Abstract

Polarized Raman spectra have been obtained from polyacrylonitrile copolymers fibers with vinyl acetate Poly(AN-co-VA), and methyl acrylate Poly(AN-co-MA) with finishing and without finishing, in order to show the effect of the finishing in the optical rotation of the Raman scattered light. The polarized Raman spectra were used to calculate the depolarization ratios for both fibers. These values reveal that there is antisymmetric Raman scattering in the form of anomalous depolarization for some bands due to a dipolar interaction between the polar headgroup of the finishing with the polar nitrile group of the fiber causing changes in the orientation of fiber polymer chains, or pseudo antisymmetric Raman scattering due to planar hydrocarbons of the oil finishing which are optically active and are aligned when they are applied to the acrylic fibers during the spinning process. Although the finishing should not affect the physical or chemical properties of the fibers, in this work is shown that the finishing could introduce optical activity in the different wavenumbers of the Raman signal and this effect is proportional to the finishing content. According to the results obtained in this work, Raman polarized spectroscopy can provide an express method to identify acrylic fibers with finishing and without finishing agents.

© 2013 OSA

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2011 (1)

V. L. Murphy and B. Kahr, “Planar Hydrocarbons More Optically Active Than Their Isomeric Helicenes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(33), 12918–12921 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Perez-Pueyo, M. J. Soneira, and S. Ruiz-Moreno, “Morphology-based automated baseline removal for Raman spectra of artistic pigments,” Appl. Spectrosc.64(6), 595–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

V. Presser, B. E. Schuster, M. B. Casu, U. Heinemeyer, and F. Schreiber, “Raman polarization studies of highly oriented organic thin films,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. George and A. K. Bhowmick, “Influence of matrix polarity on the properties of ethylene vinyl acetate–carbon nanofiller nanocomposites,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.4(7), 655–664 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

K. Claborn, C. Isborn, W. Kaminsky, and B. Kahr, “Optical rotation of achiral compounds,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(31), 5706–5717 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (4)

L. L. Cho, “Identification of textile fiber by Raman microspectroscopy,” Forensic Science Journal6(1), 55–62 (2007).

V. D. Vasil'eva, V. E. Derbisher, I. Y. Kovalets, T. P. Aleinikova, and E. V. Derbisher, “Synthesis of polymeric peroxides and their Use in finishing treatment of textile materials,” Russ. J. Appl. Chem.80(8), 1409–1412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Parvinzadeh, “The effects of softeners on the properties of sulfur-dyed cotton fibers,” J. Surfact. Deterg.10(4), 219–223 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ki, J. H. Kim, S. C. Kwon, and S. H. Jeong, “A study on multifunctional wool textiles treated with nano-sized silver,” J. Mater. Sci.42(19), 8020–8024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Yadav, V. Prasad, A. A. Kathe, S. Raj, D. Yadav, C. Sundaramoorthy, and N. Vigneshwaran, “Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Bull. Mater. Sci.29(6), 641–645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Riva, I. M. Algaba, and M. Pepio, “Action of a finishing product in the improvement of the ultraviolet protection provided by cotton fabrics. Modelisation of the effect,” Cellulose13(6), 697–704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

C. Hou, R. Qu, L. Ying, and C. Wang, “Effect of comonomers on finishing behavior of carbon fiber precursors,” J. Polym. Res.12(4), 313–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Rajvaidya, R. Bajpai, and A. K. Bajpai, “Preparation and characterization of hard and biocompatible interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of gelatin and polyacrylonitrile,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure.42(9), 1271–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Causin, C. Marega, S. Schiavone, and A. Marigo, “A quantitative differentiation method for acrylic fibers by infrared spectroscopy,” Forensic Sci. Int.151(2-3), 125–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Wan, Z. K. Xu, X. J. Huang, Z. G. Wang, and J. L. Wang, “Copolymerization of acrylonitrile with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone to improve the hemocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile,” Polymer (Guildf.)46(18), 7715–7723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

S. F. Fennessey and R. J. Farris, “Fabrication of aligned and molecularly oriented electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers and the mechanical behavior of their twisted yarns,” Polymer (Guildf.)4, 54217–54225 (2004).

