Abstract

We present the first observation, to the best of our knowledge, the spontaneous generation of picoseconds pulse trains in a diode-pumped Nd:YAP laser with gigahertz repetition rate. Spatially dependent temporal dynamics were experimentally observed. After theoretically reconstruct the experimental temporal-resolved patterns, we verify that the complicated spatially-dependent temporal dynamics were originated from simultaneous coherent locking combination of fundamental and several additional higher-order transverse modes.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. F. Chen, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, Y. C. Lin, and H. C. Liang, “Controlling number of lasing modes for designing short-cavity self-mode-locked Nd-doped vanadate lasers,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 841–846 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, and Y. F. Chen, “Highly efficient Nd:Gd0.6Y0.4VO4 laser by direct in-band pumping at 914 nm and observation of self-mode-locked operation,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 637–641 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. H. Auston, “Transverse Mode Locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.4(6), 420–422 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

Y. F. Chen, W. Z. Zhuang, H. C. Liang, G. W. Huang, and K. W. Su, “High-power subpicosecond harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser with pulse repetition rate up to 240 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(1), 015803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Zhuang, M. T. Chang, H. C. Liang, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power high-repetition-rate subpicosecond monolithic Yb:KGW laser with self-mode locking,” Opt. Lett.38(14), 2596–2599 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (5)

H. C. Liang, K. Y. Lin, Y. C. Lee, and Y. F. Chen, “Precise measurement of group refractive indices and temperature dependence of refractive index for Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate by intracavity spontaneous mode locking,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3741–3743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Liang, K. Y. Lin, K. W. Su, and K. F. Huang, “Femtosecond high-power spontaneous mode-locked operation in vertical-external cavity surface-emitting laser with gigahertz oscillation,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4581–4583 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, Y. C. Lin, and H. C. Liang, “Controlling number of lasing modes for designing short-cavity self-mode-locked Nd-doped vanadate lasers,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 841–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, and Y. F. Chen, “Highly efficient Nd:Gd0.6Y0.4VO4 laser by direct in-band pumping at 914 nm and observation of self-mode-locked operation,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Huang, H. C. Liang, Y. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and M. H. Jiang, “High-power 10-GHz self-mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Laser Phys.21(10), 1750–1754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

H. C. Liang, H. L. Chang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and Y. T. Chen, “Self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with multi-GHz oscillations: manifestation of third-order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 451–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (2)

K. Sato, “Semiconductor light sources for 40-Gb/s transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(12), 2035–2043 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80~200 GHz erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett.32(15), 1370–1372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(5), 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, and D. M. Bloom, “Picosecond Optical-Sampling of GaAs Integrated-Circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24(2), 198–220 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

M. J. Weber and T. E. Varitimos, “Optical Spectra and Intensities of Nd3+ in YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys.42(12), 4996–5005 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

D. H. Auston, “Transverse Mode Locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.4(6), 420–422 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(5), 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, “Transverse Mode Locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.4(6), 420–422 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Bloom, D. M.

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, and D. M. Bloom, “Picosecond Optical-Sampling of GaAs Integrated-Circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24(2), 198–220 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

Chang, H. L.

H. C. Liang, H. L. Chang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and Y. T. Chen, “Self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with multi-GHz oscillations: manifestation of third-order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 451–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, M. T.

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(5), 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R. C. C.

