Abstract

In this study, sea surface skylight spectral reflectance ρ(λ) was retrieved by means of the non-linear spectral optimization method and a bio-optical model. The spectral variability of ρ(λ) was found to be mainly influenced by the uniformity of the incident skylight, and a model is proposed to predict the ρ(λ) spectral dependency based on skylight reflectance at 750 nm. It is demonstrated that using the spectrally variable ρ(λ), rather than a constant, yields an improved agreement between the above-water remote sensing reflectance Rrs(λ) estimates and concurrent profiling ones. The findings of this study highlight the necessity to re-process the relevant historical above-water data and update ocean color retrieval algorithms accordingly.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  29. X. M. Wang, J. W. Tang, J. Ding, C. F. Ma, T. J. Li, X. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Bi, “The retrieval algorithms of diffuse attenuation and transparency for the Case-II waters of the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.27(5), 38–45 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. C. D. Mobley, D. Stramski, W. P. Bissett, and E. Boss, “Optical modeling of ocean water: Is the Case 1-Case 2 classification still useful? ” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)17(2), 61–67 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

2012

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Chowdhary, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization impacts on the water-leaving radiance retrieval from above-water radiometric measurements,” Appl. Opt.51(35), 8324–8340 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, K. Ruddick, I. Ansko, G. Moore, S. Kratzer, J. Icely, and A. Reinart, “In situ determination of the remote sensing reflectance: an inter-comparison,” Ocean Sci. Discuss9(2), 787–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, Z. P. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res.117(C1), C01011 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Tiwari and P. Shanmugam, “An optical model for the remote sensing of coloured dissolved organic matter in coastal/ocean waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.93(4), 396–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Z. P. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, C. Mobley, and R. Arnone, “Removal of surface-reflected light for the measurement of remote-sensing reflectance from an above-surface platform,” Opt. Express18(25), 26313–26324 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26313 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nechad, K. G. Ruddick, and Y. Park, “Calibration and validation of a generic multisensor algorithm for mapping of total suspended matter in turbid waters,” Remote Sens. Environ.114(4), 854–866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance – the similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51(2), 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, R. Cherukuru, and S. Lavender, “Inherent and apparent optical properties of turbid estuarine waters: measurements, modelling and application to remote sensing,” Appl. Opt.45, 2310–2324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

X. M. Wang, J. W. Tang, J. Ding, C. F. Ma, T. J. Li, X. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Bi, “The retrieval algorithms of diffuse attenuation and transparency for the Case-II waters of the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.27(5), 38–45 (2005).

2004

J. W. Tang, X. M. Wang, Q. J. Song, T. J. Li, J. Z. Chen, H. J. Huang, and J. P. Ren, “The statistic inversion algorithms of water constituents for the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.23(4), 617–626 (2004).

J. Piskozub, “Effect of ship shadow on in-water irradiance measurements,” Oceanologia46(1), 103–112 (2004).

J. W. Tang, G. L. Tian, X. Y. Wang, X. M. Wang, and Q. J. Song, “The methods of water spectra measurement and analysis I: above-water method,” Journal of Remote Sensing8(1), 37–44 (2004).

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.42(2), 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 690–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt.43(21), 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and K. P. Du, “Effects of molecular and particle scatterings on the model parameter for remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt.43(25), 4957–4964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. D. Mobley, D. Stramski, W. P. Bissett, and E. Boss, “Optical modeling of ocean water: Is the Case 1-Case 2 classification still useful? ” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)17(2), 61–67 (2003).

2002

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: Accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt.41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D. Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(5), 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. D. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(4), 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res.106(C6), 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

1998

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt.37(27), 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, and R. G. Steward, “Remote sensing reflectance measured with and without a vertical polarizer,” Proc. SPIE2963, 483–488 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr.37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985

Ahmed, S.

Ahn, Y. H.

Alimonte, D. D.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D. Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(5), 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ansko, I.

G. Zibordi, K. Ruddick, I. Ansko, G. Moore, S. Kratzer, J. Icely, and A. Reinart, “In situ determination of the remote sensing reflectance: an inter-comparison,” Ocean Sci. Discuss9(2), 787–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

Arnone, R.

