Abstract

It was found that the diffraction images acquired along the side scattering directions with objects in a cell sample contain pattern variations at both the global and local scales. We show here that the global pattern variation is associated with the categorical size and morphological heterogeneity of the imaged objects. An automated image processing method has been developed to separate the acquired diffraction images into three types of global patterns. Combined with previously developed method for quantifying local texture pattern variations, the new method allows fully automated analysis of diffraction images for rapid and label-free classification of cells according to their 3D morphology.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yu, J. Zhang, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, Y. Feng, and X. H. Hu, “A novel method of diffraction imaging flow cytometry for sizing microspheres,” Opt. Express20(20), 22245–22251 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

X. Su, S. E. Kirkwood, M. Gupta, L. Marquez-Curtis, Y. Qiu, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, W. Rozmus, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Microscope-based label-free microfluidic cytometry,” Opt. Express19(1), 387–398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Su, Y. Qiu, L. Marquez-Curtis, M. Gupta, C. E. Capjack, W. Rozmus, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Label-free and noninvasive optical detection of the distribution of nanometer-size mitochondria in single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Castellone, N. R. Leffler, L. Dong, and L. V. Yang, “Inhibition of tumor cell migration and metastasis by the proton-sensing GPR4 receptor,” Cancer Lett.312(2), 197–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. I. Strokotov, A. E. Moskalensky, V. M. Nekrasov, and V. P. Maltsev, “Polarized light-scattering profile-advanced characterization of nonspherical particles with scanning flow cytometry,” Cytometry A79(7), 570–579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Development of a diffraction imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2985–2987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, “The discrete dipole approximation: an overview and recent developments,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.106(1-3), 558–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin, A. G. Hoekstra, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Systematic comparison of the discrete dipole approximation and the finite difference time domain method for large dielectric scatterers,” Opt. Express15(26), 17902–17911 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. S. Brock, X. H. Hu, D. A. Weidner, J. R. Mourant, and J. Q. Lu, “Effect of detailed cell structure on light scattering distribution: FDTD study of a B-cell with 3D structure constructed from confocal images,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.102(1), 25–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “SSimulations of light scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 024022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

T. Kanungo, D. M. Mount, N. S. Netanyahu, C. D. Piatko, R. Silverman, and A. Y. Wu, “An efficient k-means clustering algorithm: analysis and implementation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.24(7), 881–892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. Holler, Y. Pan, R. K. Chang, J. R. Bottiger, S. C. Hill, and D. B. Hillis, “Two-dimensional angular optical scattering for the characterization of airborne microparticles,” Opt. Lett.23(18), 1489–1491 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Hoekstra, M. D. Grimminck, and P. M. A. Sloot, “Large Scale Simulations of Elastic Light Scattering by a Fast Discrete Dipole Approximation,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. C9(01), 87–102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. K. Dunn, C. L. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Finite-difference time-domain simulation of light scattering from single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.2(3), 262–266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn.20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988

N. Kanopoulos, N. Vasanthavada, and R. L. Baker, “Design of an image edge detection filter using the Sobel operator,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits23(2), 358–367 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Backhouse, C.

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, R. L.

N. Kanopoulos, N. Vasanthavada, and R. L. Baker, “Design of an image edge detection filter using the Sobel operator,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits23(2), 358–367 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bertrand, F. E.

Bottiger, J. R.

Brock, R. S.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yurkin, A. G. Hoekstra, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Systematic comparison of the discrete dipole approximation and the finite difference time domain method for large dielectric scatterers,” Opt. Express15(26), 17902–17911 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Brock, X. H. Hu, D. A. Weidner, J. R. Mourant, and J. Q. Lu, “Effect of detailed cell structure on light scattering distribution: FDTD study of a B-cell with 3D structure constructed from confocal images,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.102(1), 25–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brocker, C.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canpolat, M.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capjack, C.

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capjack, C. E.

X. Su, Y. Qiu, L. Marquez-Curtis, M. Gupta, C. E. Capjack, W. Rozmus, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Label-free and noninvasive optical detection of the distribution of nanometer-size mitochondria in single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castellone, R.

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castellone, R. D.