M. S. Silverstein, Y. Najary, Y. Lumelsky, I. von Lampe, G. S. Grader, and G. E. Shet, “Complex formation and degradation in poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) containing metal nitrates,” Polymer (Guildf.)45(3), 937–947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Lefèvre, M. E. Rousseau, and M. Pézolet, “Determination of molecular orientation in protein films and fibers by Raman microspectroscopy,” Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc.50, 41–48 (2004).

S. Frisk, R. M. Ikeda, D. B. Chase, and J. F. Rabolt, “Determination of the molecular orientation of poly(propylene terephthalate) fibers using polarized Raman spectroscopy: A comparison of methods,” Appl. Spectrosc.58(3), 279–286 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Blanco and J. Pagès, “Classification and quantitation of finishing oils by near infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta463(2), 295–303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

Y. H. Bang, S. Lee, and H. H. Cho, “Effect of methyl acrylate composition on the microstructure changes of high molecular weight polyacrylonitrile for heat treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci.68(13), 2205–2213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. Y. Nikolaeva, L. E. Semenova, K. A. Prokhorov, and S. A. Gordeyev, “Quantitative characterization of macromolecules orientation,” Laser Phys.7(2), 403–415 (1997).

1992 (1)

D. P. Strommen, “Specific values of the depolarization ratio in Raman spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Educ.69(10), 803–807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. Hecht and L. A. Nafie, “Linear polarization Raman optical activity: a new form of natural optical activity,” Chem. Phys. Lett.174(6), 575–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T. J. Proffitt and H. T. Patterson, “Oleochemical suffactants and lubricants in the textile industry,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.65(10), 1682–1694 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Štokr, B. Schneider, D. Doskočilová, J. Lövy, and P. Sedláček, “Conformational structure of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Infra-red, Raman and n.m.r. spectra,” Polymer (Guildf.)23(5), 714–721 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

D. I. Bower, “Investigation of molecular orientation distributions by polarized Raman scattering and polarized fluorescence,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys.10(11), 2135–2153 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Spiro and T. C. Strekas, “Resonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin and cytochrome c: inverse polarization and vibronic scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.69(9), 2622–2626 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

Aleinikova, T. P.

V. D. Vasil'eva, V. E. Derbisher, I. Y. Kovalets, T. P. Aleinikova, and E. V. Derbisher, “Synthesis of polymeric peroxides and their Use in finishing treatment of textile materials,” Russ. J. Appl. Chem.80(8), 1409–1412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Algaba, I. M.

A. Riva, I. M. Algaba, and M. Pepio, “Action of a finishing product in the improvement of the ultraviolet protection provided by cotton fabrics. Modelisation of the effect,” Cellulose13(6), 697–704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allemand, C. D.

Bajpai, A. K.

S. Rajvaidya, R. Bajpai, and A. K. Bajpai, “Preparation and characterization of hard and biocompatible interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of gelatin and polyacrylonitrile,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure.42(9), 1271–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bajpai, R.

S. Rajvaidya, R. Bajpai, and A. K. Bajpai, “Preparation and characterization of hard and biocompatible interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of gelatin and polyacrylonitrile,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure.42(9), 1271–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bang, Y. H.

Y. H. Bang, S. Lee, and H. H. Cho, “Effect of methyl acrylate composition on the microstructure changes of high molecular weight polyacrylonitrile for heat treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci.68(13), 2205–2213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bhowmick, A. K.

J. J. George and A. K. Bhowmick, “Influence of matrix polarity on the properties of ethylene vinyl acetate–carbon nanofiller nanocomposites,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.4(7), 655–664 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanco, M.

M. Blanco and J. Pagès, “Classification and quantitation of finishing oils by near infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta463(2), 295–303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bower, D. I.

D. I. Bower, “Investigation of molecular orientation distributions by polarized Raman scattering and polarized fluorescence,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys.10(11), 2135–2153 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Casu, M. B.

V. Presser, B. E. Schuster, M. B. Casu, U. Heinemeyer, and F. Schreiber, “Raman polarization studies of highly oriented organic thin films,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Causin, V.