Berthon, J. F.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D. Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(5), 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J.-F.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt.43(21), 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bi, D. Y.

X. M. Wang, J. W. Tang, J. Ding, C. F. Ma, T. J. Li, X. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Bi, “The retrieval algorithms of diffuse attenuation and transparency for the Case-II waters of the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.27(5), 38–45 (2005).

Bissett, W. P.

C. D. Mobley, D. Stramski, W. P. Bissett, and E. Boss, “Optical modeling of ocean water: Is the Case 1-Case 2 classification still useful? ” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)17(2), 61–67 (2003).

Boss, E.

C. D. Mobley, D. Stramski, W. P. Bissett, and E. Boss, “Optical modeling of ocean water: Is the Case 1-Case 2 classification still useful? ” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)17(2), 61–67 (2003).

Brown, J. W.

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and K. P. Du, “Effects of molecular and particle scatterings on the model parameter for remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt.43(25), 4957–4964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res.106(C6), 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt.38(18), 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt.37(27), 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, and R. G. Steward, “Remote sensing reflectance measured with and without a vertical polarizer,” Proc. SPIE2963, 483–488 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. Z.

J. W. Tang, X. M. Wang, Q. J. Song, T. J. Li, J. Z. Chen, H. J. Huang, and J. P. Ren, “The statistic inversion algorithms of water constituents for the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.23(4), 617–626 (2004).

Chen, R. F.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res.106(C6), 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cherukuru, R.

Cherukuru, R. C. N.

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 690–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhary, J.

D’Alimonte, D.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.42(2), 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D'Alimonte, D.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Cauwer, V.

K. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance – the similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51(2), 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P.-Y.

Ding, J.

X. M. Wang, J. W. Tang, J. Ding, C. F. Ma, T. J. Li, X. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Bi, “The retrieval algorithms of diffuse attenuation and transparency for the Case-II waters of the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.27(5), 38–45 (2005).

Ding, K.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr.37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Doxaran, D.

D. Doxaran, R. Cherukuru, and S. Lavender, “Inherent and apparent optical properties of turbid estuarine waters: measurements, modelling and application to remote sensing,” Appl. Opt.45, 2310–2324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 690–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, K. P.

Fabbri, B. E.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, H.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fougnie, B.

Franz, B.

C. Hu, Z. P. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res.117(C1), C01011 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gilerson, A.

Giles, D.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr.37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Ship perturbation of irradiance measurements at sea. 1: Monte Carlo simulations,” Appl. Opt.24(23), 4172–4182 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greb, S.

Harmel, T.

Holben, B.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.42(2), 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.42(2), 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt.43(21), 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. D. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(4), 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D. Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(5), 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

C. Hu, Z. P. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res.117(C1), C01011 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. J.

J. W. Tang, X. M. Wang, Q. J. Song, T. J. Li, J. Z. Chen, H. J. Huang, and J. P. Ren, “The statistic inversion algorithms of water constituents for the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.23(4), 617–626 (2004).

Icely, J.

G. Zibordi, K. Ruddick, I. Ansko, G. Moore, S. Kratzer, J. Icely, and A. Reinart, “In situ determination of the remote sensing reflectance: an inter-comparison,” Ocean Sci. Discuss9(2), 787–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaitala, S.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kratzer, S.

G. Zibordi, K. Ruddick, I. Ansko, G. Moore, S. Kratzer, J. Icely, and A. Reinart, “In situ determination of the remote sensing reflectance: an inter-comparison,” Ocean Sci. Discuss9(2), 787–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lavender, S.

Lavender, S. J.

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 690–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lazin, G.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. D. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(4), 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, P.

Lee, Z.