R. D. Castellone, N. R. Leffler, L. Dong, and L. V. Yang, “Inhibition of tumor cell migration and metastasis by the proton-sensing GPR4 receptor,” Cancer Lett.312(2), 197–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

Chernyshev, A. V.

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cortes, C.

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn.20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, J.

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, K.

Dong, L.

R. D. Castellone, N. R. Leffler, L. Dong, and L. V. Yang, “Inhibition of tumor cell migration and metastasis by the proton-sensing GPR4 receptor,” Cancer Lett.312(2), 197–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

A. K. Dunn, C. L. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Finite-difference time-domain simulation of light scattering from single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.2(3), 262–266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekpenyong, A. E.

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esponda-Ramos, O.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farwell, M. A.

Feng, Y.

S. Yu, J. Zhang, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, Y. Feng, and X. H. Hu, “A novel method of diffraction imaging flow cytometry for sizing microspheres,” Opt. Express20(20), 22245–22251 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells,” Opt. Lett.submitted.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gkigkitzis, I.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Gohlke, C.

Grimminck, M. D.

A. G. Hoekstra, M. D. Grimminck, and P. M. A. Sloot, “Large Scale Simulations of Elastic Light Scattering by a Fast Discrete Dipole Approximation,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. C9(01), 87–102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

X. Su, S. E. Kirkwood, M. Gupta, L. Marquez-Curtis, Y. Qiu, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, W. Rozmus, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Microscope-based label-free microfluidic cytometry,” Opt. Express19(1), 387–398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Su, Y. Qiu, L. Marquez-Curtis, M. Gupta, C. E. Capjack, W. Rozmus, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Label-free and noninvasive optical detection of the distribution of nanometer-size mitochondria in single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, S. C.

Hillis, D. B.

Hoekstra, A. G.

M. A. Yurkin and A. G. Hoekstra, “The discrete dipole approximation: an overview and recent developments,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.106(1-3), 558–589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Yurkin, A. G. Hoekstra, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Systematic comparison of the discrete dipole approximation and the finite difference time domain method for large dielectric scatterers,” Opt. Express15(26), 17902–17911 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Hoekstra, M. D. Grimminck, and P. M. A. Sloot, “Large Scale Simulations of Elastic Light Scattering by a Fast Discrete Dipole Approximation,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. C9(01), 87–102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holler, S.

Höpe, A.

Hu, X. H.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yu, J. Zhang, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, Y. Feng, and X. H. Hu, “A novel method of diffraction imaging flow cytometry for sizing microspheres,” Opt. Express20(20), 22245–22251 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Development of a diffraction imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2985–2987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Brock, X. H. Hu, D. A. Weidner, J. R. Mourant, and J. Q. Lu, “Effect of detailed cell structure on light scattering distribution: FDTD study of a B-cell with 3D structure constructed from confocal images,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.102(1), 25–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “SSimulations of light scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 024022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells,” Opt. Lett.submitted.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Jacobs, K. M.

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Development of a diffraction imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2985–2987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells,” Opt. Lett.submitted.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Janowska-Wieczorek, A.

X. Su, S. E. Kirkwood, M. Gupta, L. Marquez-Curtis, Y. Qiu, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, W. Rozmus, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Microscope-based label-free microfluidic cytometry,” Opt. Express19(1), 387–398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Su, Y. Qiu, L. Marquez-Curtis, M. Gupta, C. E. Capjack, W. Rozmus, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Label-free and noninvasive optical detection of the distribution of nanometer-size mitochondria in single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, W.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells,” Opt. Lett.submitted.

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Justus, C. R.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanopoulos, N.

N. Kanopoulos, N. Vasanthavada, and R. L. Baker, “Design of an image edge detection filter using the Sobel operator,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits23(2), 358–367 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kanungo, T.

T. Kanungo, D. M. Mount, N. S. Netanyahu, C. D. Piatko, R. Silverman, and A. Y. Wu, “An efficient k-means clustering algorithm: analysis and implementation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.24(7), 881–892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kirkwood, S. E.

Leffler, N. R.

