Abstract

Generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs requires the use of the Franson interferometer which consists of two spatially separated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers through which the signal and idler photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) are made to transmit individually. There have been two SPDC pumping regimes where the scheme works: the narrowband regime and the double-pulse regime. In the narrowband regime, the SPDC process is pumped by a narrowband cw laser with the coherence length much longer than the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In the double-pulse regime, the longitudinal separation between the pulse pair is made equal to the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In this paper, we propose another regime by which the generation of time-bin entanglement is possible and demonstrate the scheme experimentally. In our scheme, differently from the previous approaches, the SPDC process is pumped by a cw multi-mode (i.e., short coherence length) laser and makes use of the coherence revival property of such a laser. The high-visibility two-photon Franson interference demonstrates clearly that high-quality time-bin entanglement source can be developed using inexpensive cw multi-mode diode lasers for various quantum communication applications.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Coherence properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser,” Opt. Express17, 13059–13069 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013

Y.-S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H.-T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times,” Nature Commun.4, 2451 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Y.-S. Kim, J.-C. Lee, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Protecting entanglement from decoherence using weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal,” Nature Phys.8, 117–120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

H.-T. Lim, Y.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Ra, J. Bae, and Y.-H. Kim, “Experimental realization of an approximate partial transpose for photonic two-qubit systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 160401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Advances in quantum metrology,” Nat. Photonics5, 222–229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Galinis, M. Karpiński, G. Tamošauskas, K. Dobek, and A. Piskarskas, “Photon coincidences in spontaneous parametric down-converted radiation excited by a blue LED in bulk LiIO3 crystal,” Opt. Express19, 10351–10358 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observing photonic de Broglie waves without the maximally-path-entangled |N, 0〉 + |0, N〉 state,” Phys. Rev. A81, 063801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of energy-time entangled photon pairs in 1.5-μ m band with periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express15, 1679–1683 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “High-resolution mode-spacing measurement of the blue-violet diode lase using interference of fields created with time delays greater than the coherence time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46, 7720–7723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A361, 1655–1674 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Experimental investigation of the robustness of partially entangled qubits over 11 km,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, and S. P. Kulik, “Biphoton interference with a multimode pump,” Phys. Rev. A63, 053801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, “Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete Bell state measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 1370–1373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3563–3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature390, 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, and P. G. Kwiat, “Postselection-free energy-time entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A54, R1–R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A.V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4337–4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and M. H. Rubin, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state for space-time variables in a two-photon interference experiment,” Phys. Rev. A47, 1288–1293 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, “High-visibility interference in a Bell-inequality experiment for energy and time,” Phys. Rev. A47, R2472–R2475 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, “Fourth-order interference effects at large distances,” Phys. Rev. A45, 2052–2056 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, E. Mohler, and W. Martienssen, “Time-resolved dual-beam two-photon interferences with high visibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66, 1142–1145 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

J. D. Franson, “Bell inequality for position and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett.62, 2205–2208 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.61, 2921–2924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, “Violation of Bell’s inequality and classical probability in a two-photon correlation experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.61, 50–53 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

J. F. Clauser and M. A. Horne, “Experimental consequences of objective local theories,” Phys. Rev. D10, 526–535 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Alley, C. O.

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.61, 2921–2924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asobe, M.

Bae, J.

H.-T. Lim, Y.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Ra, J. Bae, and Y.-H. Kim, “Experimental realization of an approximate partial transpose for photonic two-qubit systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 160401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baek, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “High-resolution mode-spacing measurement of the blue-violet diode lase using interference of fields created with time delays greater than the coherence time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46, 7720–7723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmeester, D.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature390, 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brendel, J.

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3563–3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Brendel, E. Mohler, and W. Martienssen, “Time-resolved dual-beam two-photon interferences with high visibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66, 1142–1145 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchleitner, A.

Y.-S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H.-T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times,” Nature Commun.4, 2451 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Burlakov, A. V.