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, W. Z. Zhuang, H. C. Liang, G. W. Huang, and K. W. Su, “High-power subpicosecond harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser with pulse repetition rate up to 240 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(1), 015803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Zhuang, M. T. Chang, H. C. Liang, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power high-repetition-rate subpicosecond monolithic Yb:KGW laser with self-mode locking,” Opt. Lett.38(14), 2596–2599 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, Y. C. Lee, J. C. Tung, K. W. Su, K. F. Huang, and Y. F. Chen, “Exploring the spatio-temporal dynamics of an optically pumped semiconductor laser with intracavity second harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4609–4611 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, H. C. Liang, J. C. Tung, K. W. Su, Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, and J. Y. Wang, “Spontaneous subpicosecond pulse formation with pulse repetition rate of 80 GHz in a diode-pumped Nd:SrGdGa3O7 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Huang, Y. S. Tzeng, C. Y. Tang, Y. P. Huang, and Y. F. Chen, “Tunable GHz pulse repetition rate operation in high-power TEM00-mode Nd:YLF lasers at 1047 nm and 1053 nm with self mode locking,” Opt. Express20(16), 18230–18237 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, K. Y. Lin, Y. C. Lee, and Y. F. Chen, “Precise measurement of group refractive indices and temperature dependence of refractive index for Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate by intracavity spontaneous mode locking,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3741–3743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, and Y. F. Chen, “Highly efficient Nd:Gd0.6Y0.4VO4 laser by direct in-band pumping at 914 nm and observation of self-mode-locked operation,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Liang, K. Y. Lin, K. W. Su, and K. F. Huang, “Femtosecond high-power spontaneous mode-locked operation in vertical-external cavity surface-emitting laser with gigahertz oscillation,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4581–4583 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Huang, H. C. Liang, Y. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and M. H. Jiang, “High-power 10-GHz self-mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Laser Phys.21(10), 1750–1754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, Y. C. Lin, and H. C. Liang, “Controlling number of lasing modes for designing short-cavity self-mode-locked Nd-doped vanadate lasers,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 841–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power, diode-end-pumped, multigigahertz self-mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 4–6 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, H. L. Chang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and Y. T. Chen, “Self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with multi-GHz oscillations: manifestation of third-order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 451–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liang, R. C. C. Chen, Y. J. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Compact efficient multi-GHz Kerr-lens mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Express16(25), 21149–21154 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. T.

H. C. Liang, H. L. Chang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and Y. T. Chen, “Self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with multi-GHz oscillations: manifestation of third-order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 451–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, P. Y.

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, and Y. F. Chen, “Highly efficient Nd:Gd0.6Y0.4VO4 laser by direct in-band pumping at 914 nm and observation of self-mode-locked operation,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, Y. C. Lin, and H. C. Liang, “Controlling number of lasing modes for designing short-cavity self-mode-locked Nd-doped vanadate lasers,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 841–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choudhary, A.

Dekorsy, T.

Ebling, D.

Furusawa, K.

Goldsborough, J. P.

Golling, M.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayakawa, T.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, G. W.

Y. F. Chen, W. Z. Zhuang, H. C. Liang, G. W. Huang, and K. W. Su, “High-power subpicosecond harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser with pulse repetition rate up to 240 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(1), 015803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. F.

Huang, W. C.

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power, diode-end-pumped, multigigahertz self-mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 4–6 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, H. L. Chang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and Y. T. Chen, “Self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with multi-GHz oscillations: manifestation of third-order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 451–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. J.

Y. J. Huang, Y. S. Tzeng, C. Y. Tang, Y. P. Huang, and Y. F. Chen, “Tunable GHz pulse repetition rate operation in high-power TEM00-mode Nd:YLF lasers at 1047 nm and 1053 nm with self mode locking,” Opt. Express20(16), 18230–18237 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, and Y. F. Chen, “Highly efficient Nd:Gd0.6Y0.4VO4 laser by direct in-band pumping at 914 nm and observation of self-mode-locked operation,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Huang, H. C. Liang, Y. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and M. H. Jiang, “High-power 10-GHz self-mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Laser Phys.21(10), 1750–1754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, Y. C. Lin, and H. C. Liang, “Controlling number of lasing modes for designing short-cavity self-mode-locked Nd-doped vanadate lasers,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 841–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power, diode-end-pumped, multigigahertz self-mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 4–6 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, R. C. C. Chen, Y. J. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Compact efficient multi-GHz Kerr-lens mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Express16(25), 21149–21154 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. P.

Jiang, M. H.

Y. J. Huang, H. C. Liang, Y. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and M. H. Jiang, “High-power 10-GHz self-mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Laser Phys.21(10), 1750–1754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kannan, P.

Keller, U.

Krainer, L.

Kurz, H.

Lagatsky, A. A.

Lecomte, S.

Lee, Y. C.

Liang, H. C.

