800 nm pulses in argon,” Opt. Lett.32, 2432–2434 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Kosma, S. A. Trushin, W. E. Schmid, and W. Fuß, “Vacuum ultraviolet pulses of 11 fs from fifth-harmonic generation of a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett.33, 723–725 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. G. Durfee, S. B. Margaret, M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Ultrabroadband phase-matched optical parametric generation in the ultraviolet by use of guided waves,” Opt. Lett.22, 1565–1567 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Tzankov, O. Steinkellner, J. Zheng, M. Mero, W. Freyer, A. Husakou, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, and F. Noack, “High-power fifth-harmonic generation of femtosecond pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet using a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express15, 6389–6395 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6389 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. V. Babushkin and J. Herrmann, “High energy sub-10 fs pulse generation in vacuum ultraviolet using chirped four wave mixing in hollow waveguides,” Opt. Express16, 17774–17779 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-22-17774 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature (London)421, 51–54 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. U. K. Sapaev, I. V. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “Quasi-phase-matching for third harmonic generation in noble gases employing ultrasound,” Opt. Express20, 22753–22762 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-20-22753 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Ghotbi, M. Beutler, and F. Noack, “Generation of 2.5 μJ vacuum ultraviolet pulses with sub-50 fs duration by noncollinear four-wave mixing in argon,” Opt. Lett.35, 3492–3494 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Ghotbi, P. Trabs, M. Beutler, and F. Noack, “Generation of tunable sub-45 femtosecond pulses by noncollinear four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett.38, 486–488 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Bree, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 183902 (2011).
  13. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Brunel, “Harmonic generation due to plasma effects in a gas undergoing multiphoton ionization in the high-intensity limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B7, 521–526 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3418–3420 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett.58, 900–906 (1993).
  17. E. E. Serebryannikov, A. J. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A80, 053809 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express15, 4577–4584 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-8-4577 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053903 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New. J. Phys.13, 123029 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. W. Siders, G. Rodriguez, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, “Measurement of ultrafast ionization dynamics of gases by multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 263002 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltušhka, “Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 163904 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B13, 330–335 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev.185, 57–72 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11, 287–296 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 203901 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. V. Ammosov, N. Delone, and V. P. Kraĭnov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP91, 2008–2013 (1986).
  28. Z. Chang, Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics(Tayor and Francis Group, 2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. Song, Y. Qin, G. Zhang, S. Cao, D. Pang, L. Chai, Q. Wanga, Z. Wangb, and Z. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in temperature controlled gas-filled hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.281, 4109–4113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. Bree, “Nonlinear optics in the filamentation regime,” Ph.D. Dissertation (2012), http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/bree-carsten-2011-09-21/PDF/bree.pdf .
  31. V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Measurement of high order Kerr refractive index of major air components,” Opt. Express17, 13429–13434 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-16-13429 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, G. R. Burton, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. III. The photoabsorption of argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A46, 149–171 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

C. Bree, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 183902 (2011).

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New. J. Phys.13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltušhka, “Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 163904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ghotbi, M. Beutler, and F. Noack, “Generation of 2.5 μJ vacuum ultraviolet pulses with sub-50 fs duration by noncollinear four-wave mixing in argon,” Opt. Lett.35, 3492–3494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Serebryannikov, A. J. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A80, 053809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Measurement of high order Kerr refractive index of major air components,” Opt. Express17, 13429–13434 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-16-13429 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

I. V. Hertel and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast dynamics in isolated molecules and molecular clusters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.69, 1897–2003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature (London)421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. W. Siders, G. Rodriguez, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, “Measurement of ultrafast ionization dynamics of gases by multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 263002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3418–3420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett.58, 900–906 (1993).

1992 (1)

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, G. R. Burton, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. III. The photoabsorption of argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A46, 149–171 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. Delone, and V. P. Kraĭnov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP91, 2008–2013 (1986).

1975 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev.185, 57–72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. Delone, and V. P. Kraĭnov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP91, 2008–2013 (1986).

Babine, A.

Babushkin, I.

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New. J. Phys.13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzankov, O. Steinkellner, J. Zheng, M. Mero, W. Freyer, A. Husakou, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, and F. Noack, “High-power fifth-harmonic generation of femtosecond pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet using a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express15, 6389–6395 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6389 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babushkin, I. V.

Backus, S.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature (London)421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “16-fs, 1-J ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air,” Opt. Lett.21, 665–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baltušhka, A.

J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltušhka, “Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 163904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

E. E. Serebryannikov, A. J. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A80, 053809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R. A.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature (London)421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New. J. Phys.13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beutler, M.

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bree, C.

C. Bree, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 183902 (2011).

C. Bree, “Nonlinear optics in the filamentation regime,” Ph.D. Dissertation (2012), http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/bree-carsten-2011-09-21/PDF/bree.pdf .

Brion, C. E.

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, G. R. Burton, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. III. The photoabsorption of argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A46, 149–171 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunel, F.

Burnett, N. H.

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3418–3420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burton, G. R.

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, G. R. Burton, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. III. The photoabsorption of argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A46, 149–171 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrera-Granado, E.

