Abstract

Multiphoton excited photochemistry is a powerful 3D fabrication tool that produces sub-micron feature sizes. Here we exploit the freeform nature of the process to create models of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of several tissues, where the design blueprint is derived directly from high resolution optical microscopy images (e.g. fluorescence and Second Harmonic Generation). To achieve this goal, we implemented a new form of instrument control, termed modulated raster scanning, where rapid laser shuttering (10 MHz) is used to directly map the greyscale image data to the resulting protein concentration in the fabricated scaffold. Fidelity in terms of area coverage and relative concentration relative to the image data is ~95%. We compare the results to an STL approach, and find the new scheme provides significantly improved performance. We suggest the method will enable a variety of cell-matrix studies in cancer biology and also provide insight into generating scaffolds for tissue engineering.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  21. X. Chen, Y. D. Su, V. Ajeti, S. J. Chen, and P. J. Campagnola, “Cell adhesion on micro-structured fibronectin gradients fabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Cell Mol Bioeng5(3), 307–319 (2012).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. A. DeForest, B. D. Polizzotti, and K. S. Anseth, “Sequential click reactions for synthesizing and patterning three-dimensional cell microenvironments,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 659–664 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. D. Balasubramanian, X. Du, and J. S. J. Zigler., “The reaction of singlet oxygen with proteins, with special reference to crystallins,” Photochem. Photobiol.52(4), 761–768 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. S. Basu and P. J. Campagnola, “Properties of crosslinked protein matrices for tissue engineering applications synthesized by multiphoton excitation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A71(2), 359–368 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. Basu, C. W. Wolgemuth, and P. J. Campagnola, “Measurement of Normal and Anomalous Diffusion of Dyes within Protein Structures Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Cross-linking,” Biomacromolecules5(6), 2347–2357 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. C. Lorenz, I. C. Carlsen, T. M. Buzug, C. Fassnacht, and J. Weese, “A multi-scale line filter with automatic scale selection based on the Hessian matrix for medical image segmentation,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.1252, 152–163 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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2013 (1)

J. J. Rice, M. M. Martino, L. De Laporte, F. Tortelli, P. S. Briquez, and J. A. Hubbell, “Engineering the regenerative microenvironment with biomaterials,” Adv Healthc Mater2(1), 57–71 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

C. A. DeForest and K. S. Anseth, “Advances in bioactive hydrogels to probe and direct cell fate,” Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng3(1), 421–444 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lu, V. M. Weaver, and Z. Werb, “The extracellular matrix: a dynamic niche in cancer progression,” J. Cell Biol.196(4), 395–406 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Y. D. Su, V. Ajeti, S. J. Chen, and P. J. Campagnola, “Cell adhesion on micro-structured fibronectin gradients fabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Cell Mol Bioeng5(3), 307–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Su, Q. A. Tran, J. J. Fong, K. W. Eliceiri, B. M. Ogle, and P. J. Campagnola, “Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interactions with 3D ECM Modules Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Photochemistry,” Biomacromolecules13(9), 2917–2925 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics5, 523–530 (2011).

R. G. Wylie, S. Ahsan, Y. Aizawa, K. L. Maxwell, C. M. Morshead, and M. S. Shoichet, “Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels,” Nat. Mater.10(10), 799–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Friedl and S. Alexander, “Cancer invasion and the microenvironment: plasticity and reciprocity,” Cell147(5), 992–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Cox and J. T. Erler, “Remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix: implications for fibrotic diseases and cancer,” Dis. Model. Mech.4(2), 165–178 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

D. Qin, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning,” Nat. Protoc.5(3), 491–502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Moon, J. E. Saik, R. A. Poché, J. E. Leslie-Barbick, S. H. Lee, A. A. Smith, M. E. Dickinson, and J. L. West, “Biomimetic hydrogels with pro-angiogenic properties,” Biomaterials31(14), 3840–3847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kumi, C. O. Yanez, K. D. Belfield, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-speed multiphoton absorption polymerization: fabrication of microfluidic channels with arbitrary cross-sections and high aspect ratios,” Lab Chip10(8), 1057–1060 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

C. A. DeForest, B. D. Polizzotti, and K. S. Anseth, “Sequential click reactions for synthesizing and patterning three-dimensional cell microenvironments,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 659–664 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, M. A. Brewer, C. Zou, and P. J. Campagnola, “Adhesion and migration of ovarian cancer cells on crosslinked laminin fibers nanofabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Integr Biol (Camb)1(7), 469–476 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Santiago, R. Pogemiller, and B. M. Ogle, “Heterogeneous differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in response to extended culture in extracellular matrices,” Tissue Eng. Part A15(12), 3911–3922 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, C. Wong Po Foo, A. Warrier, M. M. Poo, S. C. Heilshorn, and X. Zhang, “Gradient lithography of engineered proteins to fabricate 2D and 3D cell culture microenvironments,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 1127–1134 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, “Recent progress in multiphoton microfabrication,” Laser Photon Rev2(1-2), 100–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photopolymerization and 3D lithographic microfabrication,” Adv. Polym. Sci.170, 169–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Cunningham, M. P. Veilleux, and P. J. Campagnola, “Freeform multiphoton excited microfabrication for biological applications using a rapid prototyping CAD-based approach,” Opt. Express14(19), 8613–8621 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Sniadecki, R. A. Desai, S. A. Ruiz, and C. S. Chen, “Nanotechnology for cell-substrate interactions,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(1), 59–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