R. D. Castellone, N. R. Leffler, L. Dong, and L. V. Yang, “Inhibition of tumor cell migration and metastasis by the proton-sensing GPR4 receptor,” Cancer Lett.312(2), 197–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells,” Opt. Lett.submitted.

Lu, J. Q.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yu, J. Zhang, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, Y. Feng, and X. H. Hu, “A novel method of diffraction imaging flow cytometry for sizing microspheres,” Opt. Express20(20), 22245–22251 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Development of a diffraction imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2985–2987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yurkin, A. G. Hoekstra, R. S. Brock, and J. Q. Lu, “Systematic comparison of the discrete dipole approximation and the finite difference time domain method for large dielectric scatterers,” Opt. Express15(26), 17902–17911 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Brock, X. H. Hu, D. A. Weidner, J. R. Mourant, and J. Q. Lu, “Effect of detailed cell structure on light scattering distribution: FDTD study of a B-cell with 3D structure constructed from confocal images,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.102(1), 25–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “SSimulations of light scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 024022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells,” Opt. Lett.submitted.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Maltsev, V. P.

D. I. Strokotov, A. E. Moskalensky, V. M. Nekrasov, and V. P. Maltsev, “Polarized light-scattering profile-advanced characterization of nonspherical particles with scanning flow cytometry,” Cytometry A79(7), 570–579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquez-Curtis, L.

X. Su, Y. Qiu, L. Marquez-Curtis, M. Gupta, C. E. Capjack, W. Rozmus, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Label-free and noninvasive optical detection of the distribution of nanometer-size mitochondria in single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Su, S. E. Kirkwood, M. Gupta, L. Marquez-Curtis, Y. Qiu, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, W. Rozmus, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Microscope-based label-free microfluidic cytometry,” Opt. Express19(1), 387–398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matanock, A.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McConnell, T. J.

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPeek, M. K.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moran, M. S.

Moskalensky, A. E.

D. I. Strokotov, A. E. Moskalensky, V. M. Nekrasov, and V. P. Maltsev, “Polarized light-scattering profile-advanced characterization of nonspherical particles with scanning flow cytometry,” Cytometry A79(7), 570–579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mount, D. M.

T. Kanungo, D. M. Mount, N. S. Netanyahu, C. D. Piatko, R. Silverman, and A. Y. Wu, “An efficient k-means clustering algorithm: analysis and implementation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.24(7), 881–892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mourant, J. R.

R. S. Brock, X. H. Hu, D. A. Weidner, J. R. Mourant, and J. Q. Lu, “Effect of detailed cell structure on light scattering distribution: FDTD study of a B-cell with 3D structure constructed from confocal images,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.102(1), 25–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nekrasov, V. M.

D. I. Strokotov, A. E. Moskalensky, V. M. Nekrasov, and V. P. Maltsev, “Polarized light-scattering profile-advanced characterization of nonspherical particles with scanning flow cytometry,” Cytometry A79(7), 570–579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Netanyahu, N. S.

T. Kanungo, D. M. Mount, N. S. Netanyahu, C. D. Piatko, R. Silverman, and A. Y. Wu, “An efficient k-means clustering algorithm: analysis and implementation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.24(7), 881–892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neukammer, J.

Ojeda, J. F.

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, T. J. McConnell, J. F. Ojeda, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Angle-resolved Mueller matrix study of light scattering by B-cells at three wavelengths of 442, 633, and 850 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 034032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, R.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Pan, Y.

Petrácek, J.

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piatko, C. D.

T. Kanungo, D. M. Mount, N. S. Netanyahu, C. D. Piatko, R. Silverman, and A. Y. Wu, “An efficient k-means clustering algorithm: analysis and implementation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.24(7), 881–892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

X. Su, S. E. Kirkwood, M. Gupta, L. Marquez-Curtis, Y. Qiu, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, W. Rozmus, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Microscope-based label-free microfluidic cytometry,” Opt. Express19(1), 387–398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Su, Y. Qiu, L. Marquez-Curtis, M. Gupta, C. E. Capjack, W. Rozmus, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Label-free and noninvasive optical detection of the distribution of nanometer-size mitochondria in single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

A. K. Dunn, C. L. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Finite-difference time-domain simulation of light scattering from single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.2(3), 262–266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

Rozmus, W.

