Abstract

Organic blends containing heterojunction structures at the interfacial phase have been applied extensively in organic optoelectronic devices to modify charge transfer, separation, and recombination processes. Scaling and controlling the transition domains at the hetero-interface are of crucial importance for deep insights into the involved physics and for architecturing the devices with improved performance. However, it is difficult to recognize and characterize these transition domains directly using the conventional microscopic techniques, in particular when different molecules are dissolved in the same solvent with equal solubility. In this work, we introduce a technique defined as laser-induced selective cross-linking to isolate the interfacial phase from other phases into a directly measurable practicity. Thus, the hetero-domains become visualized and directly measurable. Based on the insolubility of the selectively cross-linked molecules in organic solvents, a lift-off process may remove the uncross-linked or incompletely cross-linked molecules, so that the hetero-domain is more clearly visualized and more precisely measured. A transition domain in a scale of about 200 nm is resolved in the F8BT/PFB blend film between their respectively rich phases after the selective cross-linking of the F8BT molecules by a blue laser. Furthermore, hetero-crosslinking between F8BT and PFB molecules was also resolved by both microscopic and near-field spectroscopic investigations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  7. S. Berleb, W. Brutting, and G. Paasch, “Interfacial charges in organic hetero-layer light emitting diodes probed by capacitance–voltage measurements,” Synth. Met.122(1), 37–39 (2001).
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  8. R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 496–503 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

F. C. Jamieson, E. B. Domingo, T. McCarthy-Ward, M. Heeney, N. Stingelin, and J. R. Durrant, “Fullerene crystallisation as a key driver of charge separation in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Sci.3(2), 485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Gutiérrez Lezama, M. Nakano, N. A. Minder, Z. Chen, F. V. Di Girolamo, A. Facchetti, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Single-crystal organic charge-transfer interfaces probed using Schottky-gated heterostructures,” Nat. Mater.11(9), 788–794 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Park, S. Choi, S. Graham, and E. Reichmanis, “Memory and photovoltaic elements in organic field-effect transistors with acceptor/donor planar-hetero junction interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(17), 9390–9397 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Zhang, H. M. Liu, H. W. Li, and T. R. Zhai, “Direct Nanopatterning Into Conjugated Polymers Using Interference Crosslinking,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.213(12), 1285–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

D. H. Wang, J. S. Moon, J. Seifter, J. Jo, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Sequential processing: control of nanomorphology in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3163–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

I. A. Howard, J. M. Hodgkiss, X. P. Zhang, K. R. Kirov, H. A. Bronstein, C. K. Williams, R. H. Friend, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, “Charge Recombination and Exciton Annihilation Reactions in Conjugated Polymer Blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 328–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Y. Yang, X. L. Zhang, Y. B. Hou, Z. B. Deng, and X. R. Xu, “Charge carriers at organic heterojunction interface: Exciplex emission or electroplex emission?” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 096101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

R. Riehn, R. Stevenson, D. Richards, D. J. Kang, M. Blamire, A. Downes, and F. Cacialli, “Local Probing of Photocurrent and Photoluminescence in a Phase-Separated Conjugated-Polymer Blend by Means of Near-Field Excitation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 469–476 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Coffey and D. S. Ginger, “Time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy of polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(9), 735–740 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcácer, and J. Morgado, “Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. Inaoka, D. B. Roitman, and R. C. Advincula, “Cross-Linked Polyfluorene Polymer Precursors: Electrodeposition, PLED Device Characterization, and Two-Site Co-deposition with Poly(vinylcarbazole),” Chem. Mater.17(26), 6781–6789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “A Hybrid Planar–Mixed Molecular Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cell,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 66–71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, M. Shtein, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Mater.4(1), 37–41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

C. R. McNeill, H. Frohne, J. L. Holdsworth, and P. C. Dastoor, “Near-Field Scanning Photocurrent Measurements of Polyfluorene Blend Devices: Directly Correlating Morphology with Current Generation,” Nano Lett.4(12), 2503–2507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z.-L. Li, H.-F. Meng, S.-F. Horng, C.-S. Hsu, L.-C. Chen, and S.-M. Chang, “Strong red emission in heterojunctions of conjugated polymer blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Morteani, P. Sreearunothai, L. M. Herz, R. H. Friend, and C. Silva, “Exciton Regeneration at Polymeric Semiconductor Heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(24), 247402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films,” Nature425(6954), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Berleb, W. Brutting, and G. Paasch, “Interfacial charges in organic hetero-layer light emitting diodes probed by capacitance–voltage measurements,” Synth. Met.122(1), 37–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. W. Tang, “Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(2), 183 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Advincula, R. C.