X. Jiang, D. A. Bruzewicz, A. P. Wong, M. Piel, and G. M. Whitesides, “Directing cell migration with asymmetric micropatterns,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(4), 975–978 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu, L. P. Cunningham, G. D. Pins, K. A. Bush, R. Taboada, A. R. Howell, J. Wang, and P. J. Campagnola, “Multiphoton Excited Fabrication of Collagen Matrixes Cross-linked by a Modified Benzophenone Dimer: Bioactivity and Enzymatic Degradation,” Biomacromolecules6(3), 1465–1474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

J. L. Charest, L. E. Bryant, A. J. Garcia, and W. P. King, “Hot embossing for micropatterned cell substrates,” Biomaterials25(19), 4767–4775 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu and P. J. Campagnola, “Properties of crosslinked protein matrices for tissue engineering applications synthesized by multiphoton excitation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A71(2), 359–368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu, C. W. Wolgemuth, and P. J. Campagnola, “Measurement of Normal and Anomalous Diffusion of Dyes within Protein Structures Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Cross-linking,” Biomacromolecules5(6), 2347–2357 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kaehr, R. Allen, D. J. Javier, J. Currie, and J. B. Shear, “Guiding neuronal development with in situ microfabrication,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(46), 16104–16108 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Sridhar, S. Basu, V. L. Scranton, and P. J. Campagnola, “Construction of a laser scanning microscope for multiphoton excited optical fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74(7), 3474–3477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol.76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An Efficient Two-Photon-Generated Photoacid Applied to Positive-Tone 3D Microfabrication,” Science296(5570), 1106–1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Olson, M. J. Previte, and J. T. Fourkas, “Efficient and robust multiphoton data storage in molecular glasses and highly crosslinked polymers,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 225–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Active Aberration Correction for the Writing of Three-Dimensional Optical Memory Devices,” Appl. Opt.41(7), 1374–1379 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Reaction efficiencies for sub-micron multi-photon freeform fabrications of proteins and polymers with applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33, 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Lorenz, I. C. Carlsen, T. M. Buzug, C. Fassnacht, and J. Weese, “A multi-scale line filter with automatic scale selection based on the Hessian matrix for medical image segmentation,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.1252, 152–163 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. A. Liotta and W. G. Stetler-Stevenson, “Tumor invasion and metastasis: an imbalance of positive and negative regulation,” Cancer Res.51(18Suppl), 5054s–5059s (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. Balasubramanian, X. Du, and J. S. J. Zigler., “The reaction of singlet oxygen with proteins, with special reference to crystallins,” Photochem. Photobiol.52(4), 761–768 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

D. F. Eaton, “Dye sensitized photopolymerization,” Adv Photochem13, 427–487 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ahsan, S.

R. G. Wylie, S. Ahsan, Y. Aizawa, K. L. Maxwell, C. M. Morshead, and M. S. Shoichet, “Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels,” Nat. Mater.10(10), 799–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizawa, Y.

R. G. Wylie, S. Ahsan, Y. Aizawa, K. L. Maxwell, C. M. Morshead, and M. S. Shoichet, “Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels,” Nat. Mater.10(10), 799–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajeti, V.

X. Chen, Y. D. Su, V. Ajeti, S. J. Chen, and P. J. Campagnola, “Cell adhesion on micro-structured fibronectin gradients fabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Cell Mol Bioeng5(3), 307–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexander, S.

P. Friedl and S. Alexander, “Cancer invasion and the microenvironment: plasticity and reciprocity,” Cell147(5), 992–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, R.

B. Kaehr, R. Allen, D. J. Javier, J. Currie, and J. B. Shear, “Guiding neuronal development with in situ microfabrication,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(46), 16104–16108 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anseth, K. S.

C. A. DeForest and K. S. Anseth, “Advances in bioactive hydrogels to probe and direct cell fate,” Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng3(1), 421–444 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. DeForest, B. D. Polizzotti, and K. S. Anseth, “Sequential click reactions for synthesizing and patterning three-dimensional cell microenvironments,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 659–664 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balasubramanian, D.

D. Balasubramanian, X. Du, and J. S. J. Zigler., “The reaction of singlet oxygen with proteins, with special reference to crystallins,” Photochem. Photobiol.52(4), 761–768 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, I.

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol.76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basu, S.

S. Basu, L. P. Cunningham, G. D. Pins, K. A. Bush, R. Taboada, A. R. Howell, J. Wang, and P. J. Campagnola, “Multiphoton Excited Fabrication of Collagen Matrixes Cross-linked by a Modified Benzophenone Dimer: Bioactivity and Enzymatic Degradation,” Biomacromolecules6(3), 1465–1474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu and P. J. Campagnola, “Properties of crosslinked protein matrices for tissue engineering applications synthesized by multiphoton excitation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A71(2), 359–368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu, C. W. Wolgemuth, and P. J. Campagnola, “Measurement of Normal and Anomalous Diffusion of Dyes within Protein Structures Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Cross-linking,” Biomacromolecules5(6), 2347–2357 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sridhar, S. Basu, V. L. Scranton, and P. J. Campagnola, “Construction of a laser scanning microscope for multiphoton excited optical fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74(7), 3474–3477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Belfield, K. D.

G. Kumi, C. O. Yanez, K. D. Belfield, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-speed multiphoton absorption polymerization: fabrication of microfluidic channels with arbitrary cross-sections and high aspect ratios,” Lab Chip10(8), 1057–1060 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, M. J.

Braun, K. L.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An Efficient Two-Photon-Generated Photoacid Applied to Positive-Tone 3D Microfabrication,” Science296(5570), 1106–1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, M. A.

