Abstract

Ag nanostructures with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities have been fabricated by applying laser-direct writing (LDW) technique on silver oxide (AgOx) thin films. By controlling the laser powers, multi-level Raman imaging of organic molecules adsorbed on the nanostructures has been observed. This phenomenon is further investigated by atomic-force microscopy and electromagnetic calculation. The SERS-active nanostructure is also fabricated on transparent and flexible substrate to demonstrate our promising strategy for the development of novel and low-cost sensing chip.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (8)

A. Chou, E. Jaatinen, R. Buividas, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, E. L. Izake, and P. M. Fredericks, “SERS substrate for detection of explosives,” Nanoscale4(23), 7419–7424 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Tseng, Y.-W. Huang, M.-K. Hsiao, H. W. Huang, H. M. Chen, Y. L. Chen, C. H. Chu, N.-N. Chu, Y. J. He, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, R.-S. Liu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Fast fabrication of a Ag nanostructure substrate using the femtosecond laser for broad-band and tunable plasmonic enhancement,” ACS Nano6(6), 5190–5197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, D. Wang, and K. B. Crozier, “Direct observation of beamed Raman scattering,” Nano Lett.12(12), 6235–6243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Pasquale, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Concentric necklace nanolenses for optical near-field focusing and enhancement,” ACS Nano6(5), 4341–4348 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ayas, H. Güner, B. Türker, O. O. Ekiz, F. Dirisaglik, A. K. Okyay, and A. Dâna, “Raman enhancement on a broadband meta-surface,” ACS Nano6(8), 6852–6861 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, C. Zong, K. Ai, W. He, and L. Lu, “Engineering natural materials as surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy substrates for in situ molecular sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces4(12), 6599–6608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagai, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Kajikawa, “Angular-resolved polarized surface enhanced raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(17), 9716–9723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

2010 (6)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ling, L. Xie, Y. Fang, H. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Kong, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Can graphene be used as a substrate for Raman enhancement?” Nano Lett.10(2), 553–561 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Chong, M. H. Hong, and L. P. Shi, “Laser precision engineering: From microfabrication to nanoprocessing,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(1), 123–143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Lin, S.-H. Huang, C.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and H.-P. Chiang, “Controlling SERS intensity by tuning the size and height of a silver nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 185–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Strelau, T. Schüler, R. Möller, W. Fritzsche, and J. Popp, “Novel bottom-up SERS substrates for quantitative and parallelized analytics,” ChemPhysChem11(2), 394–398 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Chu, C. D. Shiue, H. W. Cheng, M. L. Tseng, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Laser-induced phase transitions of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films used in optical and electronic data storage and in thermal lithography,” Opt. Express18(17), 18383–18393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

W.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jen, C.-L. Chen, D.-F. Hwang, R. Chang, J.-S. Hwang, and H.-P. Chiang, “SERS study of tetrodotoxin (TTX) by using silver nanoparticle arrays,” Plasmonics4(2), 187–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. He, B. Hu, Q.-F. Yao, K. Wang, and S.-H. Yu, “Large-scale synthesis of flexible free-standing SERS substrates with high sensitivity: electrospun PVA nanofibers embedded with controlled alignment of silver nanoparticles,” ACS Nano3(12), 3993–4002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lin, L. Jiang, Y.-H. Chai, H. Xiao, S.-J. Chen, and H.-L. Tsai, “One-step fabrication of nanostructures by femtosecond laser for surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Opt. Express17(24), 21581–21589 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

A. Kocabas, G. Ertas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, “Plasmonic band gap structures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Opt. Express16(17), 12469–12477 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barhoumi, D. Zhang, F. Tam, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of DNA,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(16), 5523–5529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced raman nanoparticle tags,” Nat. Biotechnol.26(1), 83–90 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. K. Lin, I. C. Lin, and D. P. Tsai, “Characterization of nano recorded marks at different writing strategies on phase-change recording layer of optical disks,” Opt. Express14(10), 4452–4458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Tsu and T. Ohta, “Mechanism of properties of noble ZnS-SiO2 protection layer for phase change optical disk media,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6294–6307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett.5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Inasawa, M. Sugiyama, and S. Koda, “Size controlled formation of gold nanoparticles using photochemical grwoth and photothermal size reduction by 308 nm laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(10), 6705–6712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: A versatile nanofabrication tool for studies of size-dependent nanoparticle optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Takami, H. Kurita, and S. Koda, “Laser-induced size reduction of noble metal particles,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(8), 1226–1232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. H. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.57(3), 783–826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. Hildebrandt and M. Stockburger, “Surface-enhanced resonance raman-spectroscopy of rhodamine-6g adsorbed on colloidal silver,” J. Phys. Chem.88(24), 5935–5944 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ai, K.