S. Inaoka, D. B. Roitman, and R. C. Advincula, “Cross-Linked Polyfluorene Polymer Precursors: Electrodeposition, PLED Device Characterization, and Two-Site Co-deposition with Poly(vinylcarbazole),” Chem. Mater.17(26), 6781–6789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alcácer, L.

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcácer, and J. Morgado, “Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alves, H.

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcácer, and J. Morgado, “Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beaupré, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berleb, S.

S. Berleb, W. Brutting, and G. Paasch, “Interfacial charges in organic hetero-layer light emitting diodes probed by capacitance–voltage measurements,” Synth. Met.122(1), 37–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blamire, M.

R. Riehn, R. Stevenson, D. Richards, D. J. Kang, M. Blamire, A. Downes, and F. Cacialli, “Local Probing of Photocurrent and Photoluminescence in a Phase-Separated Conjugated-Polymer Blend by Means of Near-Field Excitation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 469–476 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bronstein, H. A.

I. A. Howard, J. M. Hodgkiss, X. P. Zhang, K. R. Kirov, H. A. Bronstein, C. K. Williams, R. H. Friend, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, “Charge Recombination and Exciton Annihilation Reactions in Conjugated Polymer Blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 328–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brutting, W.

S. Berleb, W. Brutting, and G. Paasch, “Interfacial charges in organic hetero-layer light emitting diodes probed by capacitance–voltage measurements,” Synth. Met.122(1), 37–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cacialli, F.

R. Riehn, R. Stevenson, D. Richards, D. J. Kang, M. Blamire, A. Downes, and F. Cacialli, “Local Probing of Photocurrent and Photoluminescence in a Phase-Separated Conjugated-Polymer Blend by Means of Near-Field Excitation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 469–476 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Capelli, R.

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-M.

Z.-L. Li, H.-F. Meng, S.-F. Horng, C.-S. Hsu, L.-C. Chen, and S.-M. Chang, “Strong red emission in heterojunctions of conjugated polymer blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Charas, A.

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcácer, and J. Morgado, “Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-C.

Z.-L. Li, H.-F. Meng, S.-F. Horng, C.-S. Hsu, L.-C. Chen, and S.-M. Chang, “Strong red emission in heterojunctions of conjugated polymer blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

I. Gutiérrez Lezama, M. Nakano, N. A. Minder, Z. Chen, F. V. Di Girolamo, A. Facchetti, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Single-crystal organic charge-transfer interfaces probed using Schottky-gated heterostructures,” Nat. Mater.11(9), 788–794 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

B. Park, S. Choi, S. Graham, and E. Reichmanis, “Memory and photovoltaic elements in organic field-effect transistors with acceptor/donor planar-hetero junction interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(17), 9390–9397 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ciná, S.

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, D. C.

D. C. Coffey and D. S. Ginger, “Time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy of polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(9), 735–740 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dastoor, P. C.

C. R. McNeill, H. Frohne, J. L. Holdsworth, and P. C. Dastoor, “Near-Field Scanning Photocurrent Measurements of Polyfluorene Blend Devices: Directly Correlating Morphology with Current Generation,” Nano Lett.4(12), 2503–2507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Z. B.

S. Y. Yang, X. L. Zhang, Y. B. Hou, Z. B. Deng, and X. R. Xu, “Charge carriers at organic heterojunction interface: Exciplex emission or electroplex emission?” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 096101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dhoot, A. S.

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Di Girolamo, F. V.

I. Gutiérrez Lezama, M. Nakano, N. A. Minder, Z. Chen, F. V. Di Girolamo, A. Facchetti, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Single-crystal organic charge-transfer interfaces probed using Schottky-gated heterostructures,” Nat. Mater.11(9), 788–794 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domingo, E. B.

F. C. Jamieson, E. B. Domingo, T. McCarthy-Ward, M. Heeney, N. Stingelin, and J. R. Durrant, “Fullerene crystallisation as a key driver of charge separation in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Sci.3(2), 485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Downes, A.

R. Riehn, R. Stevenson, D. Richards, D. J. Kang, M. Blamire, A. Downes, and F. Cacialli, “Local Probing of Photocurrent and Photoluminescence in a Phase-Separated Conjugated-Polymer Blend by Means of Near-Field Excitation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 469–476 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Durrant, J. R.