X. Chen, M. A. Brewer, C. Zou, and P. J. Campagnola, “Adhesion and migration of ovarian cancer cells on crosslinked laminin fibers nanofabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Integr Biol (Camb)1(7), 469–476 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briquez, P. S.

J. J. Rice, M. M. Martino, L. De Laporte, F. Tortelli, P. S. Briquez, and J. A. Hubbell, “Engineering the regenerative microenvironment with biomaterials,” Adv Healthc Mater2(1), 57–71 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruzewicz, D. A.

X. Jiang, D. A. Bruzewicz, A. P. Wong, M. Piel, and G. M. Whitesides, “Directing cell migration with asymmetric micropatterns,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(4), 975–978 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, L. E.

J. L. Charest, L. E. Bryant, A. J. Garcia, and W. P. King, “Hot embossing for micropatterned cell substrates,” Biomaterials25(19), 4767–4775 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bush, K. A.

S. Basu, L. P. Cunningham, G. D. Pins, K. A. Bush, R. Taboada, A. R. Howell, J. Wang, and P. J. Campagnola, “Multiphoton Excited Fabrication of Collagen Matrixes Cross-linked by a Modified Benzophenone Dimer: Bioactivity and Enzymatic Degradation,” Biomacromolecules6(3), 1465–1474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buzug, T. M.

C. Lorenz, I. C. Carlsen, T. M. Buzug, C. Fassnacht, and J. Weese, “A multi-scale line filter with automatic scale selection based on the Hessian matrix for medical image segmentation,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.1252, 152–163 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cammack, J. K.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An Efficient Two-Photon-Generated Photoacid Applied to Positive-Tone 3D Microfabrication,” Science296(5570), 1106–1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

X. Chen, Y. D. Su, V. Ajeti, S. J. Chen, and P. J. Campagnola, “Cell adhesion on micro-structured fibronectin gradients fabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Cell Mol Bioeng5(3), 307–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Su, Q. A. Tran, J. J. Fong, K. W. Eliceiri, B. M. Ogle, and P. J. Campagnola, “Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interactions with 3D ECM Modules Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Photochemistry,” Biomacromolecules13(9), 2917–2925 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, M. A. Brewer, C. Zou, and P. J. Campagnola, “Adhesion and migration of ovarian cancer cells on crosslinked laminin fibers nanofabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Integr Biol (Camb)1(7), 469–476 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Cunningham, M. P. Veilleux, and P. J. Campagnola, “Freeform multiphoton excited microfabrication for biological applications using a rapid prototyping CAD-based approach,” Opt. Express14(19), 8613–8621 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu, L. P. Cunningham, G. D. Pins, K. A. Bush, R. Taboada, A. R. Howell, J. Wang, and P. J. Campagnola, “Multiphoton Excited Fabrication of Collagen Matrixes Cross-linked by a Modified Benzophenone Dimer: Bioactivity and Enzymatic Degradation,” Biomacromolecules6(3), 1465–1474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu, C. W. Wolgemuth, and P. J. Campagnola, “Measurement of Normal and Anomalous Diffusion of Dyes within Protein Structures Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Cross-linking,” Biomacromolecules5(6), 2347–2357 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu and P. J. Campagnola, “Properties of crosslinked protein matrices for tissue engineering applications synthesized by multiphoton excitation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A71(2), 359–368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sridhar, S. Basu, V. L. Scranton, and P. J. Campagnola, “Construction of a laser scanning microscope for multiphoton excited optical fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74(7), 3474–3477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol.76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Reaction efficiencies for sub-micron multi-photon freeform fabrications of proteins and polymers with applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33, 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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C. Lorenz, I. C. Carlsen, T. M. Buzug, C. Fassnacht, and J. Weese, “A multi-scale line filter with automatic scale selection based on the Hessian matrix for medical image segmentation,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.1252, 152–163 (1997).
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J. L. Charest, L. E. Bryant, A. J. Garcia, and W. P. King, “Hot embossing for micropatterned cell substrates,” Biomaterials25(19), 4767–4775 (2004).
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Chen, C. S.

N. J. Sniadecki, R. A. Desai, S. A. Ruiz, and C. S. Chen, “Nanotechnology for cell-substrate interactions,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(1), 59–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. J.