A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, and S. P. Kulik, “Biphoton interference with a multimode pump,” Phys. Rev. A63, 053801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chekhova, M. V.

A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, and S. P. Kulik, “Biphoton interference with a multimode pump,” Phys. Rev. A63, 053801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, “High-visibility interference in a Bell-inequality experiment for energy and time,” Phys. Rev. A47, R2472–R2475 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuang, I. L.

M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).

Clauser, J. F.

J. F. Clauser and M. A. Horne, “Experimental consequences of objective local theories,” Phys. Rev. D10, 526–535 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Crépeau, C.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Riedmatten, H.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dobek, K.

Dowling, J. P.

J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A361, 1655–1674 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

Eibl, M.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature390, 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ekert, A. K.

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franson, J. D.

J. D. Franson, “Bell inequality for position and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett.62, 2205–2208 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galinis, J.

Giovannetti, V.

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Advances in quantum metrology,” Nat. Photonics5, 222–229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Experimental investigation of the robustness of partially entangled qubits over 11 km,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3563–3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harada, K.

Honjo, T.

Horne, M. A.

J. F. Clauser and M. A. Horne, “Experimental consequences of objective local theories,” Phys. Rev. D10, 526–535 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

Jozsa, R.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamada, H.

Karabutova, O. A.

A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, and S. P. Kulik, “Biphoton interference with a multimode pump,” Phys. Rev. A63, 053801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karpinski, M.

Kim, Y.-H.

Y.-S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H.-T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times,” Nature Commun.4, 2451 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Kim, J.-C. Lee, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Protecting entanglement from decoherence using weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal,” Nature Phys.8, 117–120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Lim, Y.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Ra, J. Bae, and Y.-H. Kim, “Experimental realization of an approximate partial transpose for photonic two-qubit systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 160401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observing photonic de Broglie waves without the maximally-path-entangled |N, 0〉 + |0, N〉 state,” Phys. Rev. A81, 063801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Coherence properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser,” Opt. Express17, 13059–13069 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “High-resolution mode-spacing measurement of the blue-violet diode lase using interference of fields created with time delays greater than the coherence time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46, 7720–7723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, “Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete Bell state measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 1370–1373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Kim, J.-C. Lee, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Protecting entanglement from decoherence using weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal,” Nature Phys.8, 117–120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Lim, Y.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Ra, J. Bae, and Y.-H. Kim, “Experimental realization of an approximate partial transpose for photonic two-qubit systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 160401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulik, S. P.

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, “Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete Bell state measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 1370–1373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, and S. P. Kulik, “Biphoton interference with a multimode pump,” Phys. Rev. A63, 053801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, and P. G. Kwiat, “Postselection-free energy-time entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A54, R1–R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A.V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4337–4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, “High-visibility interference in a Bell-inequality experiment for energy and time,” Phys. Rev. A47, R2472–R2475 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, O.

Y.-S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H.-T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times,” Nature Commun.4, 2451 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Kim, J.-C. Lee, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Protecting entanglement from decoherence using weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal,” Nature Phys.8, 117–120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observing photonic de Broglie waves without the maximally-path-entangled |N, 0〉 + |0, N〉 state,” Phys. Rev. A81, 063801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Coherence properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser,” Opt. Express17, 13059–13069 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “High-resolution mode-spacing measurement of the blue-violet diode lase using interference of fields created with time delays greater than the coherence time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46, 7720–7723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-C.

Y.-S. Kim, J.-C. Lee, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Protecting entanglement from decoherence using weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal,” Nature Phys.8, 117–120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H.-T.

Y.-S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H.-T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times,” Nature Commun.4, 2451 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Lim, Y.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Ra, J. Bae, and Y.-H. Kim, “Experimental realization of an approximate partial transpose for photonic two-qubit systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 160401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lloyd, S.

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Advances in quantum metrology,” Nat. Photonics5, 222–229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maccone, L.