F. C. Jamieson, E. B. Domingo, T. McCarthy-Ward, M. Heeney, N. Stingelin, and J. R. Durrant, “Fullerene crystallisation as a key driver of charge separation in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Sci.3(2), 485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Facchetti, A.

I. Gutiérrez Lezama, M. Nakano, N. A. Minder, Z. Chen, F. V. Di Girolamo, A. Facchetti, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Single-crystal organic charge-transfer interfaces probed using Schottky-gated heterostructures,” Nat. Mater.11(9), 788–794 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

F. Yang, M. Shtein, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Mater.4(1), 37–41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “A Hybrid Planar–Mixed Molecular Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cell,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 66–71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films,” Nature425(6954), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

I. A. Howard, J. M. Hodgkiss, X. P. Zhang, K. R. Kirov, H. A. Bronstein, C. K. Williams, R. H. Friend, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, “Charge Recombination and Exciton Annihilation Reactions in Conjugated Polymer Blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 328–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Morteani, P. Sreearunothai, L. M. Herz, R. H. Friend, and C. Silva, “Exciton Regeneration at Polymeric Semiconductor Heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(24), 247402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frohne, H.

C. R. McNeill, H. Frohne, J. L. Holdsworth, and P. C. Dastoor, “Near-Field Scanning Photocurrent Measurements of Polyfluorene Blend Devices: Directly Correlating Morphology with Current Generation,” Nano Lett.4(12), 2503–2507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Generali, G.

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ginger, D. S.

D. C. Coffey and D. S. Ginger, “Time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy of polymer solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(9), 735–740 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, S.

B. Park, S. Choi, S. Graham, and E. Reichmanis, “Memory and photovoltaic elements in organic field-effect transistors with acceptor/donor planar-hetero junction interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(17), 9390–9397 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Greenham, N. C.

I. A. Howard, J. M. Hodgkiss, X. P. Zhang, K. R. Kirov, H. A. Bronstein, C. K. Williams, R. H. Friend, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, “Charge Recombination and Exciton Annihilation Reactions in Conjugated Polymer Blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 328–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gutiérrez Lezama, I.

I. Gutiérrez Lezama, M. Nakano, N. A. Minder, Z. Chen, F. V. Di Girolamo, A. Facchetti, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Single-crystal organic charge-transfer interfaces probed using Schottky-gated heterostructures,” Nat. Mater.11(9), 788–794 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeger, A. J.

D. H. Wang, J. S. Moon, J. Seifter, J. Jo, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Sequential processing: control of nanomorphology in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3163–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heeney, M.

F. C. Jamieson, E. B. Domingo, T. McCarthy-Ward, M. Heeney, N. Stingelin, and J. R. Durrant, “Fullerene crystallisation as a key driver of charge separation in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Sci.3(2), 485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Herz, L. M.

A. C. Morteani, P. Sreearunothai, L. M. Herz, R. H. Friend, and C. Silva, “Exciton Regeneration at Polymeric Semiconductor Heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(24), 247402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodgkiss, J. M.

I. A. Howard, J. M. Hodgkiss, X. P. Zhang, K. R. Kirov, H. A. Bronstein, C. K. Williams, R. H. Friend, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, “Charge Recombination and Exciton Annihilation Reactions in Conjugated Polymer Blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 328–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holdsworth, J. L.

C. R. McNeill, H. Frohne, J. L. Holdsworth, and P. C. Dastoor, “Near-Field Scanning Photocurrent Measurements of Polyfluorene Blend Devices: Directly Correlating Morphology with Current Generation,” Nano Lett.4(12), 2503–2507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Horng, S.-F.

Z.-L. Li, H.-F. Meng, S.-F. Horng, C.-S. Hsu, L.-C. Chen, and S.-M. Chang, “Strong red emission in heterojunctions of conjugated polymer blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Y. B.

S. Y. Yang, X. L. Zhang, Y. B. Hou, Z. B. Deng, and X. R. Xu, “Charge carriers at organic heterojunction interface: Exciplex emission or electroplex emission?” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 096101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Howard, I. A.

I. A. Howard, J. M. Hodgkiss, X. P. Zhang, K. R. Kirov, H. A. Bronstein, C. K. Williams, R. H. Friend, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, “Charge Recombination and Exciton Annihilation Reactions in Conjugated Polymer Blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 328–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C.-S.