X. Su, S. E. Kirkwood, M. Gupta, L. Marquez-Curtis, Y. Qiu, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, W. Rozmus, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Microscope-based label-free microfluidic cytometry,” Opt. Express19(1), 387–398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Su, Y. Qiu, L. Marquez-Curtis, M. Gupta, C. E. Capjack, W. Rozmus, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Label-free and noninvasive optical detection of the distribution of nanometer-size mitochondria in single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sa, Y.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Shvalov, A. N.

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silverman, R.

T. Kanungo, D. M. Mount, N. S. Netanyahu, C. D. Piatko, R. Silverman, and A. Y. Wu, “An efficient k-means clustering algorithm: analysis and implementation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.24(7), 881–892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Singh, K.

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloot, P. M. A.

A. G. Hoekstra, M. D. Grimminck, and P. M. A. Sloot, “Large Scale Simulations of Elastic Light Scattering by a Fast Discrete Dipole Approximation,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. C9(01), 87–102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smithpeter, C. L.

A. K. Dunn, C. L. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Finite-difference time-domain simulation of light scattering from single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.2(3), 262–266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soini, J. T.

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stetter, K.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strokotov, D. I.

D. I. Strokotov, A. E. Moskalensky, V. M. Nekrasov, and V. P. Maltsev, “Polarized light-scattering profile-advanced characterization of nonspherical particles with scanning flow cytometry,” Cytometry A79(7), 570–579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, X.

X. Su, S. E. Kirkwood, M. Gupta, L. Marquez-Curtis, Y. Qiu, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, W. Rozmus, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Microscope-based label-free microfluidic cytometry,” Opt. Express19(1), 387–398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Su, Y. Qiu, L. Marquez-Curtis, M. Gupta, C. E. Capjack, W. Rozmus, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Label-free and noninvasive optical detection of the distribution of nanometer-size mitochondria in single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, X. T.

X. T. Su, K. Singh, C. Capjack, J. Petrácek, C. Backhouse, and W. Rozmus, “Measurements of light scattering in an integrated microfluidic waveguide cytometer,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surovtsev, I. V.

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsui, Y. Y.

X. Su, Y. Qiu, L. Marquez-Curtis, M. Gupta, C. E. Capjack, W. Rozmus, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Label-free and noninvasive optical detection of the distribution of nanometer-size mitochondria in single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 067003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Su, S. E. Kirkwood, M. Gupta, L. Marquez-Curtis, Y. Qiu, A. Janowska-Wieczorek, W. Rozmus, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Microscope-based label-free microfluidic cytometry,” Opt. Express19(1), 387–398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vapnik, V.

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn.20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vasanthavada, N.

N. Kanopoulos, N. Vasanthavada, and R. L. Baker, “Design of an image edge detection filter using the Sobel operator,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits23(2), 358–367 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weidner, D. A.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Brock, X. H. Hu, D. A. Weidner, J. R. Mourant, and J. Q. Lu, “Effect of detailed cell structure on light scattering distribution: FDTD study of a B-cell with 3D structure constructed from confocal images,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.102(1), 25–36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

A. K. Dunn, C. L. Smithpeter, A. J. Welch, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Finite-difference time-domain simulation of light scattering from single cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.2(3), 262–266 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wessel, T.

Wu, A. Y.

T. Kanungo, D. M. Mount, N. S. Netanyahu, C. D. Piatko, R. Silverman, and A. Y. Wu, “An efficient k-means clustering algorithm: analysis and implementation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.24(7), 881–892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A (to be published).
[PubMed]

Yang, L. V.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Castellone, N. R. Leffler, L. Dong, and L. V. Yang, “Inhibition of tumor cell migration and metastasis by the proton-sensing GPR4 receptor,” Cancer Lett.312(2), 197–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J Biophotonics2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells,” Opt. Lett.submitted.

Yang, P.

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “SSimulations of light scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Biomed. Opt.10, 024022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

Yurkin, M. A.

Zhang, J.