X. Chen, Y. D. Su, V. Ajeti, S. J. Chen, and P. J. Campagnola, “Cell adhesion on micro-structured fibronectin gradients fabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Cell Mol Bioeng5(3), 307–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Y. D. Su, V. Ajeti, S. J. Chen, and P. J. Campagnola, “Cell adhesion on micro-structured fibronectin gradients fabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Cell Mol Bioeng5(3), 307–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, M. A. Brewer, C. Zou, and P. J. Campagnola, “Adhesion and migration of ovarian cancer cells on crosslinked laminin fibers nanofabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Integr Biol (Camb)1(7), 469–476 (2009).
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T. R. Cox and J. T. Erler, “Remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix: implications for fibrotic diseases and cancer,” Dis. Model. Mech.4(2), 165–178 (2011).
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L. P. Cunningham, M. P. Veilleux, and P. J. Campagnola, “Freeform multiphoton excited microfabrication for biological applications using a rapid prototyping CAD-based approach,” Opt. Express14(19), 8613–8621 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu, L. P. Cunningham, G. D. Pins, K. A. Bush, R. Taboada, A. R. Howell, J. Wang, and P. J. Campagnola, “Multiphoton Excited Fabrication of Collagen Matrixes Cross-linked by a Modified Benzophenone Dimer: Bioactivity and Enzymatic Degradation,” Biomacromolecules6(3), 1465–1474 (2005).
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B. Kaehr, R. Allen, D. J. Javier, J. Currie, and J. B. Shear, “Guiding neuronal development with in situ microfabrication,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(46), 16104–16108 (2004).
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J. J. Rice, M. M. Martino, L. De Laporte, F. Tortelli, P. S. Briquez, and J. A. Hubbell, “Engineering the regenerative microenvironment with biomaterials,” Adv Healthc Mater2(1), 57–71 (2013).
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C. A. DeForest and K. S. Anseth, “Advances in bioactive hydrogels to probe and direct cell fate,” Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng3(1), 421–444 (2012).
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C. A. DeForest, B. D. Polizzotti, and K. S. Anseth, “Sequential click reactions for synthesizing and patterning three-dimensional cell microenvironments,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 659–664 (2009).
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N. J. Sniadecki, R. A. Desai, S. A. Ruiz, and C. S. Chen, “Nanotechnology for cell-substrate interactions,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(1), 59–74 (2006).
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J. J. Moon, J. E. Saik, R. A. Poché, J. E. Leslie-Barbick, S. H. Lee, A. A. Smith, M. E. Dickinson, and J. L. West, “Biomimetic hydrogels with pro-angiogenic properties,” Biomaterials31(14), 3840–3847 (2010).
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P. J. Su, Q. A. Tran, J. J. Fong, K. W. Eliceiri, B. M. Ogle, and P. J. Campagnola, “Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interactions with 3D ECM Modules Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Photochemistry,” Biomacromolecules13(9), 2917–2925 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epling, G. A.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Reaction efficiencies for sub-micron multi-photon freeform fabrications of proteins and polymers with applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33, 1514–1523 (2000).
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T. R. Cox and J. T. Erler, “Remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix: implications for fibrotic diseases and cancer,” Dis. Model. Mech.4(2), 165–178 (2011).
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C. Lorenz, I. C. Carlsen, T. M. Buzug, C. Fassnacht, and J. Weese, “A multi-scale line filter with automatic scale selection based on the Hessian matrix for medical image segmentation,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.1252, 152–163 (1997).
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P. J. Su, Q. A. Tran, J. J. Fong, K. W. Eliceiri, B. M. Ogle, and P. J. Campagnola, “Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interactions with 3D ECM Modules Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Photochemistry,” Biomacromolecules13(9), 2917–2925 (2012).
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G. Kumi, C. O. Yanez, K. D. Belfield, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-speed multiphoton absorption polymerization: fabrication of microfluidic channels with arbitrary cross-sections and high aspect ratios,” Lab Chip10(8), 1057–1060 (2010).
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S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, “Recent progress in multiphoton microfabrication,” Laser Photon Rev2(1-2), 100–111 (2008).
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J. L. Charest, L. E. Bryant, A. J. Garcia, and W. P. King, “Hot embossing for micropatterned cell substrates,” Biomaterials25(19), 4767–4775 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol.76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Reaction efficiencies for sub-micron multi-photon freeform fabrications of proteins and polymers with applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33, 1514–1523 (2000).
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S. Wang, C. Wong Po Foo, A. Warrier, M. M. Poo, S. C. Heilshorn, and X. Zhang, “Gradient lithography of engineered proteins to fabricate 2D and 3D cell culture microenvironments,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 1127–1134 (2009).
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S. Basu, L. P. Cunningham, G. D. Pins, K. A. Bush, R. Taboada, A. R. Howell, J. Wang, and P. J. Campagnola, “Multiphoton Excited Fabrication of Collagen Matrixes Cross-linked by a Modified Benzophenone Dimer: Bioactivity and Enzymatic Degradation,” Biomacromolecules6(3), 1465–1474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol.76(2), 135–144 (2002).
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J. J. Rice, M. M. Martino, L. De Laporte, F. Tortelli, P. S. Briquez, and J. A. Hubbell, “Engineering the regenerative microenvironment with biomaterials,” Adv Healthc Mater2(1), 57–71 (2013).
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B. Kaehr, R. Allen, D. J. Javier, J. Currie, and J. B. Shear, “Guiding neuronal development with in situ microfabrication,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(46), 16104–16108 (2004).
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X. Jiang, D. A. Bruzewicz, A. P. Wong, M. Piel, and G. M. Whitesides, “Directing cell migration with asymmetric micropatterns,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(4), 975–978 (2005).
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Juskaitis, R.

Kaehr, B.

B. Kaehr, R. Allen, D. J. Javier, J. Currie, and J. B. Shear, “Guiding neuronal development with in situ microfabrication,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(46), 16104–16108 (2004).
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Kawata, S.

King, W. P.

J. L. Charest, L. E. Bryant, A. J. Garcia, and W. P. King, “Hot embossing for micropatterned cell substrates,” Biomaterials25(19), 4767–4775 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An Efficient Two-Photon-Generated Photoacid Applied to Positive-Tone 3D Microfabrication,” Science296(5570), 1106–1109 (2002).
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G. Kumi, C. O. Yanez, K. D. Belfield, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-speed multiphoton absorption polymerization: fabrication of microfluidic channels with arbitrary cross-sections and high aspect ratios,” Lab Chip10(8), 1057–1060 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

J. J. Moon, J. E. Saik, R. A. Poché, J. E. Leslie-Barbick, S. H. Lee, A. A. Smith, M. E. Dickinson, and J. L. West, “Biomimetic hydrogels with pro-angiogenic properties,” Biomaterials31(14), 3840–3847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leslie-Barbick, J. E.