Z.-L. Li, H.-F. Meng, S.-F. Horng, C.-S. Hsu, L.-C. Chen, and S.-M. Chang, “Strong red emission in heterojunctions of conjugated polymer blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inaoka, S.

S. Inaoka, D. B. Roitman, and R. C. Advincula, “Cross-Linked Polyfluorene Polymer Precursors: Electrodeposition, PLED Device Characterization, and Two-Site Co-deposition with Poly(vinylcarbazole),” Chem. Mater.17(26), 6781–6789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jamieson, F. C.

F. C. Jamieson, E. B. Domingo, T. McCarthy-Ward, M. Heeney, N. Stingelin, and J. R. Durrant, “Fullerene crystallisation as a key driver of charge separation in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Sci.3(2), 485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jo, J.

D. H. Wang, J. S. Moon, J. Seifter, J. Jo, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Sequential processing: control of nanomorphology in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3163–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D. J.

R. Riehn, R. Stevenson, D. Richards, D. J. Kang, M. Blamire, A. Downes, and F. Cacialli, “Local Probing of Photocurrent and Photoluminescence in a Phase-Separated Conjugated-Polymer Blend by Means of Near-Field Excitation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 469–476 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-S.

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kirov, K. R.

I. A. Howard, J. M. Hodgkiss, X. P. Zhang, K. R. Kirov, H. A. Bronstein, C. K. Williams, R. H. Friend, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, “Charge Recombination and Exciton Annihilation Reactions in Conjugated Polymer Blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 328–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leclerc, M.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. W.

X. P. Zhang, H. M. Liu, H. W. Li, and T. R. Zhai, “Direct Nanopatterning Into Conjugated Polymers Using Interference Crosslinking,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.213(12), 1285–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.-L.

Z.-L. Li, H.-F. Meng, S.-F. Horng, C.-S. Hsu, L.-C. Chen, and S.-M. Chang, “Strong red emission in heterojunctions of conjugated polymer blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. M.

X. P. Zhang, H. M. Liu, H. W. Li, and T. R. Zhai, “Direct Nanopatterning Into Conjugated Polymers Using Interference Crosslinking,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.213(12), 1285–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy-Ward, T.

F. C. Jamieson, E. B. Domingo, T. McCarthy-Ward, M. Heeney, N. Stingelin, and J. R. Durrant, “Fullerene crystallisation as a key driver of charge separation in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Sci.3(2), 485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McNeill, C. R.

C. R. McNeill, H. Frohne, J. L. Holdsworth, and P. C. Dastoor, “Near-Field Scanning Photocurrent Measurements of Polyfluorene Blend Devices: Directly Correlating Morphology with Current Generation,” Nano Lett.4(12), 2503–2507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H.-F.

Z.-L. Li, H.-F. Meng, S.-F. Horng, C.-S. Hsu, L.-C. Chen, and S.-M. Chang, “Strong red emission in heterojunctions of conjugated polymer blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minder, N. A.

I. Gutiérrez Lezama, M. Nakano, N. A. Minder, Z. Chen, F. V. Di Girolamo, A. Facchetti, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Single-crystal organic charge-transfer interfaces probed using Schottky-gated heterostructures,” Nat. Mater.11(9), 788–794 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, J. S.

D. H. Wang, J. S. Moon, J. Seifter, J. Jo, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Sequential processing: control of nanomorphology in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3163–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moons, E.

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morgado, J.

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcácer, and J. Morgado, “Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morpurgo, A. F.

I. Gutiérrez Lezama, M. Nakano, N. A. Minder, Z. Chen, F. V. Di Girolamo, A. Facchetti, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Single-crystal organic charge-transfer interfaces probed using Schottky-gated heterostructures,” Nat. Mater.11(9), 788–794 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morteani, A. C.

A. C. Morteani, P. Sreearunothai, L. M. Herz, R. H. Friend, and C. Silva, “Exciton Regeneration at Polymeric Semiconductor Heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(24), 247402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muccini, M.

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, C.

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, M.

I. Gutiérrez Lezama, M. Nakano, N. A. Minder, Z. Chen, F. V. Di Girolamo, A. Facchetti, and A. F. Morpurgo, “Single-crystal organic charge-transfer interfaces probed using Schottky-gated heterostructures,” Nat. Mater.11(9), 788–794 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paasch, G.