S. Yu, J. Zhang, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, Y. Feng, and X. H. Hu, “A novel method of diffraction imaging flow cytometry for sizing microspheres,” Opt. Express20(20), 22245–22251 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells,” Opt. Lett.submitted.

Zhang, N.

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells,” Opt. Lett.submitted.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, C. R. Justus, W. Jiang, Z. Li, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, M. K. McPeek, D. A. Weidner, L. V. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Comparative study of 3D morphology and functions on genetically engineered mouse melanoma cells,” Integr Biol (Camb)4(11), 1428–1436 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Cancer Lett.

R. D. Castellone, N. R. Leffler, L. Dong, and L. V. Yang, “Inhibition of tumor cell migration and metastasis by the proton-sensing GPR4 receptor,” Cancer Lett.312(2), 197–208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry

A. N. Shvalov, I. V. Surovtsev, A. V. Chernyshev, J. T. Soini, and V. P. Maltsev, “Particle classification from light scattering with the scanning flow cytometer,” Cytometry37(3), 215–220 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry A

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The schematic of the experimental DIFC system with the core and sheath fluids: WP = half-wave plate; FL = focusing lens; OBJ = infinity-corrected objective; PBS = polarizing beam splitter; CCD = camera recording either s- or p-polarized scattered light. (b) - (d): normalized cross-polarized diffraction image pairs labeled by polarization of the incident beam and scattered light, maximum, average and minimum pixel intensities of the 12-bit images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The normalized cross-polarized diffraction images obtained through DDA simulations of light scattering by (a) a large cellular structure with nucleus and mitochondria and equivalent diameter d = 10μm; (b) a cellular “shell” structure with only 10% of volume of (a) after removing the overlapped region with another similar cell; (c) a stack of 4 parallel ellipsoids with long axial lengths d1 = 2.7, 3.0, 3.9, 4.0μm and short axial lengths d2 = 0.5μm; (d) angled stack of two identical ellipsoids of d1 = 3.0, 6.0μm and d2 = 0.5μm; (e) one ellipsoid of d1 = 4.0μm and d2 = 0.5μm; (f) a small homogeneous particles of cellular shape with d = 1.1μm. Each image is labeled by polarization of the incident and scattered light, ratio of maximum to averaged pixel intensity. The insets are cross-section views of the objects (not to scale).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured diffraction images I of different pattern types with their binary edge images E and frequency histogram N(f): (a) a stripe pattern and its five binary edge images of different C parameters as labeled; (b) a normal speckle pattern; (c) a large speckle pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scatter plots of the diffraction image pairs in which the coloring of the dots represents the manual assignment by two of co-authors: (a) plots of 1000 image pairs acquired with a PC-3 cell sample and a 45° polarized incident laser beam and 6 simulated image pairs shown in Fig. 2 with the cyan-up-triangle symbol for 2(a), pink-square for 2(b) and pink-down-triangle for 2(c) - 2(f); (b) plots of 951 measured image pairs shown in (a) after removal of 35 image pairs of stripe patterns and 14 pairs of over- or under-exposure.

Equations (12)

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I p,45° / I 0 =( M 11 + M 13 )+( M 21 + M 23 ),
I s,45° / I 0 =( M 11 + M 13 )( M 21 + M 23 ),
I p,ver / I 0 =( M 11 M 12 )+( M 21 M 22 ),
I s,ver / I 0 =( M 11 M 12 )( M 21 M 22 ),
I p,hor / I 0 =( M 11 + M 12 )+( M 21 + M 22 ),
I s,hor / I 0 =( M 11 + M 12 )( M 21 + M 22 ).
G h =( 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 ), G h =( 1 0 1 2 0 2 1 0 1 ), G l =( 0 1 2 1 0 1 2 1 0 ), G r =( 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 ).
C 1 < C th and C 1 <0.3 C 2 ,
F(u,v)= I(z,y)exp{2πi(uz+vy)} dzdy ,
f th = 1 150(Δ) =0.00667( 1 Δ ).
N Pi '= N Pif | ref N Pif N Pi and C Ti '= C Tif | ref C Tif C Ti ,
A= TP+TN TP+TN+FP+FN ,

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