Abstract

Mode-locked optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs) are in strong demand for applications in bio-medical photonics, chemistry, space communications and non-linear optics. However, the wider spread of SDLs was constrained as they are operated in high repetition rates above 200 MHz due to short carrier lifetimes in the semiconductors. Here we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that it is possible to overcome the limitation of fast carrier relaxation and show significant reduction of repetition rate down to 85.7 MHz by exploiting phase-amplitude coupling effect. In addition, a low repetition rate SDL serves as a test-bed for bound soliton state previously unknown for semiconductor devices. The breakthrough to sub-100 MHz repetition rate will open a whole new window of development opportunities.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 217 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Aviles-Espinosa, G. Filippidis, C. Hamilton, G. Malcolm, K. J. Weingarten, T. Südmeyer, Y. Barbarin, U. Keller, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Compact ultrafast semiconductor disk laser: targeting GFP based nonlinear applications in living organisms,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 739–747 (2011).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, and J. Houlihan, “Refractive index dynamics of quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. B. A. Malomed, “Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. A44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, “Stability of bound states of pulses in the Ginzburg-Landau equations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics56(5), 6020–6025 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. Hiang, Q. Cheng, Q. Wen, and D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor-lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(2), 259–264 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. G. Vladimirov and D. Turaev, “Model for passive mode locking in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A72(3), 033808 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Saarinen, A. Rantamaki, A. Chamorovskiy, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “200 GHz 1 W semiconductor disc laser emitting 800 fs pulses,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1355–1356 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, and J. Houlihan, “Refractive index dynamics of quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(25), 251105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2005

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Vladimirov and D. Turaev, “Model for passive mode locking in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A72(3), 033808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B.75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. Hiang, Q. Cheng, Q. Wen, and D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, “Stability of bound states of pulses in the Ginzburg-Landau equations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics56(5), 6020–6025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. E. Ehrlich, D. T. Neilson, A. C. Walker, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, and M. Hopkinson, “Carrier lifetimes in MBE and MOCVD InGaAs quantum-wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(2), 307–309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

Y. C. Chen, P. Wang, J. J. Coleman, D. P. Bour, K. K. Lee, and R. G. Waters, “Carrier recombination rates in strained-layer InGaAs-GaAsquantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1451–1455 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, “Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. A44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor-lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Afanasjev, V. V.

V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, “Stability of bound states of pulses in the Ginzburg-Landau equations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics56(5), 6020–6025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, V.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Artigas, D.

Aviles-Espinosa, R.

Barbarin, Y.

Beere, H. E.

Bellancourt, A. R.

Bour, D. P.

Y. C. Chen, P. Wang, J. J. Coleman, D. P. Bour, K. K. Lee, and R. G. Waters, “Carrier recombination rates in strained-layer InGaAs-GaAsquantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1451–1455 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Butkus, M.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(25), 251105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chamorovskiy, A.

E. J. Saarinen, A. Rantamaki, A. Chamorovskiy, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “200 GHz 1 W semiconductor disc laser emitting 800 fs pulses,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1355–1356 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, P. Wang, J. J. Coleman, D. P. Bour, K. K. Lee, and R. G. Waters, “Carrier recombination rates in strained-layer InGaAs-GaAsquantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1451–1455 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Q.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. Hiang, Q. Cheng, Q. Wen, and D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chernykh, A.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, “Stability of bound states of pulses in the Ginzburg-Landau equations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics56(5), 6020–6025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, J. J.

Y. C. Chen, P. Wang, J. J. Coleman, D. P. Bour, K. K. Lee, and R. G. Waters, “Carrier recombination rates in strained-layer InGaAs-GaAsquantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1451–1455 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

J. E. Ehrlich, D. T. Neilson, A. C. Walker, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, and M. Hopkinson, “Carrier lifetimes in MBE and MOCVD InGaAs quantum-wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(2), 307–309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Elsmere, S. P.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, I.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(25), 251105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, A.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Filippidis, G.

Garnache, A.

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B.75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Golling, M.

Gong, Y.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. Hiang, Q. Cheng, Q. Wen, and D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Graf, R.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. S.

J. E. Ehrlich, D. T. Neilson, A. C. Walker, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, and M. Hopkinson, “Carrier lifetimes in MBE and MOCVD InGaAs quantum-wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(2), 307–309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grelu, P.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guina, M.