J. J. Moon, J. E. Saik, R. A. Poché, J. E. Leslie-Barbick, S. H. Lee, A. A. Smith, M. E. Dickinson, and J. L. West, “Biomimetic hydrogels with pro-angiogenic properties,” Biomaterials31(14), 3840–3847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. A. Liotta and W. G. Stetler-Stevenson, “Tumor invasion and metastasis: an imbalance of positive and negative regulation,” Cancer Res.51(18Suppl), 5054s–5059s (1991).
[PubMed]

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C. Lorenz, I. C. Carlsen, T. M. Buzug, C. Fassnacht, and J. Weese, “A multi-scale line filter with automatic scale selection based on the Hessian matrix for medical image segmentation,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.1252, 152–163 (1997).
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P. Lu, V. M. Weaver, and Z. Werb, “The extracellular matrix: a dynamic niche in cancer progression,” J. Cell Biol.196(4), 395–406 (2012).
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W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An Efficient Two-Photon-Generated Photoacid Applied to Positive-Tone 3D Microfabrication,” Science296(5570), 1106–1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martino, M. M.

J. J. Rice, M. M. Martino, L. De Laporte, F. Tortelli, P. S. Briquez, and J. A. Hubbell, “Engineering the regenerative microenvironment with biomaterials,” Adv Healthc Mater2(1), 57–71 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruo, S.

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, “Recent progress in multiphoton microfabrication,” Laser Photon Rev2(1-2), 100–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. G. Wylie, S. Ahsan, Y. Aizawa, K. L. Maxwell, C. M. Morshead, and M. S. Shoichet, “Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels,” Nat. Mater.10(10), 799–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, J. J.

J. J. Moon, J. E. Saik, R. A. Poché, J. E. Leslie-Barbick, S. H. Lee, A. A. Smith, M. E. Dickinson, and J. L. West, “Biomimetic hydrogels with pro-angiogenic properties,” Biomaterials31(14), 3840–3847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morshead, C. M.

R. G. Wylie, S. Ahsan, Y. Aizawa, K. L. Maxwell, C. M. Morshead, and M. S. Shoichet, “Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels,” Nat. Mater.10(10), 799–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, M. A. A.

Ober, C. K.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An Efficient Two-Photon-Generated Photoacid Applied to Positive-Tone 3D Microfabrication,” Science296(5570), 1106–1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogle, B. M.

P. J. Su, Q. A. Tran, J. J. Fong, K. W. Eliceiri, B. M. Ogle, and P. J. Campagnola, “Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interactions with 3D ECM Modules Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Photochemistry,” Biomacromolecules13(9), 2917–2925 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Santiago, R. Pogemiller, and B. M. Ogle, “Heterogeneous differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in response to extended culture in extracellular matrices,” Tissue Eng. Part A15(12), 3911–3922 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, C. E.

C. E. Olson, M. J. Previte, and J. T. Fourkas, “Efficient and robust multiphoton data storage in molecular glasses and highly crosslinked polymers,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 225–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, J. W.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An Efficient Two-Photon-Generated Photoacid Applied to Positive-Tone 3D Microfabrication,” Science296(5570), 1106–1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piel, M.

X. Jiang, D. A. Bruzewicz, A. P. Wong, M. Piel, and G. M. Whitesides, “Directing cell migration with asymmetric micropatterns,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(4), 975–978 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pins, G. D.

S. Basu, L. P. Cunningham, G. D. Pins, K. A. Bush, R. Taboada, A. R. Howell, J. Wang, and P. J. Campagnola, “Multiphoton Excited Fabrication of Collagen Matrixes Cross-linked by a Modified Benzophenone Dimer: Bioactivity and Enzymatic Degradation,” Biomacromolecules6(3), 1465–1474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitts, J. D.

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol.76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Reaction efficiencies for sub-micron multi-photon freeform fabrications of proteins and polymers with applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33, 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poché, R. A.

J. J. Moon, J. E. Saik, R. A. Poché, J. E. Leslie-Barbick, S. H. Lee, A. A. Smith, M. E. Dickinson, and J. L. West, “Biomimetic hydrogels with pro-angiogenic properties,” Biomaterials31(14), 3840–3847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogemiller, R.

J. A. Santiago, R. Pogemiller, and B. M. Ogle, “Heterogeneous differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in response to extended culture in extracellular matrices,” Tissue Eng. Part A15(12), 3911–3922 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. A. DeForest, B. D. Polizzotti, and K. S. Anseth, “Sequential click reactions for synthesizing and patterning three-dimensional cell microenvironments,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 659–664 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poo, M. M.

S. Wang, C. Wong Po Foo, A. Warrier, M. M. Poo, S. C. Heilshorn, and X. Zhang, “Gradient lithography of engineered proteins to fabricate 2D and 3D cell culture microenvironments,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 1127–1134 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. E. Olson, M. J. Previte, and J. T. Fourkas, “Efficient and robust multiphoton data storage in molecular glasses and highly crosslinked polymers,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 225–228 (2002).
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J. J. Rice, M. M. Martino, L. De Laporte, F. Tortelli, P. S. Briquez, and J. A. Hubbell, “Engineering the regenerative microenvironment with biomaterials,” Adv Healthc Mater2(1), 57–71 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. J. Sniadecki, R. A. Desai, S. A. Ruiz, and C. S. Chen, “Nanotechnology for cell-substrate interactions,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(1), 59–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saik, J. E.