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, and R. G. Steward, “Remote sensing reflectance measured with and without a vertical polarizer,” Proc. SPIE2963, 483–488 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, N. Pahlevan, Y. H. Ahn, S. Greb, and D. O’Donnell, “Robust approach to directly measuring water-leaving radiance in the field,” Appl. Opt.52(8), 1693–1701 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hu, Z. P. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res.117(C1), C01011 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, C. Mobley, and R. Arnone, “Removal of surface-reflected light for the measurement of remote-sensing reflectance from an above-surface platform,” Opt. Express18(25), 26313–26324 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26313 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and K. P. Du, “Effects of molecular and particle scatterings on the model parameter for remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt.43(25), 4957–4964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res.106(C6), 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt.38(18), 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt.37(27), 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, T. J.

X. M. Wang, J. W. Tang, J. Ding, C. F. Ma, T. J. Li, X. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Bi, “The retrieval algorithms of diffuse attenuation and transparency for the Case-II waters of the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.27(5), 38–45 (2005).

J. W. Tang, X. M. Wang, Q. J. Song, T. J. Li, J. Z. Chen, H. J. Huang, and J. P. Ren, “The statistic inversion algorithms of water constituents for the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.23(4), 617–626 (2004).

Ma, C. F.

X. M. Wang, J. W. Tang, J. Ding, C. F. Ma, T. J. Li, X. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Bi, “The retrieval algorithms of diffuse attenuation and transparency for the Case-II waters of the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.27(5), 38–45 (2005).

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McLean, S. D.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. D. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(4), 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melin, F.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mélin, F.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.42(2), 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, D. W.

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C.

Mobley, C. D.

Moore, G.

G. Zibordi, K. Ruddick, I. Ansko, G. Moore, S. Kratzer, J. Icely, and A. Reinart, “In situ determination of the remote sensing reflectance: an inter-comparison,” Ocean Sci. Discuss9(2), 787–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance – the similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51(2), 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

Nechad, B.

B. Nechad, K. G. Ruddick, and Y. Park, “Calibration and validation of a generic multisensor algorithm for mapping of total suspended matter in turbid waters,” Remote Sens. Environ.114(4), 854–866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, M. J.

O’Donnell, D.

O'Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pahlevan, N.

Park, Y.

B. Nechad, K. G. Ruddick, and Y. Park, “Calibration and validation of a generic multisensor algorithm for mapping of total suspended matter in turbid waters,” Remote Sens. Environ.114(4), 854–866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance – the similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51(2), 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Peacock, T. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res.106(C6), 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, and R. G. Steward, “Remote sensing reflectance measured with and without a vertical polarizer,” Proc. SPIE2963, 483–488 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piskozub, J.

J. Piskozub, “Effect of ship shadow on in-water irradiance measurements,” Oceanologia46(1), 103–112 (2004).

Reinart, A.

G. Zibordi, K. Ruddick, I. Ansko, G. Moore, S. Kratzer, J. Icely, and A. Reinart, “In situ determination of the remote sensing reflectance: an inter-comparison,” Ocean Sci. Discuss9(2), 787–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J. P.

J. W. Tang, X. M. Wang, Q. J. Song, T. J. Li, J. Z. Chen, H. J. Huang, and J. P. Ren, “The statistic inversion algorithms of water constituents for the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.23(4), 617–626 (2004).

Ruddick, K.

G. Zibordi, K. Ruddick, I. Ansko, G. Moore, S. Kratzer, J. Icely, and A. Reinart, “In situ determination of the remote sensing reflectance: an inter-comparison,” Ocean Sci. Discuss9(2), 787–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance – the similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51(2), 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruddick, K. G.

B. Nechad, K. G. Ruddick, and Y. Park, “Calibration and validation of a generic multisensor algorithm for mapping of total suspended matter in turbid waters,” Remote Sens. Environ.114(4), 854–866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, G.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seppala, J.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shanmugam, P.

S. Tiwari and P. Shanmugam, “An optical model for the remote sensing of coloured dissolved organic matter in coastal/ocean waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.93(4), 396–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, and R. C. Smith, “Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability,” Appl. Opt.39(3), 456–469 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Song, Q. J.

J. W. Tang, X. M. Wang, Q. J. Song, T. J. Li, J. Z. Chen, H. J. Huang, and J. P. Ren, “The statistic inversion algorithms of water constituents for the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.23(4), 617–626 (2004).

