Abstract

We present detailed investigations of the local strain distribution and the induced second-order optical nonlinearity within strained silicon waveguides cladded with a Si3N4 strain layer. Micro-Raman Spectroscopy mappings and electro-optic characterization of waveguides with varying width wWG show that strain gradients in the waveguide core and the effective second-order susceptibility χ(2)yyz increase with reduced wWG. For 300 nm wide waveguides a mean effective χ(2)yyz of 190 pm/V is achieved, which is the highest value reported for silicon so far. To gain more insight into the origin of the extraordinary large optical second-order nonlinearity of strained silicon waveguides numerical simulations of edge induced strain gradients in these structures are presented and discussed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

C. Schriever, C. Bohley, J. Schilling, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Strained silicon photonics,” Materials5(12), 889–908 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bianco, K. Fedus, F. Enrichi, R. Pierobon, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Two-dimensional micro-Raman mapping of stress and strain distributions in strained silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(8), 085009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Jenett, and A. Jacob, “40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2753–2755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

1998

M. Maeda and K. Ikeda, “Stress evaluation of radio-frequency-biased plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.83(7), 3865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

I. DeWolf, “Micro-raman spectroscopy to study local mechanical stress in silicon integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.11(2), 139–154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alloatti, L.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrutsky, I.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Baier, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barklund, A.

Bianco, F.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bianco, K. Fedus, F. Enrichi, R. Pierobon, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Two-dimensional micro-Raman mapping of stress and strain distributions in strained silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(8), 085009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

Bohley, C.

C. Schriever, C. Bohley, J. Schilling, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Strained silicon photonics,” Materials5(12), 889–908 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, “A linear electro-optic effect in silicon, induced by use of strain,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 37–39 (2006).

Borga, E.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cazzanelli, M.

F. Bianco, K. Fedus, F. Enrichi, R. Pierobon, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Two-dimensional micro-Raman mapping of stress and strain distributions in strained silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(8), 085009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chmielak, B.

Degoli, E.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeWolf, I.

I. DeWolf, “Micro-raman spectroscopy to study local mechanical stress in silicon integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.11(2), 139–154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ding, R.

Dinu, R.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Eich, M.

Enrichi, F.

F. Bianco, K. Fedus, F. Enrichi, R. Pierobon, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Two-dimensional micro-Raman mapping of stress and strain distributions in strained silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(8), 085009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, “A linear electro-optic effect in silicon, induced by use of strain,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 37–39 (2006).

Fedeli, J.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fedus, K.

F. Bianco, K. Fedus, F. Enrichi, R. Pierobon, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Two-dimensional micro-Raman mapping of stress and strain distributions in strained silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(8), 085009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, M.

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, “A linear electro-optic effect in silicon, induced by use of strain,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 37–39 (2006).

Freude, W.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ghulinyan, M.

F. Bianco, K. Fedus, F. Enrichi, R. Pierobon, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Two-dimensional micro-Raman mapping of stress and strain distributions in strained silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(8), 085009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, M.

Hampe, J.

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillerkuss, D.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Hon, N. K.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, B. Jalali, and J. B. Khurgin, “Stress-induced χ(2) in silicon – comparison between theoretical and experimental values,” in 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 232–234 (2009).

Huang, S.

Ikeda, K.

M. Maeda and K. Ikeda, “Stress evaluation of radio-frequency-biased plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.83(7), 3865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, A.

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, B. Jalali, and J. B. Khurgin, “Stress-induced χ(2) in silicon – comparison between theoretical and experimental values,” in 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 232–234 (2009).

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Jenett, M.

Khurgin, J. B.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, B. Jalali, and J. B. Khurgin, “Stress-induced χ(2) in silicon – comparison between theoretical and experimental values,” in 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 232–234 (2009).

Koenig, S.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Korn, D.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, “A linear electro-optic effect in silicon, induced by use of strain,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 37–39 (2006).

Leuthold, J.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. L.

Li, J.

Lipson, M.

Luo, J.

Luppi, E.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, M.

M. Maeda and K. Ikeda, “Stress evaluation of radio-frequency-biased plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.83(7), 3865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matheisen, C.

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Merget, F.