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New. J. Phys.13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, S.

Z. Song, Y. Qin, G. Zhang, S. Cao, D. Pang, L. Chai, Q. Wanga, Z. Wangb, and Z. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in temperature controlled gas-filled hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.281, 4109–4113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chai, L.

Z. Song, Y. Qin, G. Zhang, S. Cao, D. Pang, L. Chai, Q. Wanga, Z. Wangb, and Z. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in temperature controlled gas-filled hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.281, 4109–4113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. F.

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, G. R. Burton, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. III. The photoabsorption of argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A46, 149–171 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

Z. Chang, Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics(Tayor and Francis Group, 2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature (London)421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, G.

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, G. R. Burton, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. III. The photoabsorption of argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A46, 149–171 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3418–3420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N.

M. V. Ammosov, N. Delone, and V. P. Kraĭnov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP91, 2008–2013 (1986).

Demircan, A.

C. Bree, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 183902 (2011).

Downer, M. C.

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B13, 330–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett.58, 900–906 (1993).

Durfee, C. G.

Elsaesser, T.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faucher, O.

Freyer, W.

Fuß, W.

Ghotbi, M.

Glownia, J. H.

Green, H.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature (London)421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, G. R. Burton, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. III. The photoabsorption of argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A46, 149–171 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New. J. Phys.13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

Hertel, I. V.

I. V. Hertel and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast dynamics in isolated molecules and molecular clusters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.69, 1897–2003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, E.

Husakou, A.

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jing, C.

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kan, C.

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3418–3420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kartashov, D. V.

J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltušhka, “Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 163904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, A. V.

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett.58, 900–906 (1993).

Kim, K. Y.

Köhler, C.

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New. J. Phys.13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosma, K.

Krai?nov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. Delone, and V. P. Kraĭnov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP91, 2008–2013 (1986).

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuehn, W.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavorel, B.

Li, G.

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Loriot, V.

Margaret, S. B.

Mero, M.

Mitrofanov, A.

E. E. Serebryannikov, A. J. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A80, 053809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, A. V.

J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltušhka, “Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 163904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M.

Murnane, M. M.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature (London)421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “16-fs, 1-J ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air,” Opt. Lett.21, 665–667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

New, G. H. C.

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev.185, 57–72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ni, J.

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

Omenetto, F. G.

C. W. Siders, G. Rodriguez, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, “Measurement of ultrafast ionization dynamics of gases by multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 263002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pang, D.

Z. Song, Y. Qin, G. Zhang, S. Cao, D. Pang, L. Chai, Q. Wanga, Z. Wangb, and Z. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in temperature controlled gas-filled hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.281, 4109–4113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature (London)421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peatross, J.

Qin, Y.

Z. Song, Y. Qin, G. Zhang, S. Cao, D. Pang, L. Chai, Q. Wanga, Z. Wangb, and Z. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in temperature controlled gas-filled hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.281, 4109–4113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radloff, W.

I. V. Hertel and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast dynamics in isolated molecules and molecular clusters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.69, 1897–2003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express15, 4577–4584 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-8-4577 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Siders, G. Rodriguez, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, “Measurement of ultrafast ionization dynamics of gases by multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 263002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

Sapaev, U. K.

Schmid, W. E.

Serebryannikov, E. E.

J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltušhka, “Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 163904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Serebryannikov, A. J. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A80, 053809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sergeev, A. M.

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B13, 330–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett.58, 900–906 (1993).

Siders, C. W.

C. W. Siders, G. Rodriguez, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, “Measurement of ultrafast ionization dynamics of gases by multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 263002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B13, 330–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siders, J. L. W.

C. W. Siders, G. Rodriguez, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, “Measurement of ultrafast ionization dynamics of gases by multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 263002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New. J. Phys.13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Z.

Z. Song, Y. Qin, G. Zhang, S. Cao, D. Pang, L. Chai, Q. Wanga, Z. Wangb, and Z. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in temperature controlled gas-filled hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.281, 4109–4113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steinkellner, O.

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Bree, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 183902 (2011).

Stepanov, A.

Taft, G.

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express15, 4577–4584 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-8-4577 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Siders, G. Rodriguez, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, “Measurement of ultrafast ionization dynamics of gases by multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 263002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tobey, R.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature (London)421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trabs, P.

Trushin, S. A.

Turner, N. C.

Tzankov, P.

Vanin, E. V.

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett.58, 900–906 (1993).

Verhoef, A. J.

E. E. Serebryannikov, A. J. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A80, 053809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verhoef, J.

J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltušhka, “Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 163904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wanga, Q.

Z. Song, Y. Qin, G. Zhang, S. Cao, D. Pang, L. Chai, Q. Wanga, Z. Wangb, and Z. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in temperature controlled gas-filled hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.281, 4109–4113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wangb, Z.

Z. Song, Y. Qin, G. Zhang, S. Cao, D. Pang, L. Chai, Q. Wanga, Z. Wangb, and Z. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in temperature controlled gas-filled hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.281, 4109–4113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. F.

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev.185, 57–72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Weiman, S.

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature (London)421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, Z.

Zeng, B.