V. Causin, C. Marega, S. Schiavone, and A. Marigo, “A quantitative differentiation method for acrylic fibers by infrared spectroscopy,” Forensic Sci. Int.151(2-3), 125–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chase, D. B.

Cho, H. H.

Y. H. Bang, S. Lee, and H. H. Cho, “Effect of methyl acrylate composition on the microstructure changes of high molecular weight polyacrylonitrile for heat treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci.68(13), 2205–2213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, L. L.

L. L. Cho, “Identification of textile fiber by Raman microspectroscopy,” Forensic Science Journal6(1), 55–62 (2007).

Claborn, K.

K. Claborn, C. Isborn, W. Kaminsky, and B. Kahr, “Optical rotation of achiral compounds,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(31), 5706–5717 (2008).
[PubMed]

Derbisher, E. V.

V. D. Vasil'eva, V. E. Derbisher, I. Y. Kovalets, T. P. Aleinikova, and E. V. Derbisher, “Synthesis of polymeric peroxides and their Use in finishing treatment of textile materials,” Russ. J. Appl. Chem.80(8), 1409–1412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Derbisher, V. E.

V. D. Vasil'eva, V. E. Derbisher, I. Y. Kovalets, T. P. Aleinikova, and E. V. Derbisher, “Synthesis of polymeric peroxides and their Use in finishing treatment of textile materials,” Russ. J. Appl. Chem.80(8), 1409–1412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doskocilová, D.

J. Štokr, B. Schneider, D. Doskočilová, J. Lövy, and P. Sedláček, “Conformational structure of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Infra-red, Raman and n.m.r. spectra,” Polymer (Guildf.)23(5), 714–721 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Farris, R. J.

S. F. Fennessey and R. J. Farris, “Fabrication of aligned and molecularly oriented electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers and the mechanical behavior of their twisted yarns,” Polymer (Guildf.)4, 54217–54225 (2004).

Fennessey, S. F.

S. F. Fennessey and R. J. Farris, “Fabrication of aligned and molecularly oriented electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers and the mechanical behavior of their twisted yarns,” Polymer (Guildf.)4, 54217–54225 (2004).

Frisk, S.

George, J. J.

J. J. George and A. K. Bhowmick, “Influence of matrix polarity on the properties of ethylene vinyl acetate–carbon nanofiller nanocomposites,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.4(7), 655–664 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordeyev, S. A.

G. Y. Nikolaeva, L. E. Semenova, K. A. Prokhorov, and S. A. Gordeyev, “Quantitative characterization of macromolecules orientation,” Laser Phys.7(2), 403–415 (1997).

Grader, G. S.

M. S. Silverstein, Y. Najary, Y. Lumelsky, I. von Lampe, G. S. Grader, and G. E. Shet, “Complex formation and degradation in poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) containing metal nitrates,” Polymer (Guildf.)45(3), 937–947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Graff, D. K.

Hecht, L.

L. Hecht and L. A. Nafie, “Linear polarization Raman optical activity: a new form of natural optical activity,” Chem. Phys. Lett.174(6), 575–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heinemeyer, U.

V. Presser, B. E. Schuster, M. B. Casu, U. Heinemeyer, and F. Schreiber, “Raman polarization studies of highly oriented organic thin films,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hou, C.

C. Hou, R. Qu, L. Ying, and C. Wang, “Effect of comonomers on finishing behavior of carbon fiber precursors,” J. Polym. Res.12(4), 313–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. J.

L. S. Wan, Z. K. Xu, X. J. Huang, Z. G. Wang, and J. L. Wang, “Copolymerization of acrylonitrile with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone to improve the hemocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile,” Polymer (Guildf.)46(18), 7715–7723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, R. M.

Isborn, C.

K. Claborn, C. Isborn, W. Kaminsky, and B. Kahr, “Optical rotation of achiral compounds,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(31), 5706–5717 (2008).
[PubMed]

Jeong, S. H.