Modotto, D.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagel, M.

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ossicini, S.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

Palmer, R.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

F. Bianco, K. Fedus, F. Enrichi, R. Pierobon, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Two-dimensional micro-Raman mapping of stress and strain distributions in strained silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(8), 085009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrov, A.

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierobon, R.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bianco, K. Fedus, F. Enrichi, R. Pierobon, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Two-dimensional micro-Raman mapping of stress and strain distributions in strained silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(8), 085009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

Prorok, S.

Pucker, G.

F. Bianco, K. Fedus, F. Enrichi, R. Pierobon, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Two-dimensional micro-Raman mapping of stress and strain distributions in strained silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(8), 085009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripperda, C.

Robinson, J. T.

Schilling, J.

C. Schriever, C. Bohley, J. Schilling, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Strained silicon photonics,” Materials5(12), 889–908 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, P. C.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schmogrow, R.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schriever, C.

C. Schriever, C. Bohley, J. Schilling, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Strained silicon photonics,” Materials5(12), 889–908 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Solli, D. R.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, B. Jalali, and J. B. Khurgin, “Stress-induced χ(2) in silicon – comparison between theoretical and experimental values,” in 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 232–234 (2009).

Soref, R.

Tsia, K. K.

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, B. Jalali, and J. B. Khurgin, “Stress-induced χ(2) in silicon – comparison between theoretical and experimental values,” in 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 232–234 (2009).

Véniard, V.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, S.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wächter, M.

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wahlbrink, T.

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Waldow, M.

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

C. Schriever, C. Bohley, J. Schilling, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Strained silicon photonics,” Materials5(12), 889–908 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, J.

Wülbern, J. H.

Yu, H.

Yu, P. K. L.

Zsigri, B.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, “Periodically-Poled Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(9), 091116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Maeda and K. Ikeda, “Stress evaluation of radio-frequency-biased plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.83(7), 3865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Materials

C. Schriever, C. Bohley, J. Schilling, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Strained silicon photonics,” Materials5(12), 889–908 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater.11(2), 148–154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

I. DeWolf, “Micro-raman spectroscopy to study local mechanical stress in silicon integrated circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.11(2), 139–154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Bianco, K. Fedus, F. Enrichi, R. Pierobon, M. Cazzanelli, M. Ghulinyan, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Two-dimensional micro-Raman mapping of stress and strain distributions in strained silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(8), 085009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, M. Baier, S. Koenig, D. Hillerkuss, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator generating up to 84 Gbit/s BPSK and M-ASK signals,“ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OW4J.6 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, “A linear electro-optic effect in silicon, induced by use of strain,” in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 37–39 (2006).

N. K. Hon, K. K. Tsia, D. R. Solli, B. Jalali, and J. B. Khurgin, “Stress-induced χ(2) in silicon – comparison between theoretical and experimental values,” in 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 232–234 (2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic cross-section image of a silicon-on-insulator rib-waveguide with Si3N4 strain layer and SiO2 cladding. (b) Schematic top view of a MZI based electro-optic modulator with electrodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MRS mappings conducted on 2 μm (a) and 500 nm (b) wide strained waveguides (solid lines) and unstrained reference waveguides (dotted lines). In the upper part (black lines) the relative Raman shift Δω is shown. The lower part (blue lines) contains the corresponding FWHM of the Raman peak. The red dashed lines mark the position of the waveguide edges.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective χ(2)yyz plotted versus waveguide width wWG. The red triangles are the effective χ(2)yyz values extracted from electro-optic measurements. The blue circles represent the mean values of the effective χ(2)yyz for each wWG, the error bars show the standard deviation and the blue lines are included as guide to the eye. The inset shows mean values of Vπ LMod for modulators with different wWG.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM cross-section image of a rib waveguide with a Si3N4 strain layer. (b) 2D-Model of the waveguide structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated strain distribution εyy for different waveguides structures. (a)-(c) Waveguides with different gaps in the Si3N4 layer. (d) and (e) Comparison of a 2 μm and a 400 nm wide waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated strain component εyy in the center of the waveguide (y = 0) calculated for different wWG. The gradient of εyy increases for smaller wWG.

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