J. J. Moon, J. E. Saik, R. A. Poché, J. E. Leslie-Barbick, S. H. Lee, A. A. Smith, M. E. Dickinson, and J. L. West, “Biomimetic hydrogels with pro-angiogenic properties,” Biomaterials31(14), 3840–3847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santiago, J. A.

J. A. Santiago, R. Pogemiller, and B. M. Ogle, “Heterogeneous differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in response to extended culture in extracellular matrices,” Tissue Eng. Part A15(12), 3911–3922 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scranton, V. L.

M. Sridhar, S. Basu, V. L. Scranton, and P. J. Campagnola, “Construction of a laser scanning microscope for multiphoton excited optical fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74(7), 3474–3477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shear, J. B.

B. Kaehr, R. Allen, D. J. Javier, J. Currie, and J. B. Shear, “Guiding neuronal development with in situ microfabrication,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(46), 16104–16108 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoichet, M. S.

R. G. Wylie, S. Ahsan, Y. Aizawa, K. L. Maxwell, C. M. Morshead, and M. S. Shoichet, “Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels,” Nat. Mater.10(10), 799–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A. A.

J. J. Moon, J. E. Saik, R. A. Poché, J. E. Leslie-Barbick, S. H. Lee, A. A. Smith, M. E. Dickinson, and J. L. West, “Biomimetic hydrogels with pro-angiogenic properties,” Biomaterials31(14), 3840–3847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sniadecki, N. J.

N. J. Sniadecki, R. A. Desai, S. A. Ruiz, and C. S. Chen, “Nanotechnology for cell-substrate interactions,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(1), 59–74 (2006).
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C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics5, 523–530 (2011).

Sridhar, M.

M. Sridhar, S. Basu, V. L. Scranton, and P. J. Campagnola, “Construction of a laser scanning microscope for multiphoton excited optical fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74(7), 3474–3477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stetler-Stevenson, W. G.

L. A. Liotta and W. G. Stetler-Stevenson, “Tumor invasion and metastasis: an imbalance of positive and negative regulation,” Cancer Res.51(18Suppl), 5054s–5059s (1991).
[PubMed]

Su, P. J.

P. J. Su, Q. A. Tran, J. J. Fong, K. W. Eliceiri, B. M. Ogle, and P. J. Campagnola, “Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interactions with 3D ECM Modules Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Photochemistry,” Biomacromolecules13(9), 2917–2925 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, Y. D.

X. Chen, Y. D. Su, V. Ajeti, S. J. Chen, and P. J. Campagnola, “Cell adhesion on micro-structured fibronectin gradients fabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Cell Mol Bioeng5(3), 307–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photopolymerization and 3D lithographic microfabrication,” Adv. Polym. Sci.170, 169–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taboada, R.

S. Basu, L. P. Cunningham, G. D. Pins, K. A. Bush, R. Taboada, A. R. Howell, J. Wang, and P. J. Campagnola, “Multiphoton Excited Fabrication of Collagen Matrixes Cross-linked by a Modified Benzophenone Dimer: Bioactivity and Enzymatic Degradation,” Biomacromolecules6(3), 1465–1474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol.76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

Tortelli, F.

J. J. Rice, M. M. Martino, L. De Laporte, F. Tortelli, P. S. Briquez, and J. A. Hubbell, “Engineering the regenerative microenvironment with biomaterials,” Adv Healthc Mater2(1), 57–71 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, Q. A.

P. J. Su, Q. A. Tran, J. J. Fong, K. W. Eliceiri, B. M. Ogle, and P. J. Campagnola, “Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interactions with 3D ECM Modules Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Photochemistry,” Biomacromolecules13(9), 2917–2925 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veilleux, M. P.

Wang, J.

S. Basu, L. P. Cunningham, G. D. Pins, K. A. Bush, R. Taboada, A. R. Howell, J. Wang, and P. J. Campagnola, “Multiphoton Excited Fabrication of Collagen Matrixes Cross-linked by a Modified Benzophenone Dimer: Bioactivity and Enzymatic Degradation,” Biomacromolecules6(3), 1465–1474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol.76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, C. Wong Po Foo, A. Warrier, M. M. Poo, S. C. Heilshorn, and X. Zhang, “Gradient lithography of engineered proteins to fabricate 2D and 3D cell culture microenvironments,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 1127–1134 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warrier, A.

S. Wang, C. Wong Po Foo, A. Warrier, M. M. Poo, S. C. Heilshorn, and X. Zhang, “Gradient lithography of engineered proteins to fabricate 2D and 3D cell culture microenvironments,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 1127–1134 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weaver, V. M.

P. Lu, V. M. Weaver, and Z. Werb, “The extracellular matrix: a dynamic niche in cancer progression,” J. Cell Biol.196(4), 395–406 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weese, J.

C. Lorenz, I. C. Carlsen, T. M. Buzug, C. Fassnacht, and J. Weese, “A multi-scale line filter with automatic scale selection based on the Hessian matrix for medical image segmentation,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.1252, 152–163 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics5, 523–530 (2011).

Werb, Z.

P. Lu, V. M. Weaver, and Z. Werb, “The extracellular matrix: a dynamic niche in cancer progression,” J. Cell Biol.196(4), 395–406 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J. L.

J. J. Moon, J. E. Saik, R. A. Poché, J. E. Leslie-Barbick, S. H. Lee, A. A. Smith, M. E. Dickinson, and J. L. West, “Biomimetic hydrogels with pro-angiogenic properties,” Biomaterials31(14), 3840–3847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

D. Qin, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning,” Nat. Protoc.5(3), 491–502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Jiang, D. A. Bruzewicz, A. P. Wong, M. Piel, and G. M. Whitesides, “Directing cell migration with asymmetric micropatterns,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(4), 975–978 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

Wolgemuth, C. W.