H. Y. Ki, J. H. Kim, S. C. Kwon, and S. H. Jeong, “A study on multifunctional wool textiles treated with nano-sized silver,” J. Mater. Sci.42(19), 8020–8024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kahr, B.

V. L. Murphy and B. Kahr, “Planar Hydrocarbons More Optically Active Than Their Isomeric Helicenes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(33), 12918–12921 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Claborn, C. Isborn, W. Kaminsky, and B. Kahr, “Optical rotation of achiral compounds,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(31), 5706–5717 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kaminsky, W.

K. Claborn, C. Isborn, W. Kaminsky, and B. Kahr, “Optical rotation of achiral compounds,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(31), 5706–5717 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kathe, A. A.

A. Yadav, V. Prasad, A. A. Kathe, S. Raj, D. Yadav, C. Sundaramoorthy, and N. Vigneshwaran, “Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Bull. Mater. Sci.29(6), 641–645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ki, H. Y.

H. Y. Ki, J. H. Kim, S. C. Kwon, and S. H. Jeong, “A study on multifunctional wool textiles treated with nano-sized silver,” J. Mater. Sci.42(19), 8020–8024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

H. Y. Ki, J. H. Kim, S. C. Kwon, and S. H. Jeong, “A study on multifunctional wool textiles treated with nano-sized silver,” J. Mater. Sci.42(19), 8020–8024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kovalets, I. Y.

V. D. Vasil'eva, V. E. Derbisher, I. Y. Kovalets, T. P. Aleinikova, and E. V. Derbisher, “Synthesis of polymeric peroxides and their Use in finishing treatment of textile materials,” Russ. J. Appl. Chem.80(8), 1409–1412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. C.

H. Y. Ki, J. H. Kim, S. C. Kwon, and S. H. Jeong, “A study on multifunctional wool textiles treated with nano-sized silver,” J. Mater. Sci.42(19), 8020–8024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Y. H. Bang, S. Lee, and H. H. Cho, “Effect of methyl acrylate composition on the microstructure changes of high molecular weight polyacrylonitrile for heat treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci.68(13), 2205–2213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre, T.

T. Lefèvre, M. E. Rousseau, and M. Pézolet, “Determination of molecular orientation in protein films and fibers by Raman microspectroscopy,” Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc.50, 41–48 (2004).

Lövy, J.

J. Štokr, B. Schneider, D. Doskočilová, J. Lövy, and P. Sedláček, “Conformational structure of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Infra-red, Raman and n.m.r. spectra,” Polymer (Guildf.)23(5), 714–721 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lumelsky, Y.

M. S. Silverstein, Y. Najary, Y. Lumelsky, I. von Lampe, G. S. Grader, and G. E. Shet, “Complex formation and degradation in poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) containing metal nitrates,” Polymer (Guildf.)45(3), 937–947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marega, C.

V. Causin, C. Marega, S. Schiavone, and A. Marigo, “A quantitative differentiation method for acrylic fibers by infrared spectroscopy,” Forensic Sci. Int.151(2-3), 125–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marigo, A.

V. Causin, C. Marega, S. Schiavone, and A. Marigo, “A quantitative differentiation method for acrylic fibers by infrared spectroscopy,” Forensic Sci. Int.151(2-3), 125–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, V. L.

V. L. Murphy and B. Kahr, “Planar Hydrocarbons More Optically Active Than Their Isomeric Helicenes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(33), 12918–12921 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nafie, L. A.

L. Hecht and L. A. Nafie, “Linear polarization Raman optical activity: a new form of natural optical activity,” Chem. Phys. Lett.174(6), 575–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Najary, Y.

M. S. Silverstein, Y. Najary, Y. Lumelsky, I. von Lampe, G. S. Grader, and G. E. Shet, “Complex formation and degradation in poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) containing metal nitrates,” Polymer (Guildf.)45(3), 937–947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nikolaeva, G. Y.

G. Y. Nikolaeva, L. E. Semenova, K. A. Prokhorov, and S. A. Gordeyev, “Quantitative characterization of macromolecules orientation,” Laser Phys.7(2), 403–415 (1997).

Oertel, D. C.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pagès, J.