S. Berleb, W. Brutting, and G. Paasch, “Interfacial charges in organic hetero-layer light emitting diodes probed by capacitance–voltage measurements,” Synth. Met.122(1), 37–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

B. Park, S. Choi, S. Graham, and E. Reichmanis, “Memory and photovoltaic elements in organic field-effect transistors with acceptor/donor planar-hetero junction interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(17), 9390–9397 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

D. H. Wang, J. S. Moon, J. Seifter, J. Jo, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Sequential processing: control of nanomorphology in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3163–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, O. O.

D. H. Wang, J. S. Moon, J. Seifter, J. Jo, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Sequential processing: control of nanomorphology in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3163–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films,” Nature425(6954), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rand, B. P.

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “A Hybrid Planar–Mixed Molecular Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cell,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 66–71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reichmanis, E.

B. Park, S. Choi, S. Graham, and E. Reichmanis, “Memory and photovoltaic elements in organic field-effect transistors with acceptor/donor planar-hetero junction interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(17), 9390–9397 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richards, D.

R. Riehn, R. Stevenson, D. Richards, D. J. Kang, M. Blamire, A. Downes, and F. Cacialli, “Local Probing of Photocurrent and Photoluminescence in a Phase-Separated Conjugated-Polymer Blend by Means of Near-Field Excitation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 469–476 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riehn, R.

R. Riehn, R. Stevenson, D. Richards, D. J. Kang, M. Blamire, A. Downes, and F. Cacialli, “Local Probing of Photocurrent and Photoluminescence in a Phase-Separated Conjugated-Polymer Blend by Means of Near-Field Excitation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 469–476 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roitman, D. B.

S. Inaoka, D. B. Roitman, and R. C. Advincula, “Cross-Linked Polyfluorene Polymer Precursors: Electrodeposition, PLED Device Characterization, and Two-Site Co-deposition with Poly(vinylcarbazole),” Chem. Mater.17(26), 6781–6789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seifter, J.

D. H. Wang, J. S. Moon, J. Seifter, J. Jo, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Sequential processing: control of nanomorphology in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3163–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shtein, M.

F. Yang, M. Shtein, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Mater.4(1), 37–41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silva, C.

A. C. Morteani, P. Sreearunothai, L. M. Herz, R. H. Friend, and C. Silva, “Exciton Regeneration at Polymeric Semiconductor Heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(24), 247402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sreearunothai, P.

A. C. Morteani, P. Sreearunothai, L. M. Herz, R. H. Friend, and C. Silva, “Exciton Regeneration at Polymeric Semiconductor Heterojunctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(24), 247402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, R.

R. Riehn, R. Stevenson, D. Richards, D. J. Kang, M. Blamire, A. Downes, and F. Cacialli, “Local Probing of Photocurrent and Photoluminescence in a Phase-Separated Conjugated-Polymer Blend by Means of Near-Field Excitation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 469–476 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stingelin, N.

F. C. Jamieson, E. B. Domingo, T. McCarthy-Ward, M. Heeney, N. Stingelin, and J. R. Durrant, “Fullerene crystallisation as a key driver of charge separation in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Sci.3(2), 485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang, “Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(2), 183 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Toffanin, S.

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, S.

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “A Hybrid Planar–Mixed Molecular Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cell,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 66–71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films,” Nature425(6954), 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usta, H.

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater.9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. H.

D. H. Wang, J. S. Moon, J. Seifter, J. Jo, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Sequential processing: control of nanomorphology in bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3163–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westenhoff, S.

I. A. Howard, J. M. Hodgkiss, X. P. Zhang, K. R. Kirov, H. A. Bronstein, C. K. Williams, R. H. Friend, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, “Charge Recombination and Exciton Annihilation Reactions in Conjugated Polymer Blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 328–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, C. K.

I. A. Howard, J. M. Hodgkiss, X. P. Zhang, K. R. Kirov, H. A. Bronstein, C. K. Williams, R. H. Friend, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, “Charge Recombination and Exciton Annihilation Reactions in Conjugated Polymer Blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 328–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wudl, F.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. R.

S. Y. Yang, X. L. Zhang, Y. B. Hou, Z. B. Deng, and X. R. Xu, “Charge carriers at organic heterojunction interface: Exciplex emission or electroplex emission?” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 096101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J.