S. Basu, C. W. Wolgemuth, and P. J. Campagnola, “Measurement of Normal and Anomalous Diffusion of Dyes within Protein Structures Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Cross-linking,” Biomacromolecules5(6), 2347–2357 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, A. P.

X. Jiang, D. A. Bruzewicz, A. P. Wong, M. Piel, and G. M. Whitesides, “Directing cell migration with asymmetric micropatterns,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(4), 975–978 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong Po Foo, C.

S. Wang, C. Wong Po Foo, A. Warrier, M. M. Poo, S. C. Heilshorn, and X. Zhang, “Gradient lithography of engineered proteins to fabricate 2D and 3D cell culture microenvironments,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 1127–1134 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wylie, R. G.

R. G. Wylie, S. Ahsan, Y. Aizawa, K. L. Maxwell, C. M. Morshead, and M. S. Shoichet, “Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels,” Nat. Mater.10(10), 799–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

D. Qin, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning,” Nat. Protoc.5(3), 491–502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanez, C. O.

G. Kumi, C. O. Yanez, K. D. Belfield, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-speed multiphoton absorption polymerization: fabrication of microfluidic channels with arbitrary cross-sections and high aspect ratios,” Lab Chip10(8), 1057–1060 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An Efficient Two-Photon-Generated Photoacid Applied to Positive-Tone 3D Microfabrication,” Science296(5570), 1106–1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Wang, C. Wong Po Foo, A. Warrier, M. M. Poo, S. C. Heilshorn, and X. Zhang, “Gradient lithography of engineered proteins to fabricate 2D and 3D cell culture microenvironments,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 1127–1134 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An Efficient Two-Photon-Generated Photoacid Applied to Positive-Tone 3D Microfabrication,” Science296(5570), 1106–1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zigler, J. S. J.

D. Balasubramanian, X. Du, and J. S. J. Zigler., “The reaction of singlet oxygen with proteins, with special reference to crystallins,” Photochem. Photobiol.52(4), 761–768 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, C.

X. Chen, M. A. Brewer, C. Zou, and P. J. Campagnola, “Adhesion and migration of ovarian cancer cells on crosslinked laminin fibers nanofabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Integr Biol (Camb)1(7), 469–476 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv Healthc Mater (1)

J. J. Rice, M. M. Martino, L. De Laporte, F. Tortelli, P. S. Briquez, and J. A. Hubbell, “Engineering the regenerative microenvironment with biomaterials,” Adv Healthc Mater2(1), 57–71 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv Photochem (1)

D. F. Eaton, “Dye sensitized photopolymerization,” Adv Photochem13, 427–487 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Polym. Sci. (1)

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photopolymerization and 3D lithographic microfabrication,” Adv. Polym. Sci.170, 169–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

N. J. Sniadecki, R. A. Desai, S. A. Ruiz, and C. S. Chen, “Nanotechnology for cell-substrate interactions,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.34(1), 59–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng (1)

C. A. DeForest and K. S. Anseth, “Advances in bioactive hydrogels to probe and direct cell fate,” Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng3(1), 421–444 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomacromolecules (3)

S. Basu, C. W. Wolgemuth, and P. J. Campagnola, “Measurement of Normal and Anomalous Diffusion of Dyes within Protein Structures Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Cross-linking,” Biomacromolecules5(6), 2347–2357 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Su, Q. A. Tran, J. J. Fong, K. W. Eliceiri, B. M. Ogle, and P. J. Campagnola, “Mesenchymal Stem Cell Interactions with 3D ECM Modules Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Photochemistry,” Biomacromolecules13(9), 2917–2925 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu, L. P. Cunningham, G. D. Pins, K. A. Bush, R. Taboada, A. R. Howell, J. Wang, and P. J. Campagnola, “Multiphoton Excited Fabrication of Collagen Matrixes Cross-linked by a Modified Benzophenone Dimer: Bioactivity and Enzymatic Degradation,” Biomacromolecules6(3), 1465–1474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomaterials (2)

J. J. Moon, J. E. Saik, R. A. Poché, J. E. Leslie-Barbick, S. H. Lee, A. A. Smith, M. E. Dickinson, and J. L. West, “Biomimetic hydrogels with pro-angiogenic properties,” Biomaterials31(14), 3840–3847 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Charest, L. E. Bryant, A. J. Garcia, and W. P. King, “Hot embossing for micropatterned cell substrates,” Biomaterials25(19), 4767–4775 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Microdevices (1)

S. Wang, C. Wong Po Foo, A. Warrier, M. M. Poo, S. C. Heilshorn, and X. Zhang, “Gradient lithography of engineered proteins to fabricate 2D and 3D cell culture microenvironments,” Biomed. Microdevices11(5), 1127–1134 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

L. A. Liotta and W. G. Stetler-Stevenson, “Tumor invasion and metastasis: an imbalance of positive and negative regulation,” Cancer Res.51(18Suppl), 5054s–5059s (1991).
[PubMed]

Cell (1)

P. Friedl and S. Alexander, “Cancer invasion and the microenvironment: plasticity and reciprocity,” Cell147(5), 992–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell Mol Bioeng (1)

X. Chen, Y. D. Su, V. Ajeti, S. J. Chen, and P. J. Campagnola, “Cell adhesion on micro-structured fibronectin gradients fabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Cell Mol Bioeng5(3), 307–319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dis. Model. Mech. (1)