M. Blanco and J. Pagès, “Classification and quantitation of finishing oils by near infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta463(2), 295–303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R. A.

Parvinzadeh, M.

M. Parvinzadeh, “The effects of softeners on the properties of sulfur-dyed cotton fibers,” J. Surfact. Deterg.10(4), 219–223 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, H. T.

T. J. Proffitt and H. T. Patterson, “Oleochemical suffactants and lubricants in the textile industry,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.65(10), 1682–1694 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pepio, M.

A. Riva, I. M. Algaba, and M. Pepio, “Action of a finishing product in the improvement of the ultraviolet protection provided by cotton fabrics. Modelisation of the effect,” Cellulose13(6), 697–704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Pueyo, R.

Pézolet, M.

T. Lefèvre, M. E. Rousseau, and M. Pézolet, “Determination of molecular orientation in protein films and fibers by Raman microspectroscopy,” Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc.50, 41–48 (2004).

Potma, E. O.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, V.

A. Yadav, V. Prasad, A. A. Kathe, S. Raj, D. Yadav, C. Sundaramoorthy, and N. Vigneshwaran, “Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Bull. Mater. Sci.29(6), 641–645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Presser, V.

V. Presser, B. E. Schuster, M. B. Casu, U. Heinemeyer, and F. Schreiber, “Raman polarization studies of highly oriented organic thin films,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proffitt, T. J.

T. J. Proffitt and H. T. Patterson, “Oleochemical suffactants and lubricants in the textile industry,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.65(10), 1682–1694 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, K. A.

G. Y. Nikolaeva, L. E. Semenova, K. A. Prokhorov, and S. A. Gordeyev, “Quantitative characterization of macromolecules orientation,” Laser Phys.7(2), 403–415 (1997).

Qu, R.

C. Hou, R. Qu, L. Ying, and C. Wang, “Effect of comonomers on finishing behavior of carbon fiber precursors,” J. Polym. Res.12(4), 313–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rabolt, J. F.

Raj, S.

A. Yadav, V. Prasad, A. A. Kathe, S. Raj, D. Yadav, C. Sundaramoorthy, and N. Vigneshwaran, “Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Bull. Mater. Sci.29(6), 641–645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rajvaidya, S.

S. Rajvaidya, R. Bajpai, and A. K. Bajpai, “Preparation and characterization of hard and biocompatible interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of gelatin and polyacrylonitrile,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure.42(9), 1271–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riva, A.

A. Riva, I. M. Algaba, and M. Pepio, “Action of a finishing product in the improvement of the ultraviolet protection provided by cotton fabrics. Modelisation of the effect,” Cellulose13(6), 697–704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, M. E.

T. Lefèvre, M. E. Rousseau, and M. Pézolet, “Determination of molecular orientation in protein films and fibers by Raman microspectroscopy,” Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc.50, 41–48 (2004).

Ruiz-Moreno, S.

Schiavone, S.

V. Causin, C. Marega, S. Schiavone, and A. Marigo, “A quantitative differentiation method for acrylic fibers by infrared spectroscopy,” Forensic Sci. Int.151(2-3), 125–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, B.

J. Štokr, B. Schneider, D. Doskočilová, J. Lövy, and P. Sedláček, “Conformational structure of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Infra-red, Raman and n.m.r. spectra,” Polymer (Guildf.)23(5), 714–721 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schoonover, J. R.

Schreiber, F.

V. Presser, B. E. Schuster, M. B. Casu, U. Heinemeyer, and F. Schreiber, “Raman polarization studies of highly oriented organic thin films,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, B. E.

V. Presser, B. E. Schuster, M. B. Casu, U. Heinemeyer, and F. Schreiber, “Raman polarization studies of highly oriented organic thin films,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sedlácek, P.

J. Štokr, B. Schneider, D. Doskočilová, J. Lövy, and P. Sedláček, “Conformational structure of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Infra-red, Raman and n.m.r. spectra,” Polymer (Guildf.)23(5), 714–721 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, L. E.

G. Y. Nikolaeva, L. E. Semenova, K. A. Prokhorov, and S. A. Gordeyev, “Quantitative characterization of macromolecules orientation,” Laser Phys.7(2), 403–415 (1997).