J. W. Tang, G. L. Tian, X. Y. Wang, X. M. Wang, and Q. J. Song, “The methods of water spectra measurement and analysis I: above-water method,” Journal of Remote Sensing8(1), 37–44 (2004).

Steward, R. G.

Stramski, D.

C. D. Mobley, D. Stramski, W. P. Bissett, and E. Boss, “Optical modeling of ocean water: Is the Case 1-Case 2 classification still useful? ” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)17(2), 61–67 (2003).

Tang, J. W.

X. M. Wang, J. W. Tang, J. Ding, C. F. Ma, T. J. Li, X. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Bi, “The retrieval algorithms of diffuse attenuation and transparency for the Case-II waters of the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.27(5), 38–45 (2005).

J. W. Tang, X. M. Wang, Q. J. Song, T. J. Li, J. Z. Chen, H. J. Huang, and J. P. Ren, “The statistic inversion algorithms of water constituents for the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.23(4), 617–626 (2004).

J. W. Tang, G. L. Tian, X. Y. Wang, X. M. Wang, and Q. J. Song, “The methods of water spectra measurement and analysis I: above-water method,” Journal of Remote Sensing8(1), 37–44 (2004).

Tian, G. L.

J. W. Tang, G. L. Tian, X. Y. Wang, X. M. Wang, and Q. J. Song, “The methods of water spectra measurement and analysis I: above-water method,” Journal of Remote Sensing8(1), 37–44 (2004).

Tiwari, S.

S. Tiwari and P. Shanmugam, “An optical model for the remote sensing of coloured dissolved organic matter in coastal/ocean waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.93(4), 396–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tonizzo, A.

Toole, D. A.

Vandemark, D.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. M.

X. M. Wang, J. W. Tang, J. Ding, C. F. Ma, T. J. Li, X. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Bi, “The retrieval algorithms of diffuse attenuation and transparency for the Case-II waters of the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.27(5), 38–45 (2005).

J. W. Tang, X. M. Wang, Q. J. Song, T. J. Li, J. Z. Chen, H. J. Huang, and J. P. Ren, “The statistic inversion algorithms of water constituents for the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.23(4), 617–626 (2004).

J. W. Tang, G. L. Tian, X. Y. Wang, X. M. Wang, and Q. J. Song, “The methods of water spectra measurement and analysis I: above-water method,” Journal of Remote Sensing8(1), 37–44 (2004).

Wang, X. Y.

X. M. Wang, J. W. Tang, J. Ding, C. F. Ma, T. J. Li, X. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Bi, “The retrieval algorithms of diffuse attenuation and transparency for the Case-II waters of the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.27(5), 38–45 (2005).

J. W. Tang, G. L. Tian, X. Y. Wang, X. M. Wang, and Q. J. Song, “The methods of water spectra measurement and analysis I: above-water method,” Journal of Remote Sensing8(1), 37–44 (2004).

Weidemann, A.

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, K. Ruddick, I. Ansko, G. Moore, S. Kratzer, J. Icely, and A. Reinart, “In situ determination of the remote sensing reflectance: an inter-comparison,” Ocean Sci. Discuss9(2), 787–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt.43(21), 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.42(2), 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. D. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(4), 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D. Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(5), 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Acta Oceanol. Sin.

J. W. Tang, X. M. Wang, Q. J. Song, T. J. Li, J. Z. Chen, H. J. Huang, and J. P. Ren, “The statistic inversion algorithms of water constituents for the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.23(4), 617–626 (2004).

X. M. Wang, J. W. Tang, J. Ding, C. F. Ma, T. J. Li, X. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Bi, “The retrieval algorithms of diffuse attenuation and transparency for the Case-II waters of the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin.27(5), 38–45 (2005).

Appl. Opt.