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Advances in quantum metrology,” Nat. Photonics5, 222–229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, “Violation of Bell’s inequality and classical probability in a two-photon correlation experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.61, 50–53 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcikic, I.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martienssen, W.

J. Brendel, E. Mohler, and W. Martienssen, “Time-resolved dual-beam two-photon interferences with high visibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66, 1142–1145 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattle, K.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature390, 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A.V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4337–4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milburn, G. J.

J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A361, 1655–1674 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mintert, F.

Y.-S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H.-T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times,” Nature Commun.4, 2451 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mohler, E.

J. Brendel, E. Mohler, and W. Martienssen, “Time-resolved dual-beam two-photon interferences with high visibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66, 1142–1145 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. A.

M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).

Nishida, Y.

Ou, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, “Violation of Bell’s inequality and classical probability in a two-photon correlation experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.61, 50–53 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, J.-W.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature390, 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peres, A.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piskarskas, A.

Pittman, T. B.

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, and P. G. Kwiat, “Postselection-free energy-time entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A54, R1–R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ra, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H.-T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times,” Nature Commun.4, 2451 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Lim, Y.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Ra, J. Bae, and Y.-H. Kim, “Experimental realization of an approximate partial transpose for photonic two-qubit systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 160401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observing photonic de Broglie waves without the maximally-path-entangled |N, 0〉 + |0, N〉 state,” Phys. Rev. A81, 063801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Coherence properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser,” Opt. Express17, 13059–13069 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, “Fourth-order interference effects at large distances,” Phys. Rev. A45, 2052–2056 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and M. H. Rubin, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state for space-time variables in a two-photon interference experiment,” Phys. Rev. A47, 1288–1293 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scarani, V.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, and P. G. Kwiat, “Postselection-free energy-time entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A54, R1–R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and M. H. Rubin, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state for space-time variables in a two-photon interference experiment,” Phys. Rev. A47, 1288–1293 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergienko, A.V.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A.V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4337–4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, A. W.

Shields, A. J.

Shih, Y.

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, “Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete Bell state measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 1370–1373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A.V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4337–4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, Y. H.

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, and P. G. Kwiat, “Postselection-free energy-time entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A54, R1–R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and M. H. Rubin, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state for space-time variables in a two-photon interference experiment,” Phys. Rev. A47, 1288–1293 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.61, 2921–2924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, “High-visibility interference in a Bell-inequality experiment for energy and time,” Phys. Rev. A47, R2472–R2475 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D. V.

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, and P. G. Kwiat, “Postselection-free energy-time entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A54, R1–R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadanaga, O.

Takesue, H.

Tamošauskas, G.

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R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Experimental investigation of the robustness of partially entangled qubits over 11 km,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, “Fourth-order interference effects at large distances,” Phys. Rev. A45, 2052–2056 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Experimental investigation of the robustness of partially entangled qubits over 11 km,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tichy, M. C.

Y.-S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H.-T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times,” Nature Commun.4, 2451 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Experimental investigation of the robustness of partially entangled qubits over 11 km,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3563–3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature390, 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A.V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4337–4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wootters, W. K.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z. L.

Zbinden, H.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Experimental investigation of the robustness of partially entangled qubits over 11 km,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3563–3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature390, 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A.V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4337–4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “High-resolution mode-spacing measurement of the blue-violet diode lase using interference of fields created with time delays greater than the coherence time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46, 7720–7723 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Advances in quantum metrology,” Nat. Photonics5, 222–229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature390, 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature Commun.

Y.-S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H.-T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times,” Nature Commun.4, 2451 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phys.