Shet, G. E.

M. S. Silverstein, Y. Najary, Y. Lumelsky, I. von Lampe, G. S. Grader, and G. E. Shet, “Complex formation and degradation in poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) containing metal nitrates,” Polymer (Guildf.)45(3), 937–947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silverstein, M. S.

M. S. Silverstein, Y. Najary, Y. Lumelsky, I. von Lampe, G. S. Grader, and G. E. Shet, “Complex formation and degradation in poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) containing metal nitrates,” Polymer (Guildf.)45(3), 937–947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soneira, M. J.

Spiro, T. G.

T. G. Spiro and T. C. Strekas, “Resonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin and cytochrome c: inverse polarization and vibronic scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.69(9), 2622–2626 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Štokr, J.

J. Štokr, B. Schneider, D. Doskočilová, J. Lövy, and P. Sedláček, “Conformational structure of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Infra-red, Raman and n.m.r. spectra,” Polymer (Guildf.)23(5), 714–721 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Strekas, T. C.

T. G. Spiro and T. C. Strekas, “Resonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin and cytochrome c: inverse polarization and vibronic scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.69(9), 2622–2626 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strommen, D. P.

D. P. Strommen, “Specific values of the depolarization ratio in Raman spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Educ.69(10), 803–807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramoorthy, C.

A. Yadav, V. Prasad, A. A. Kathe, S. Raj, D. Yadav, C. Sundaramoorthy, and N. Vigneshwaran, “Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Bull. Mater. Sci.29(6), 641–645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valenton, T.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasil'eva, V. D.

V. D. Vasil'eva, V. E. Derbisher, I. Y. Kovalets, T. P. Aleinikova, and E. V. Derbisher, “Synthesis of polymeric peroxides and their Use in finishing treatment of textile materials,” Russ. J. Appl. Chem.80(8), 1409–1412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vigneshwaran, N.

A. Yadav, V. Prasad, A. A. Kathe, S. Raj, D. Yadav, C. Sundaramoorthy, and N. Vigneshwaran, “Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Bull. Mater. Sci.29(6), 641–645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

von Lampe, I.

M. S. Silverstein, Y. Najary, Y. Lumelsky, I. von Lampe, G. S. Grader, and G. E. Shet, “Complex formation and degradation in poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) containing metal nitrates,” Polymer (Guildf.)45(3), 937–947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wan, L. S.

L. S. Wan, Z. K. Xu, X. J. Huang, Z. G. Wang, and J. L. Wang, “Copolymerization of acrylonitrile with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone to improve the hemocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile,” Polymer (Guildf.)46(18), 7715–7723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

C. Hou, R. Qu, L. Ying, and C. Wang, “Effect of comonomers on finishing behavior of carbon fiber precursors,” J. Polym. Res.12(4), 313–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, J. L.

L. S. Wan, Z. K. Xu, X. J. Huang, Z. G. Wang, and J. L. Wang, “Copolymerization of acrylonitrile with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone to improve the hemocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile,” Polymer (Guildf.)46(18), 7715–7723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. G.

L. S. Wan, Z. K. Xu, X. J. Huang, Z. G. Wang, and J. L. Wang, “Copolymerization of acrylonitrile with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone to improve the hemocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile,” Polymer (Guildf.)46(18), 7715–7723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. L.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. K.

L. S. Wan, Z. K. Xu, X. J. Huang, Z. G. Wang, and J. L. Wang, “Copolymerization of acrylonitrile with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone to improve the hemocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile,” Polymer (Guildf.)46(18), 7715–7723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yadav, A.

A. Yadav, V. Prasad, A. A. Kathe, S. Raj, D. Yadav, C. Sundaramoorthy, and N. Vigneshwaran, “Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Bull. Mater. Sci.29(6), 641–645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yadav, D.

A. Yadav, V. Prasad, A. A. Kathe, S. Raj, D. Yadav, C. Sundaramoorthy, and N. Vigneshwaran, “Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Bull. Mater. Sci.29(6), 641–645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ying, L.