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Z. Song, Y. Qin, G. Zhang, S. Cao, D. Pang, L. Chai, Q. Wanga, Z. Wangb, and Z. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in temperature controlled gas-filled hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.281, 4109–4113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Song, Y. Qin, G. Zhang, S. Cao, D. Pang, L. Chai, Q. Wanga, Z. Wangb, and Z. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in temperature controlled gas-filled hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.281, 4109–4113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltušhka, “Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 163904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Serebryannikov, A. J. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A80, 053809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (London) (1)

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, “Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,” Nature (London)421, 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

New. J. Phys. (1)

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New. J. Phys.13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Song, Y. Qin, G. Zhang, S. Cao, D. Pang, L. Chai, Q. Wanga, Z. Wangb, and Z. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in temperature controlled gas-filled hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun.281, 4109–4113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev.185, 57–72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, H. Zhang, C. Jing, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A84, 063846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Chan, G. Cooper, X. Guo, G. R. Burton, and C. E. Brion, “Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution. III. The photoabsorption of argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A46, 149–171 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Serebryannikov, A. J. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A80, 053809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3418–3420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bree, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 183902 (2011).

C. W. Siders, G. Rodriguez, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, “Measurement of ultrafast ionization dynamics of gases by multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 263002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltušhka, “Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 163904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

I. V. Hertel and W. Radloff, “Ultrafast dynamics in isolated molecules and molecular clusters,” Rep. Prog. Phys.69, 1897–2003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. Delone, and V. P. Kraĭnov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP91, 2008–2013 (1986).

Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. (1)

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” Sov. Phys. JETP Lett.58, 900–906 (1993).

Other (2)

Z. Chang, Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics(Tayor and Francis Group, 2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Bree, “Nonlinear optics in the filamentation regime,” Ph.D. Dissertation (2012), http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/bree-carsten-2011-09-21/PDF/bree.pdf .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear and nonlinear optical parameters of argon in the high-intensity regime (normal pressure P = 1 atm) for a 20 fs pulse at 800 nm: (a) free electrons density at the trailing edge of the pulse normalized by the total number of atoms (2.7 × 1025m−3); (b) contributions of the nonlinear refractive index, caused by Kerr nonlinearity, when only n2 = 1.1 × 10−23m2/W (solid), n2 and n4 = −0.36 × 10−41m4/W2 [31] (dashed), n2, n4 and ionized argon n 2 + = 0.6 × 10 23 m 2 / W [12] (dotted) are taken into account; (c) change of the total refractive index of pump (black), third (red), fifth (green) and seventh (blue), harmonics; (d) change of coherent length of third (red), fifth (green) and seventh (blue) harmonics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical and analytical calculations for a 20-fs transform limited pump pulse with a 100 TW/cm2 peak intensity at 800 nm: (a) spectrum of the output pulse, calculated numerically with (red) and without (green) taking χ(3) and χ(5) into account; (b) efficiency conversion of third harmonic, calculated numerically (red) and analytically (black) for χ(3) ≠ 0, χ(5) ≠ 0, and χ(3) = χ(5) = 0 (c); (d) efficiency conversion of fifth (green) and seventh (blue) harmonics; (e) normalized free electron density in time domain (red) and plasma current (blue).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical calculations for a 20-fs transform limited pump pulse with 400 TW/cm2 peak intensity at 800 nm: (a) spectrum of the output pulse, calculated with (red) and without (green) taking χ(3) and χ(5) into account; (b) conversion efficiencies of third (red) and fifth harmonics (black); (c) time profile of the pump at the input (blue) and output (red); (d) normalized density of free electron distribution (red) and plasma current (blue).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Efficiency of LOHG in dependence on the pump intensity calculated for (a) third, (b) fifth and (c) seventh harmonic. Efficiencies were calculated with (blue) and without (red) taking χ(3) and χ(5) into account. Green curve in (a) shows results when χ(3), χ(5) and χ+(3) were taken into account. In (d) the change of the coherent length of third harmonic and the length of its temporal walk-off from the fundamental frequency are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of numerical and analytical calculations for 400 nm pump pulses with 100 TW/cm2 [(a),(b)] and 300 TW/cm2 [(c), (d)]. In (a), (c) the spectrum of the output pulses, calculated with (red) and without (green) taking χ(3) and χ(5) are presented. In (b), (d) the efficiency of third harmonic, calculated numerically (red) and analytically (black) are shown.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

z E ^ ( ω ) = i k ( ω ) E ^ ( ω ) + i μ o ω 2 2 k ( ω ) P ^ N L ( ω )
t ρ ( t ) = W S T ( t ) ( ρ at ρ ( t ) )
t J e ( t ) + ν e J e ( t ) = q 2 m e E ( t ) ρ ( t )
n ( ω , I , ρ ) = n e ( ω , ρ ) + Δ n Kerr ( I , ρ ) + Δ n Plasma ( ω , ρ )
E 2 r + 1 ( z ) = A P 2 + δ 1 r ( A 3 + A 51 ) 2 + δ 2 r A 52 2 sin ( Δ k 2 r + 1 z / 2 ) / ( Δ k 2 r + 1 / 2 )

Metrics