Y.-S. Kim, J.-C. Lee, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Protecting entanglement from decoherence using weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal,” Nature Phys.8, 117–120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A

J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A361, 1655–1674 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observing photonic de Broglie waves without the maximally-path-entangled |N, 0〉 + |0, N〉 state,” Phys. Rev. A81, 063801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Experimental investigation of the robustness of partially entangled qubits over 11 km,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062304 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, and S. P. Kulik, “Biphoton interference with a multimode pump,” Phys. Rev. A63, 053801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, “Fourth-order interference effects at large distances,” Phys. Rev. A45, 2052–2056 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and M. H. Rubin, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state for space-time variables in a two-photon interference experiment,” Phys. Rev. A47, 1288–1293 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, “High-visibility interference in a Bell-inequality experiment for energy and time,” Phys. Rev. A47, R2472–R2475 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, and P. G. Kwiat, “Postselection-free energy-time entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A54, R1–R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. D

J. F. Clauser and M. A. Horne, “Experimental consequences of objective local theories,” Phys. Rev. D10, 526–535 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3563–3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Franson, “Bell inequality for position and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett.62, 2205–2208 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, E. Mohler, and W. Martienssen, “Time-resolved dual-beam two-photon interferences with high visibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66, 1142–1145 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.61, 2921–2924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, “Violation of Bell’s inequality and classical probability in a two-photon correlation experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett.61, 50–53 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A.V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4337–4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Lim, Y.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Ra, J. Bae, and Y.-H. Kim, “Experimental realization of an approximate partial transpose for photonic two-qubit systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 160401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, “Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete Bell state measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 1370–1373 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70, 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic of Franson interferometer. Post-selecting the central peak in the TC-SPC histogram allows one to prepare/detect the time-bin entanglement. For this to happen, the pump laser for the SPDC process must meet certain conditions. See text for details.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical plot of Eq. (7) as a function of ΔL1 for different ΔL2. (a) ΔL2 = 5.668 mm and (b) ΔL2 = 11.336 mm. (c) The joint count rate when ΔL1 and ΔL2 are simultaneously scanned exhibits the coherence revival property [29, 30].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup. PBS: polarization beam splitter, QWP: quarter wave plate, D1 and D2: single photon detectors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental data. The coincidence count rate as a function of ΔL1 for different ΔL2 values. (a) ΔL2 = 5.668 mm and (b) ΔL2 = 11.336 mm. The two-photon interference visibility is measure to be 95% for both cases. (c) ΔL1 and ΔL2 are scanned simultaneously. The two-photon interference visibility is measured to be 93%. The experimental data agree well with the theoretical results shown in Fig. 2.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| ψ = 1 2 ( | S 1 | S 2 + e i ϕ | L 1 | L 2 ) ,
ρ = d ω p 𝒮 ( ω p ) | ψ ψ | .
𝒮 ( ω p ) = n = N N 𝒮 0 ( ω p ) δ ( ω p ω p 0 n Δ ω p ) n = N N 𝒮 0 ( ω p 0 + n Δ ω p ) ,
| ψ = d ω s d ω i δ ( Δ ω ) sinc ( Δ k l / 2 ) e i Δ k l / 2 | ω s , ω i ,
R Δ τ Δ τ d τ tr [ ρ E D 1 ( ) ( t ) E D 2 ( ) ( t + τ ) E D 2 ( + ) ( t + τ ) E D 1 ( + ) ( t ) ] ,
R d τ tr [ ρ ( E S 2 ( ) ( t + τ ) E S 1 ( ) ( t ) + E L 2 ( ) ( t + τ ξ 2 ) E L 1 ( ) ( t ξ 1 ) ) × ( E S 2 ( + ) ( t + τ ) E S 1 ( + ) ( t ) + E L 2 ( + ) ( t + τ ξ 2 ) E L 1 ( + ) ( t ξ 1 ) ) ] .
R = 1 2 + Γ 2 n = N N 𝒮 eff ( ω p 0 + n Δ ω p ) cos ( ( ω p 0 + n Δ ω p ) ( ξ 1 + ξ 2 ) ) n = N N 𝒮 eff ( ω p 0 + n Δ ω p ) ,

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