Hakulinen, T.

Hamilton, C.

Hamilton, C. J.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haring, R.

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B.75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Härkönen, A.

Heinen, B.

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor-lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Herda, R.

Hiang, T.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. Hiang, Q. Cheng, Q. Wen, and D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

Hoogland, S.

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B.75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

J. E. Ehrlich, D. T. Neilson, A. C. Walker, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, and M. Hopkinson, “Carrier lifetimes in MBE and MOCVD InGaAs quantum-wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(2), 307–309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Houlihan, J.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, and J. Houlihan, “Refractive index dynamics of quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huyet, G.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, and J. Houlihan, “Refractive index dynamics of quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, V. L.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Kennedy, G. T.

J. E. Ehrlich, D. T. Neilson, A. C. Walker, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, and M. Hopkinson, “Carrier lifetimes in MBE and MOCVD InGaAs quantum-wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(2), 307–309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kornaszewski, L.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kunert, B.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leburn, C. G.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Y. C. Chen, P. Wang, J. J. Coleman, D. P. Bour, K. K. Lee, and R. G. Waters, “Carrier recombination rates in strained-layer InGaAs-GaAsquantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1451–1455 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D. A.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Maas, D. J.

Maker, G.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malcolm, G.

Malcolm, G. P. A.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malomed, B. A.

V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, “Stability of bound states of pulses in the Ginzburg-Landau equations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics56(5), 6020–6025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, “Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. A44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihoubi, Z.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, S.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D. T.

J. E. Ehrlich, D. T. Neilson, A. C. Walker, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, and M. Hopkinson, “Carrier lifetimes in MBE and MOCVD InGaAs quantum-wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(2), 307–309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

E. J. Saarinen, A. Rantamaki, A. Chamorovskiy, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “200 GHz 1 W semiconductor disc laser emitting 800 fs pulses,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1355–1356 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Saarinen, A. Härkönen, R. Herda, S. Suomalainen, L. Orsila, T. Hakulinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Harmonically mode-locked VECSELs for multi-GHz pulse train generation,” Opt. Express15(3), 955–964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orsila, L.

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B.75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piwonski, T.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, and J. Houlihan, “Refractive index dynamics of quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Podivilov, E.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pulka, J.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, and J. Houlihan, “Refractive index dynamics of quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quarterman, A. H.

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “Repetition-frequency-tunable mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser between 2.78 and 7.87 GHz,” Opt. Express19(23), 23453–23459 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rafailov, E. U.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(25), 251105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rantamaki, A.

E. J. Saarinen, A. Rantamaki, A. Chamorovskiy, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “200 GHz 1 W semiconductor disc laser emitting 800 fs pulses,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1355–1356 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “Repetition-frequency-tunable mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser between 2.78 and 7.87 GHz,” Opt. Express19(23), 23453–23459 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(25), 251105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rudin, B.

Saarinen, E. J.

E. J. Saarinen, A. Rantamaki, A. Chamorovskiy, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “200 GHz 1 W semiconductor disc laser emitting 800 fs pulses,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1355–1356 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Saarinen, A. Härkönen, R. Herda, S. Suomalainen, L. Orsila, T. Hakulinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Harmonically mode-locked VECSELs for multi-GHz pulse train generation,” Opt. Express15(3), 955–964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santos, S. I. C. O.

Scheller, M.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. Hiang, Q. Cheng, Q. Wen, and D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ehrlich, D. T. Neilson, A. C. Walker, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, and M. Hopkinson, “Carrier lifetimes in MBE and MOCVD InGaAs quantum-wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(2), 307–309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, W.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Südmeyer, T.

Suomalainen, S.

Tang, D.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. Hiang, Q. Cheng, Q. Wen, and D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A.

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(25), 251105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

Turaev, D.

A. G. Vladimirov and D. Turaev, “Model for passive mode locking in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A72(3), 033808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ustinov, V. M.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Viktorov, E. A.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, and J. Houlihan, “Refractive index dynamics of quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vladimirov, A. G.

A. G. Vladimirov and D. Turaev, “Model for passive mode locking in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A72(3), 033808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A. C.