C. Hou, R. Qu, L. Ying, and C. Wang, “Effect of comonomers on finishing behavior of carbon fiber precursors,” J. Polym. Res.12(4), 313–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Younger, R.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmerley, M.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

M. Blanco and J. Pagès, “Classification and quantitation of finishing oils by near infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta463(2), 295–303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

K. Claborn, C. Isborn, W. Kaminsky, and B. Kahr, “Optical rotation of achiral compounds,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(31), 5706–5717 (2008).
[PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

Bull. Mater. Sci. (1)

A. Yadav, V. Prasad, A. A. Kathe, S. Raj, D. Yadav, C. Sundaramoorthy, and N. Vigneshwaran, “Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Bull. Mater. Sci.29(6), 641–645 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc. (1)

T. Lefèvre, M. E. Rousseau, and M. Pézolet, “Determination of molecular orientation in protein films and fibers by Raman microspectroscopy,” Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc.50, 41–48 (2004).

Cellulose (1)

A. Riva, I. M. Algaba, and M. Pepio, “Action of a finishing product in the improvement of the ultraviolet protection provided by cotton fabrics. Modelisation of the effect,” Cellulose13(6), 697–704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Hecht and L. A. Nafie, “Linear polarization Raman optical activity: a new form of natural optical activity,” Chem. Phys. Lett.174(6), 575–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Forensic Sci. Int. (1)

V. Causin, C. Marega, S. Schiavone, and A. Marigo, “A quantitative differentiation method for acrylic fibers by infrared spectroscopy,” Forensic Sci. Int.151(2-3), 125–131 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forensic Science Journal (1)

L. L. Cho, “Identification of textile fiber by Raman microspectroscopy,” Forensic Science Journal6(1), 55–62 (2007).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

V. L. Murphy and B. Kahr, “Planar Hydrocarbons More Optically Active Than Their Isomeric Helicenes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(33), 12918–12921 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (1)

T. J. Proffitt and H. T. Patterson, “Oleochemical suffactants and lubricants in the textile industry,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.65(10), 1682–1694 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

Y. H. Bang, S. Lee, and H. H. Cho, “Effect of methyl acrylate composition on the microstructure changes of high molecular weight polyacrylonitrile for heat treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci.68(13), 2205–2213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Educ. (1)

D. P. Strommen, “Specific values of the depolarization ratio in Raman spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Educ.69(10), 803–807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Macromol. Sci. Pure. (1)

S. Rajvaidya, R. Bajpai, and A. K. Bajpai, “Preparation and characterization of hard and biocompatible interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of gelatin and polyacrylonitrile,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure.42(9), 1271–1285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

H. Y. Ki, J. H. Kim, S. C. Kwon, and S. H. Jeong, “A study on multifunctional wool textiles treated with nano-sized silver,” J. Mater. Sci.42(19), 8020–8024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Polym. Res. (1)

C. Hou, R. Qu, L. Ying, and C. Wang, “Effect of comonomers on finishing behavior of carbon fiber precursors,” J. Polym. Res.12(4), 313–316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. (1)

D. I. Bower, “Investigation of molecular orientation distributions by polarized Raman scattering and polarized fluorescence,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys.10(11), 2135–2153 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

V. Presser, B. E. Schuster, M. B. Casu, U. Heinemeyer, and F. Schreiber, “Raman polarization studies of highly oriented organic thin films,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40(12), 2015–2022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Surfact. Deterg. (1)

M. Parvinzadeh, “The effects of softeners on the properties of sulfur-dyed cotton fibers,” J. Surfact. Deterg.10(4), 219–223 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

G. Y. Nikolaeva, L. E. Semenova, K. A. Prokhorov, and S. A. Gordeyev, “Quantitative characterization of macromolecules orientation,” Laser Phys.7(2), 403–415 (1997).