H. R. Gordon, “Ship perturbation of irradiance measurements at sea. 1: Monte Carlo simulations,” Appl. Opt.24(23), 4172–4182 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt.37(27), 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt.38(36), 7442–7455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt.38(18), 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, and P.-Y. Deschamps, “Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the above-water measurement of diffuse marine reflectance,” Appl. Opt.38(18), 3844–3856 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, and R. C. Smith, “Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability,” Appl. Opt.39(3), 456–469 (2000).
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A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: Accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt.41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, and J. W. Brown, “Above-water radiometry in shallow coastal waters,” Appl. Opt.43(21), 4254–4268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and K. P. Du, “Effects of molecular and particle scatterings on the model parameter for remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt.43(25), 4957–4964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Doxaran, R. Cherukuru, and S. Lavender, “Inherent and apparent optical properties of turbid estuarine waters: measurements, modelling and application to remote sensing,” Appl. Opt.45, 2310–2324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Chowdhary, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization impacts on the water-leaving radiance retrieval from above-water radiometric measurements,” Appl. Opt.51(35), 8324–8340 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, N. Pahlevan, Y. H. Ahn, S. Greb, and D. O’Donnell, “Robust approach to directly measuring water-leaving radiance in the field,” Appl. Opt.52(8), 1693–1701 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.

S. Tiwari and P. Shanmugam, “An optical model for the remote sensing of coloured dissolved organic matter in coastal/ocean waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.93(4), 396–402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, D. D’Alimonte, and B. Holben, “An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.42(2), 401–415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D'Alimonte, F. Melin, J.-F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. D. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(4), 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D. Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.19(5), 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, and T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res.106(C6), 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, Z. P. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res.117(C1), C01011 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

D. Doxaran, R. C. N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, “Estimation of surface reflection effects on upwelling radiance field measurements in turbid waters,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(7), 690–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Remote Sensing

J. W. Tang, G. L. Tian, X. Y. Wang, X. M. Wang, and Q. J. Song, “The methods of water spectra measurement and analysis I: above-water method,” Journal of Remote Sensing8(1), 37–44 (2004).

Limnol. Oceanogr.

K. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. Park, and G. Moore, “Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance – the similarity spectrum for turbid waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51(2), 1167–1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr.37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ocean Sci. Discuss

G. Zibordi, K. Ruddick, I. Ansko, G. Moore, S. Kratzer, J. Icely, and A. Reinart, “In situ determination of the remote sensing reflectance: an inter-comparison,” Ocean Sci. Discuss9(2), 787–833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)

C. D. Mobley, D. Stramski, W. P. Bissett, and E. Boss, “Optical modeling of ocean water: Is the Case 1-Case 2 classification still useful? ” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)17(2), 61–67 (2003).

Oceanologia

J. Piskozub, “Effect of ship shadow on in-water irradiance measurements,” Oceanologia46(1), 103–112 (2004).

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, and R. G. Steward, “Remote sensing reflectance measured with and without a vertical polarizer,” Proc. SPIE2963, 483–488 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