J. E. Ehrlich, D. T. Neilson, A. C. Walker, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, and M. Hopkinson, “Carrier lifetimes in MBE and MOCVD InGaAs quantum-wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(2), 307–309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Y. C. Chen, P. Wang, J. J. Coleman, D. P. Bour, K. K. Lee, and R. G. Waters, “Carrier recombination rates in strained-layer InGaAs-GaAsquantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1451–1455 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. L.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Waters, R. G.

Y. C. Chen, P. Wang, J. J. Coleman, D. P. Bour, K. K. Lee, and R. G. Waters, “Carrier recombination rates in strained-layer InGaAs-GaAsquantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1451–1455 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

Wen, Q.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. Hiang, Q. Cheng, Q. Wen, and D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

White, S. J.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, K. G.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “Repetition-frequency-tunable mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser between 2.78 and 7.87 GHz,” Opt. Express19(23), 23453–23459 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(25), 251105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, A. E.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zolotovskaya, S. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B.

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, and U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B.75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. G. Wilcox, M. Butkus, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Tropper, and E. U. Rafailov, “Subpicosecond quantum dot saturable absorber mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(25), 251105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, E. A. Viktorov, G. Huyet, and J. Houlihan, “Refractive index dynamics of quantum dot based waveguide electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Electron. Lett.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Saarinen, A. Rantamaki, A. Chamorovskiy, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “200 GHz 1 W semiconductor disc laser emitting 800 fs pulses,” Electron. Lett.48(21), 1355–1356 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Y. C. Chen, P. Wang, J. J. Coleman, D. P. Bour, K. K. Lee, and R. G. Waters, “Carrier recombination rates in strained-layer InGaAs-GaAsquantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1451–1455 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor-lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

L. Kornaszewski, G. Maker, G. P. A. Malcolm, M. Butkus, E. U. Rafailov, and C. J. Hamilton, “SESAM-free mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(6), L20–L23 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. Hiang, Q. Cheng, Q. Wen, and D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 389–399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

B. A. Malomed, “Bound solitons in the nonlinear Schrödinger-Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. A44(10), 6954–6957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Vladimirov and D. Turaev, “Model for passive mode locking in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A72(3), 033808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics

V. V. Afanasjev, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, “Stability of bound states of pulses in the Ginzburg-Landau equations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics56(5), 6020–6025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, S. A. Zolotovskaya, and E. U. Rafailov, “Ultrashort-pulse lasers passively mode locked by quantum-dot-based saturable absorbers,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(1), 1–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

J. E. Ehrlich, D. T. Neilson, A. C. Walker, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, W. Sibbett, and M. Hopkinson, “Carrier lifetimes in MBE and MOCVD InGaAs quantum-wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.8(2), 307–309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

Lukaz Kornaszewski, Nils Hempler, Craig J. Hamilton, Gareth T. Maker, and G. P. A. Malcolm, “Advances in mode-locked semiconductor disk lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8606, San Francisco, USA(2013).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic drawing of the low repetition rate mode-locked SDL. A multi-folded cavity was formed using 8 dielectric coated mirrors and incorporating gain chip and SESAM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The trains of pulses measured from the mode-locked SDL indicating (a) fundamental mode-locking and (b) the soliton bound state regime. Red lines show the results of theoretical calculation matching experimental observations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radio frequency spectra of the semiconductor disk laser mode-locked at low repetition rate in (a) fundamental and (b) soliton bound state regimes. The insets show a number of RF harmonics indicating well-defined mode-locked regimes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical spectra for (a) fundamental and (b) soliton bound state regimes in mode-locked SDL. The spectrum of bound state shows a strong modulation which is characteristic to such regime as also indicated by simulated spectrum shown in the inset.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Numerically-obtained time traces of different bound states. These regimes of stable soliton multiplets coexist with the regime of fundamental mode locking and duplet in Fig. 2. The parameters used in the simulation are: J g  = 1.5 ; J q  = 2.5 ; s q / s g  = 30 ; α g  = 4 ; α q  = 2 ; κ = 0.25 and γT = 120 .

Equations (1)

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γ 1 A t ( t )+A( t )= κ e ( 1i α g ) G g ( tT )( 1i α q ) G q ( tT ) A( tT )

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