Y. F. Chen, W. Z. Zhuang, H. C. Liang, G. W. Huang, and K. W. Su, “High-power subpicosecond harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser with pulse repetition rate up to 240 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(1), 015803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Zhuang, M. T. Chang, H. C. Liang, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power high-repetition-rate subpicosecond monolithic Yb:KGW laser with self-mode locking,” Opt. Lett.38(14), 2596–2599 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, H. C. Liang, J. C. Tung, K. W. Su, Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, and J. Y. Wang, “Spontaneous subpicosecond pulse formation with pulse repetition rate of 80 GHz in a diode-pumped Nd:SrGdGa3O7 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, Y. C. Lee, J. C. Tung, K. W. Su, K. F. Huang, and Y. F. Chen, “Exploring the spatio-temporal dynamics of an optically pumped semiconductor laser with intracavity second harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4609–4611 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Liang, K. Y. Lin, K. W. Su, and K. F. Huang, “Femtosecond high-power spontaneous mode-locked operation in vertical-external cavity surface-emitting laser with gigahertz oscillation,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4581–4583 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Huang, H. C. Liang, Y. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and M. H. Jiang, “High-power 10-GHz self-mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Laser Phys.21(10), 1750–1754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, Y. C. Lin, and H. C. Liang, “Controlling number of lasing modes for designing short-cavity self-mode-locked Nd-doped vanadate lasers,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 841–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liang, K. Y. Lin, Y. C. Lee, and Y. F. Chen, “Precise measurement of group refractive indices and temperature dependence of refractive index for Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate by intracavity spontaneous mode locking,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3741–3743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, and Y. F. Chen, “Highly efficient Nd:Gd0.6Y0.4VO4 laser by direct in-band pumping at 914 nm and observation of self-mode-locked operation,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power, diode-end-pumped, multigigahertz self-mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 4–6 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, H. L. Chang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and Y. T. Chen, “Self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with multi-GHz oscillations: manifestation of third-order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 451–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liang, R. C. C. Chen, Y. J. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Compact efficient multi-GHz Kerr-lens mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Express16(25), 21149–21154 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, K. Y.

Lin, Y. C.

Y. F. Chen, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, Y. C. Lin, and H. C. Liang, “Controlling number of lasing modes for designing short-cavity self-mode-locked Nd-doped vanadate lasers,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 841–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, A.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80~200 GHz erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett.32(15), 1370–1372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nodop, D.

Ohgoh, T.

Paschotta, R.

Pawlik, S.

Payne, S. A.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter39(5), 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Rodwell, M. J. W.

K. J. Weingarten, M. J. W. Rodwell, and D. M. Bloom, “Picosecond Optical-Sampling of GaAs Integrated-Circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24(2), 198–220 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

Schmidt, B.

Shepherd, D. P.

Sibbett, W.

Spühler, G. J.

Su, K. W.

Y. F. Chen, W. Z. Zhuang, H. C. Liang, G. W. Huang, and K. W. Su, “High-power subpicosecond harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser with pulse repetition rate up to 240 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(1), 015803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liang, Y. C. Lee, J. C. Tung, K. W. Su, K. F. Huang, and Y. F. Chen, “Exploring the spatio-temporal dynamics of an optically pumped semiconductor laser with intracavity second harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4609–4611 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, H. C. Liang, J. C. Tung, K. W. Su, Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, and J. Y. Wang, “Spontaneous subpicosecond pulse formation with pulse repetition rate of 80 GHz in a diode-pumped Nd:SrGdGa3O7 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Liang, K. Y. Lin, K. W. Su, and K. F. Huang, “Femtosecond high-power spontaneous mode-locked operation in vertical-external cavity surface-emitting laser with gigahertz oscillation,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4581–4583 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power, diode-end-pumped, multigigahertz self-mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 4–6 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, H. L. Chang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and Y. T. Chen, “Self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with multi-GHz oscillations: manifestation of third-order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 451–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liang, R. C. C. Chen, Y. J. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Compact efficient multi-GHz Kerr-lens mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Express16(25), 21149–21154 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Zhang, H. J.