T. R. Cox and J. T. Erler, “Remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix: implications for fibrotic diseases and cancer,” Dis. Model. Mech.4(2), 165–178 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Integr Biol (Camb) (1)

X. Chen, M. A. Brewer, C. Zou, and P. J. Campagnola, “Adhesion and migration of ovarian cancer cells on crosslinked laminin fibers nanofabricated by multiphoton excited photochemistry,” Integr Biol (Camb)1(7), 469–476 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A (1)

S. Basu and P. J. Campagnola, “Properties of crosslinked protein matrices for tissue engineering applications synthesized by multiphoton excitation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A71(2), 359–368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cell Biol. (1)

P. Lu, V. M. Weaver, and Z. Werb, “The extracellular matrix: a dynamic niche in cancer progression,” J. Cell Biol.196(4), 395–406 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (1)

G. Kumi, C. O. Yanez, K. D. Belfield, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-speed multiphoton absorption polymerization: fabrication of microfluidic channels with arbitrary cross-sections and high aspect ratios,” Lab Chip10(8), 1057–1060 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Photon Rev (1)

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, “Recent progress in multiphoton microfabrication,” Laser Photon Rev2(1-2), 100–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (1)

C. Lorenz, I. C. Carlsen, T. M. Buzug, C. Fassnacht, and J. Weese, “A multi-scale line filter with automatic scale selection based on the Hessian matrix for medical image segmentation,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.1252, 152–163 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Reaction efficiencies for sub-micron multi-photon freeform fabrications of proteins and polymers with applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33, 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (3)

C. E. Olson, M. J. Previte, and J. T. Fourkas, “Efficient and robust multiphoton data storage in molecular glasses and highly crosslinked polymers,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 225–228 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. DeForest, B. D. Polizzotti, and K. S. Anseth, “Sequential click reactions for synthesizing and patterning three-dimensional cell microenvironments,” Nat. Mater.8(8), 659–664 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Wylie, S. Ahsan, Y. Aizawa, K. L. Maxwell, C. M. Morshead, and M. S. Shoichet, “Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels,” Nat. Mater.10(10), 799–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics5, 523–530 (2011).

Nat. Protoc. (1)

D. Qin, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning,” Nat. Protoc.5(3), 491–502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

D. Balasubramanian, X. Du, and J. S. J. Zigler., “The reaction of singlet oxygen with proteins, with special reference to crystallins,” Photochem. Photobiol.52(4), 761–768 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Pitts, A. R. Howell, R. Taboada, I. Banerjee, J. Wang, S. L. Goodman, and P. J. Campagnola, “New photoactivators for multiphoton excited three-dimensional submicron cross-linking of proteins: bovine serum albumin and type 1 collagen,” Photochem. Photobiol.76(2), 135–144 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

X. Jiang, D. A. Bruzewicz, A. P. Wong, M. Piel, and G. M. Whitesides, “Directing cell migration with asymmetric micropatterns,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(4), 975–978 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kaehr, R. Allen, D. J. Javier, J. Currie, and J. B. Shear, “Guiding neuronal development with in situ microfabrication,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(46), 16104–16108 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Sridhar, S. Basu, V. L. Scranton, and P. J. Campagnola, “Construction of a laser scanning microscope for multiphoton excited optical fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74(7), 3474–3477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, “An Efficient Two-Photon-Generated Photoacid Applied to Positive-Tone 3D Microfabrication,” Science296(5570), 1106–1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tissue Eng. Part A (1)

J. A. Santiago, R. Pogemiller, and B. M. Ogle, “Heterogeneous differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in response to extended culture in extracellular matrices,” Tissue Eng. Part A15(12), 3911–3922 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. E. Burgeson, “Basement Membranes,” in Dermatology in General Medicine, T. B. Fitzpatrick, A. Z. Eisen, K. Wolff, I. M. Freedberg, and K. F. Austen, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1987), pp. 288–303.

J. Fourkas, “Multiphoton lithography, processing and fabrication of photonic structures,” Woodh Pub Ser Elect, 139–161 (2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical Configuration for the purpose built fabrication system, incorporating separate EOMs for power control and rapid shuttering and an FPGA for optimized control of the fabrication process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flowchart showing the steps required for the fabrication process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of image processing used in scaffold design. Far left is the original SHG image of the collagen in the stroma from an ovarian tissue malignancy. The middle image results from a threshold to remove the background noise. The far right image is obtained by calculating the Eigenvectors of the Hessian matrix of the SHG image to better accentuate fiber structures. Scale bar = 40 microns.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single optical section of Col IV immunofluorescence and resulting fabricated structures. (a) Original immunofluorescence image,(b) immunofluorescence of BSA/FN fabricated structure created through modulated raster scanning, (c) two color overlap of (a) and (b), where white indicates high overlap, and (d) two-color overlap of (a) and structure created through a STL model, where the contrast was from Rose Bengal fluorescence. The green shows the regions which were not reproduced in the fabrication process. Scale bar = 30 microns.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3D renderings of confocal image (a) derived from FN in mouse left ventricle and resulting fabricated structure created through modulated raster scanning (b). The large feature indicated by the arrow is a blood vessel. The contrast was FN immunofluorescence in both images. Scale bar = 30 microns.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3D renderings of SHG image (a)) and fabricated structure (b) from a human ovarian cancer. Scale bar = 50 microns. (c) SEM of the fabricated structure taken at 600X magnification.

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