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “A Hybrid Planar–Mixed Molecular Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cell,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 66–71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang, M. Shtein, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Mater.4(1), 37–41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

S. Y. Yang, X. L. Zhang, Y. B. Hou, Z. B. Deng, and X. R. Xu, “Charge carriers at organic heterojunction interface: Exciplex emission or electroplex emission?” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 096101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, T. R.

X. P. Zhang, H. M. Liu, H. W. Li, and T. R. Zhai, “Direct Nanopatterning Into Conjugated Polymers Using Interference Crosslinking,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.213(12), 1285–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

S. Y. Yang, X. L. Zhang, Y. B. Hou, Z. B. Deng, and X. R. Xu, “Charge carriers at organic heterojunction interface: Exciplex emission or electroplex emission?” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 096101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. P.

X. P. Zhang, H. M. Liu, H. W. Li, and T. R. Zhai, “Direct Nanopatterning Into Conjugated Polymers Using Interference Crosslinking,” Macromol. Chem. Phys.213(12), 1285–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Howard, J. M. Hodgkiss, X. P. Zhang, K. R. Kirov, H. A. Bronstein, C. K. Williams, R. H. Friend, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, “Charge Recombination and Exciton Annihilation Reactions in Conjugated Polymer Blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 328–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

R. Riehn, R. Stevenson, D. Richards, D. J. Kang, M. Blamire, A. Downes, and F. Cacialli, “Local Probing of Photocurrent and Photoluminescence in a Phase-Separated Conjugated-Polymer Blend by Means of Near-Field Excitation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(4), 469–476 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

A. C. Morteani, A. S. Dhoot, J.-S. Kim, C. Silva, N. C. Greenham, C. Murphy, E. Moons, S. Ciná, J. H. Burroughes, and R. H. Friend, “Barrier-Free Electron–Hole Capture in Polymer Blend Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1708–1712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, “A Hybrid Planar–Mixed Molecular Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cell,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 66–71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcácer, and J. Morgado, “Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(14), 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z.-L. Li, H.-F. Meng, S.-F. Horng, C.-S. Hsu, L.-C. Chen, and S.-M. Chang, “Strong red emission in heterojunctions of conjugated polymer blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang, “Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(2), 183 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. Inaoka, D. B. Roitman, and R. C. Advincula, “Cross-Linked Polyfluorene Polymer Precursors: Electrodeposition, PLED Device Characterization, and Two-Site Co-deposition with Poly(vinylcarbazole),” Chem. Mater.17(26), 6781–6789 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Sci. (1)

F. C. Jamieson, E. B. Domingo, T. McCarthy-Ward, M. Heeney, N. Stingelin, and J. R. Durrant, “Fullerene crystallisation as a key driver of charge separation in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Sci.3(2), 485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

I. A. Howard, J. M. Hodgkiss, X. P. Zhang, K. R. Kirov, H. A. Bronstein, C. K. Williams, R. H. Friend, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, “Charge Recombination and Exciton Annihilation Reactions in Conjugated Polymer Blends,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(1), 328–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Y. Yang, X. L. Zhang, Y. B. Hou, Z. B. Deng, and X. R. Xu, “Charge carriers at organic heterojunction interface: Exciplex emission or electroplex emission?” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 096101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the morphological modulation on the F8BT/PFB blend film by the selective cross-linking through exposure to the blue laser beam at 457 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM images of the blend film before (a) and after the selectively cross-linking processes with different exposure time to the laser beam at 457 nm: (b) 20, (c) 40, (d) 60, and (e) 90 minutes. The variation of the mean diameter (D) of the center part of the F8BT-rich phase with the exposure time (T) is shown in (f).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b): the AFM images of the selectively cross-linked blend film before and after the lift-off process, respectively. (c) and (d): the enlarged and perspective view of the AFM images before and after the lift-off process, respectively. (e) Plots of the cross-sections at the phase-separation sites marked by the green bars in (c) and (d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Degradation of the PL spectrum of the blend film after exposed to the blue laser for 0 (black), 3 (red), and 6 minutes (blue). Inset: enlarged PL spectra in the range from 412 to 490 nm, showing the degrade of PFB emission centered at about 450 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left panel: Near-field spectroscopic mapping of the blend film (a) before and (b) after the laser-induced selective cross-linking, and (c) after the liftoff process. Right panel: the PL spectra at the selected sites in the mapping image on the left panel. The blue-colored domain corresponds to the F8BT-rich phase and the red to the PFB-rich phase. The scale bar in (a) applies to (b) and (c).

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