Abstract

A platform for the realization of tightly-confined lithium niobate photonic devices and circuits on silicon substrates is reported based on wafer bonding and selective oxidation of refractory metals. The heterogeneous photonic platform is employed to demonstrate high-performance lithium niobate microring optical resonators and Mach-Zehnder optical modulators. A quality factor of ~7.2 × 104 is measured in the microresonators, and a half-wave voltage-length product of 4 V.cm and an extinction ratio of 20 dB is measured in the modulators.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

2011

2010

A. Chiba, T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, “16-level quadrature amplitude modulation by monolithic quad-parallel Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 220–222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

K. K. Tsia, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, “Electrical tuning of birefringence in silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Yang, Z. Mi, and P. Bhattacharya, “Groove-coupled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot laser/waveguide on silicon,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(7), 1826–1831 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(6), 417–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(16), 161115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

S. Tanzilli, H. D. Riedmatten, W. Tittle, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electron. Lett.37(1), 26–28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(18), 2505–2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

R. Brinkmann, I. Baumann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Erbium-doped single- and double-pass Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(10), 2356–2360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

R. C. Alferness, V. Ramaswamy, S. Korotky, M. Divino, and L. Buhl, “Efficient single-mode fiber to titanium diffused lithium niobate waveguide coupling for λ = 1.32 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(10), 1807–1813 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977

N. Matsumoto and K. Kumabe, “AlGaAs–GaAs semiconductor ring lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.16(8), 1395–1398 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, V. Ramaswamy, S. Korotky, M. Divino, and L. Buhl, “Efficient single-mode fiber to titanium diffused lithium niobate waveguide coupling for λ = 1.32 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(10), 1807–1813 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, K.

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Autran, J. L.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bakhru, H.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

S. Tanzilli, H. D. Riedmatten, W. Tittle, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electron. Lett.37(1), 26–28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balland, B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Batchko, R. G.

Baumann, I.

R. Brinkmann, I. Baumann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Erbium-doped single- and double-pass Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(10), 2356–2360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Botineau, J.

Bowers, J. E.

Brinkmann, R.

R. Brinkmann, I. Baumann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Erbium-doped single- and double-pass Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(10), 2356–2360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L.

R. C. Alferness, V. Ramaswamy, S. Korotky, M. Divino, and L. Buhl, “Efficient single-mode fiber to titanium diffused lithium niobate waveguide coupling for λ = 1.32 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(10), 1807–1813 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Cargill, G. S.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chaneliere, C.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chiba, A.

A. Chiba, T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, “16-level quadrature amplitude modulation by monolithic quad-parallel Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 220–222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiles, J.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Cross, L. E.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(16), 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

De Micheli, M.

Degl’Innocenti, R.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devine, R. A. B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dinand, M.

R. Brinkmann, I. Baumann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Erbium-doped single- and double-pass Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(10), 2356–2360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Divino, M.

R. C. Alferness, V. Ramaswamy, S. Korotky, M. Divino, and L. Buhl, “Efficient single-mode fiber to titanium diffused lithium niobate waveguide coupling for λ = 1.32 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(10), 1807–1813 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Fathpour, S.

Fejer, M. M.

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Galvanauskas, A.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(18), 2505–2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

S. Tanzilli, H. D. Riedmatten, W. Tittle, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electron. Lett.37(1), 26–28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Higuma, K.

A. Chiba, T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, “16-level quadrature amplitude modulation by monolithic quad-parallel Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 220–222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

Hu, H.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express17(26), 24261–24268 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(6), 417–419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, J.

A. Chiba, T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, “16-level quadrature amplitude modulation by monolithic quad-parallel Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” Electron. Lett.46(3), 220–222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Imaeda, M.

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Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. K. Tsia, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, “Electrical tuning of birefringence in silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(6), 061109 (2008).
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Electron. Lett.

S. Tanzilli, H. D. Riedmatten, W. Tittle, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electron. Lett.37(1), 26–28 (2001).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

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R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
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I. Bakish, R. Califa, T. Ilovitsh, V. Artel, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, E. Shekel, C. N. Sukenik, and A. Zadok, “Voltage-Induced Phase Shift in a Hybrid LiNbO3-on-Silicon Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” in Advanced Photonics 2013, H. Chang, V. Tolstikhin, T. Krauss, and M. Watts, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper IW4A.2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical ranges of effective areas and minimum radii for negligible (< ~0.1 dB) bending loss at 90° bends are shown for different waveguides technologies. ∆n denotes the rough refractive index contrast between core and cladding of the waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematics of the demonstrated microring resonators and Mach-Zehnder modulators are shown. The top SiO2 cladding layer and the ultrathin SiO2 diffusion barrier shown in (b) are omitted here for simplification. The dimensions are not in scale; (b) Cross-section of the waveguide structure at one arm of the modulator with typical dimensions. The different layers are Si (substrate), SiO2 (claddings and diffusion barrier regions), LiNbO3 (core and active region), Ta2O5 (loaded rib), Au (metallic contact). Shown also is a simplistic RF electric-field profile in the LiNbO3 active region; (c) Top-view high-magnification optical microscope image of a fabricated ring-resonator with input and output bent bus waveguides; (d) SEM image of cross-section of a fabricated waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)-(d) Process steps for the fabrication of LiNbO3-on-Si wafers; (e) Picture of successful bonding of a 3-inch Y-cut LiNbO3 wafer bonded to a 4-inch silicon wafer; (f)-(j)The proposed process steps of selective oxidation of tantalum to form submicron LiNbO3 ridge waveguide on silicon.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Calculated optical mode profile with 400-nm-thick lithium niobate and 200-nm-tall, 1-µm-wide tantalum pentoxide ridge waveguide; (b) Calculated RF mode profile with 4 µm gap between electrodes. High confinement allows short gaps between electrodes without introducing absorption loss.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission spectrum of a microresonator with 300 µm diameter for the TE mode around 1550 nm wavelength. The resonance linewidth is 2.7 GHz; (b) Applied sawtooth electrical signal and the measured modulation response of a 6-mm-long Mach-Zehnder modulator. The measured Vπ is 6.8 V.

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