B. Nechad, K. G. Ruddick, and Y. Park, “Calibration and validation of a generic multisensor algorithm for mapping of total suspended matter in turbid waters,” Remote Sens. Environ.114(4), 854–866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, and S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote sensing reflectance measurement and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3, NASA/TM-2002–210004, J. L. Mueller and G. S. Fargion, eds. (2002), pp. 171–182.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Locations of in situ sampling sites (a) and histogram of Kd(490) measurements (b)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ρ(λ) retrievals at major ocean color bands under different cloud coverage and thus skylight distribution. (a) Clear or partly cloudy subset (Srs(750)<0.15 sr−1); (b) Overcast and mostly cloudy subset (Srs(750)>0.15 sr−1). The dashed lines correspond to the stations. The thick solid lines are the average, and the error bars are the standard deviations. The red horizontal lines correspond to a spectrally constant ρ of 0.028.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationships between Srs(750) and the spectral variability of ρ(λ) in terms of CV (a) or Q (b), defined in Eqs. (19)-(20). The solid lines are the regression results. The open circles are data from the clear or partly cloudy subset, and the grey dots are from the overcast and mostly cloudy sky subsets.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scatter plot of ρrs(λ) by optimization retrieval and concurrent above- and in-water observations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Rrs(λ) at all sampling sites retrieved by the optimization method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scatter plot of Rrs(λ) by above-water and concurrent profiling observations. The comparison is based on data (N = 58) from waters with Kd(490) < 1.0 m−1. The circles represent results from ρOpt(λ); the crosses ( + ) correspond to those from Eq. (2) and a spectrally constant ρ [4].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between the estimated Rrs(λ) by above-water measurements (solid curves) and in-water ones (red circles linked by dashed lines) under overcast (a) and clear (b) sky. The various Rrs (λ) by above-water observation are estimated by the use of optimized ρ(λ) (green), or a spectrally invariant constant according to the look-up Table [4] (purple).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean, standard deviation (SD), minimum (Min) and maximum (Max) of the observed parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison between ρOpt(λ) and ρMea(λ). The numbers in parenthesis correspond to the validation in relatively clear waters under favorable observation conditions (see text for details). MAPD standards for the median of absolute percentage difference defined in Eq. (21), the advantages of which are providing equal weighting to underestimation and overestimation, and avoiding the effect of extreme outliers on the statistics. To be compared with existing literatures, the values of the average absolute unbiased percent difference [5] Ψ are also given. RMS stands for root-mean-square-error. N is the number of samples.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison between above-water Rrs(λ) estimates with synchronous in-water ones (RrsSPMR). The numbers in parenthesis correspond to the assessment in relatively clear waters (Kd(490)<0.2 m−1) under favorable observation conditions (30°<SZA<60°) and stable light field. The above-water Rrs(λ) were derived from optimization method (RrsOpt) or Eq. (2) with the spectrally constant ρ (RrsConst) [4]. The bidirectional effect is corrected by the look-up table method [24].

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Table 4 Effect of the ρ value and its spectral variability on Rrs(λ) band ratios. These ratios are calculated and compared based on RrsConst(λ) and RrsOpt(λ), respectively (N = 58).

Equations (21)

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L w (λ) =L t (λ)ρ(λ) L sky (λ).
R rs (λ)= L w (λ) E d ( 0 + ,λ) = [ L t (λ)ρ L sky (λ)] ρ p π L p (λ) .
L w (λ,θ,ϕ) L t (λ,θ,ϕ)F(θ,ϕ) L sky (λ, θ ' ,ϕ)Δ(θ,ϕ).
R rs (λ,θ,ϕ) T rs (λ,θ,ϕ)F(θ,ϕ) S rs (λ, θ ' ,ϕ)Δ(θ,ϕ).
T rs (λ)= L t (λ) ρ p (λ) π L p (λ) .
S rs (λ)= L sky (λ) ρ p (λ) π L p (λ) .
R rs (λ) 0.5 r rs ( 0 ,λ) 11.5 r rs ( 0 ,λ) .
r rs ( 0 ,λ)= L u ( 0 , λ ) E d ( 0 , λ ) = g w b bw (λ) a t (λ)+ b b (λ) + g p b bp (λ) a t (λ)+ b b (λ) .
g p (λ)= G 0 {1 G 1 exp[ G 2 b bp (λ) a t (λ)+ b b (λ) ]}.
a t (λ)= a w (λ)+ a ph (λ)+ a dg (λ).
a ph (λ)={[ a 0 (λ)+ a 1 (λ)ln[ a ph (440)]} a ph (440).
a dg (λ)= a dg (440)exp[S(λ440)].
b b (λ)= b bw (λ)+ b bp (λ).
b bp (λ)= b bp (440) ( 440 λ ) Y .
Err= { 400 675 [R rs (λ) R ~ rs (λ)] 2 + 750 800 [R rs (λ) R ~ rs (λ)] 2 } 0.5 400 675 R rs (λ)+ 750 800 R rs (λ) .
ρ(λ) =[T rs (λ) R rs (λ)]/ S rs (λ).
L w (λ)=0.543 L u ( 0 ,λ).
Q= | ρ Opt (700)- ρ Opt (400) | ρ Opt (400) ×100%.
CV=-0.1308× log 10 [ S rs (750)]0.0574,( R 2 =0.76, N=78).
Q=-0.3246× log 10 [ S rs (750)]0.1459,( R 2 =0.66, N=78).
MAPD=exp[median| ln( y i x i ) |]1,i=1, 2N.

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