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

J. J. George and A. K. Bhowmick, “Influence of matrix polarity on the properties of ethylene vinyl acetate–carbon nanofiller nanocomposites,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.4(7), 655–664 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polymer (Guildf.) (4)

M. S. Silverstein, Y. Najary, Y. Lumelsky, I. von Lampe, G. S. Grader, and G. E. Shet, “Complex formation and degradation in poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) containing metal nitrates,” Polymer (Guildf.)45(3), 937–947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Fennessey and R. J. Farris, “Fabrication of aligned and molecularly oriented electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers and the mechanical behavior of their twisted yarns,” Polymer (Guildf.)4, 54217–54225 (2004).

L. S. Wan, Z. K. Xu, X. J. Huang, Z. G. Wang, and J. L. Wang, “Copolymerization of acrylonitrile with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone to improve the hemocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile,” Polymer (Guildf.)46(18), 7715–7723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Štokr, B. Schneider, D. Doskočilová, J. Lövy, and P. Sedláček, “Conformational structure of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Infra-red, Raman and n.m.r. spectra,” Polymer (Guildf.)23(5), 714–721 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

T. G. Spiro and T. C. Strekas, “Resonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin and cytochrome c: inverse polarization and vibronic scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.69(9), 2622–2626 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russ. J. Appl. Chem. (1)

V. D. Vasil'eva, V. E. Derbisher, I. Y. Kovalets, T. P. Aleinikova, and E. V. Derbisher, “Synthesis of polymeric peroxides and their Use in finishing treatment of textile materials,” Russ. J. Appl. Chem.80(8), 1409–1412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

A. K. Jahn and J. Williamsburg, Finish for Acrylic Fibers, US Patent 4,072, 617 (1978).

Q. Fan, “Analysis of Chemical Used in Fibre Finishing,” in Chemical Texting of Textiles, Q. Fan, ed. (The Textile Institute, CRC Press, 2005).

W. E. Morton and J. W. S. Hearle, Physical Properties of Textile Fibres (Textile Institute: Heinemann, 1993), Chap 22.

J. I. Kroschwitz, “Polymers Fibers and Textiles, a Compendium,” in Encyclopedia Reprint Series J. (Wiley & Sons, 1990).

B. G. Frushour and R. S. Knorr, “Acrilic Fibers,” in Handbook of Fibers Chemistry, M. Lewin, ed. (CRC Press, 840–845, 2007).

I. W. Shepherd, “Raman polarization techniques in the study of macromolecules,” in Advances in Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, R. E. Hester, R. J. H. Clark, ed. (Heyden & Son, 1977), Chap 4.

G. Turrel, M. Delhaye, and P. Dhamelincourt, Raman microscopy developments and applications, (Academic Press, 1996).

G. Turrell, “Raman Sampling,” in Practical Raman Spectroscopy, D. J. Gardiner, P. R. Graves, ed. (Springer Verlag, 1989).

B. Mehta and M. Mehta, Organic Chemistry, 1st ed. (Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd, 2005).

L. D. Barron, “An Introduction to Chirality at the Nanoscale” in Chirality at the Nanoscale: Nanoparticles, Surfaces, Materials and More, D. B. Amabilino ed. (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2009).

U. Reinehr, R. B. Hirsh, J. Dross, and H. F. Jungverdorben, “Process for wetting thread bundless with liquids,” US Patent 4,842,793 (1989).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the Raman apparatus. The fiber orientation on the z axis and the laser electric field is both parallel and perpendicular to the incident laser light. The polarization analyzer is rotated to transmit the polarized Raman scattering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface morphology of acrylic fibers. (a) With finishing (W/f) and (b) Without finishing (Wo/f).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized nonpolarized Raman spectra of fiber With (W/f) and Without (Wo/f) finishing. (a) Poly(AN-co-VA), (b) Poly(AN-co-MA).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Parallel and perpendicularly polarized Raman spectra of Poly(AN-co-VA) fiber, (a) With finishing (W/f) and (b) Without finishing (Wo/f).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Parallel and perpendicularly polarized Raman spectra of Poly(AN-co-MA) fiber, (a) With finishing (W/f) and (b) Without finishing (Wo/f).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Depolarization ratios

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ= 3 β 2 45 α 2 +4 β 2 ,
ρ= 3 γ 2 +5 δ 2 45 α 2 +4 γ 2 ,
ρ= I x ( I ) I z ( I ) ,

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