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W. Z. Zhuang, M. T. Chang, H. C. Liang, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power high-repetition-rate subpicosecond monolithic Yb:KGW laser with self-mode locking,” Opt. Lett.38(14), 2596–2599 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, W. Z. Zhuang, H. C. Liang, G. W. Huang, and K. W. Su, “High-power subpicosecond harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser with pulse repetition rate up to 240 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(1), 015803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

Y. F. Chen, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, Y. C. Lin, and H. C. Liang, “Controlling number of lasing modes for designing short-cavity self-mode-locked Nd-doped vanadate lasers,” Appl. Phys. B103(4), 841–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, P. Y. Chiang, and Y. F. Chen, “Highly efficient Nd:Gd0.6Y0.4VO4 laser by direct in-band pumping at 914 nm and observation of self-mode-locked operation,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 637–641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liang, H. L. Chang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, Y. F. Chen, and Y. T. Chen, “Self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with multi-GHz oscillations: manifestation of third-order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 451–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

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[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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M. J. Weber and T. E. Varitimos, “Optical Spectra and Intensities of Nd3+ in YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys.42(12), 4996–5005 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

Y. J. Huang, H. C. Liang, Y. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and M. H. Jiang, “High-power 10-GHz self-mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Laser Phys.21(10), 1750–1754 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. F. Chen, W. Z. Zhuang, H. C. Liang, G. W. Huang, and K. W. Su, “High-power subpicosecond harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser with pulse repetition rate up to 240 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(1), 015803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (10)

A. Choudhary, A. A. Lagatsky, P. Kannan, W. Sibbett, C. T. A. Brown, and D. P. Shepherd, “Diode-pumped femtosecond solid-state waveguide laser with a 4.9 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Opt. Lett.37(21), 4416–4418 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, Y. C. Lee, J. C. Tung, K. W. Su, K. F. Huang, and Y. F. Chen, “Exploring the spatio-temporal dynamics of an optically pumped semiconductor laser with intracavity second harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4609–4611 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Z. Zhuang, M. T. Chang, H. C. Liang, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power high-repetition-rate subpicosecond monolithic Yb:KGW laser with self-mode locking,” Opt. Lett.38(14), 2596–2599 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, Y. J. Huang, W. C. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High-power, diode-end-pumped, multigigahertz self-mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 4–6 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, K. Y. Lin, Y. C. Lee, and Y. F. Chen, “Precise measurement of group refractive indices and temperature dependence of refractive index for Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate by intracavity spontaneous mode locking,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3741–3743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Liang, K. Y. Lin, K. W. Su, and K. F. Huang, “Femtosecond high-power spontaneous mode-locked operation in vertical-external cavity surface-emitting laser with gigahertz oscillation,” Opt. Lett.36(23), 4581–4583 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, H. C. Liang, J. C. Tung, K. W. Su, Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, and J. Y. Wang, “Spontaneous subpicosecond pulse formation with pulse repetition rate of 80 GHz in a diode-pumped Nd:SrGdGa3O7 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 461–463 (2012).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the self-mode-locking Nd:YAP laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Output power in the free running regime versus the incident pump power. Figure 2(b) Pulse trains of Nd:YAP laser in free running regime with two different time scales: time span of 5 ns (demonstrating mode-locked pulses) and time span of 5 μs, (demonstrating the amplitude oscillation).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Average output power as a function of the incident pump power of CWML state in fundamental mode operation. Figure 3(b) Pulse trains on two different time scales: time span of 5 ns (demonstrating mode-locked pulses) and time span of 5 µs, (demonstrating the amplitude oscillation).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Autocorrelation trace (a) and spectrum (b) of self-mode locking Nd:YAP laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Laser beam profile measured at the distance of z = 400 mm from the Output coupler. Figures 5(b)-(d) were spatial dependence of the temporal traces at the three different positions of the output beam profiles, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Beam profile of numerically computed. Figures 6(b)-(d) were numerically computed spatial dependence of the temporal traces at the three different positions of the output beam profiles.

Equations (2)

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Ψ n,m,N ( x,y,z,t )= 1 N l= l 0 l 0 +N Φ n,m,l ( x,y,z,t )
E( x,y,z,t )= S=0 2 a S [ Ψ S,0,N ( x,y,z,t )+ Ψ 0,S,N ( x,y,z,t ) ]

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