X. Liu, C. Zong, K. Ai, W. He, and L. Lu, “Engineering natural materials as surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy substrates for in situ molecular sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces4(12), 6599–6608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ansari, D. O.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced raman nanoparticle tags,” Nat. Biotechnol.26(1), 83–90 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asaba, K.

Ayas, S.

S. Ayas, H. Güner, B. Türker, O. O. Ekiz, F. Dirisaglik, A. K. Okyay, and A. Dâna, “Raman enhancement on a broadband meta-surface,” ACS Nano6(8), 6852–6861 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydinli, A.

Barhoumi, A.

A. Barhoumi, D. Zhang, F. Tam, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of DNA,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(16), 5523–5529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Botet, R.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. H. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buividas, R.

A. Chou, E. Jaatinen, R. Buividas, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, E. L. Izake, and P. M. Fredericks, “SERS substrate for detection of explosives,” Nanoscale4(23), 7419–7424 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chai, Y.-H.

Chang, C. M.

M. L. Tseng, Y.-W. Huang, M.-K. Hsiao, H. W. Huang, H. M. Chen, Y. L. Chen, C. H. Chu, N.-N. Chu, Y. J. He, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, R.-S. Liu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Fast fabrication of a Ag nanostructure substrate using the femtosecond laser for broad-band and tunable plasmonic enhancement,” ACS Nano6(6), 5190–5197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Chang, C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, H. P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Local electrical characterization of laser-recorded phase-change marks on amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” Opt. Express19(10), 9492–9504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R.

W.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jen, C.-L. Chen, D.-F. Hwang, R. Chang, J.-S. Hwang, and H.-P. Chiang, “SERS study of tetrodotoxin (TTX) by using silver nanoparticle arrays,” Plasmonics4(2), 187–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

W.-C. Lin, S.-H. Huang, C.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and H.-P. Chiang, “Controlling SERS intensity by tuning the size and height of a silver nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 185–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-L.

W.-C. Lin, S.-H. Huang, C.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and H.-P. Chiang, “Controlling SERS intensity by tuning the size and height of a silver nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 185–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jen, C.-L. Chen, D.-F. Hwang, R. Chang, J.-S. Hwang, and H.-P. Chiang, “SERS study of tetrodotoxin (TTX) by using silver nanoparticle arrays,” Plasmonics4(2), 187–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-W.

T.-C. Peng, W.-C. Lin, C.-W. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and H.-P. Chiang, “Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using silver nanoparticles,” Plasmonics6(1), 29–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. Z.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced raman nanoparticle tags,” Nat. Biotechnol.26(1), 83–90 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. M.

M. L. Tseng, Y.-W. Huang, M.-K. Hsiao, H. W. Huang, H. M. Chen, Y. L. Chen, C. H. Chu, N.-N. Chu, Y. J. He, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, R.-S. Liu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Fast fabrication of a Ag nanostructure substrate using the femtosecond laser for broad-band and tunable plasmonic enhancement,” ACS Nano6(6), 5190–5197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.-J.

Chen, Y. L.

M. L. Tseng, Y.-W. Huang, M.-K. Hsiao, H. W. Huang, H. M. Chen, Y. L. Chen, C. H. Chu, N.-N. Chu, Y. J. He, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, R.-S. Liu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Fast fabrication of a Ag nanostructure substrate using the femtosecond laser for broad-band and tunable plasmonic enhancement,” ACS Nano6(6), 5190–5197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. C.

Cheng, H. W.

Chiang, H. P.

Chiang, H.-P.

H.-L. Huang, C. F. Chou, S. H. Shiao, Y.-C. Liu, J.-J. Huang, S. U. Jen, and H.-P. Chiang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of DCJTB by using silver nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express21(S5), A901–A908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Tseng, Y.-W. Huang, M.-K. Hsiao, H. W. Huang, H. M. Chen, Y. L. Chen, C. H. Chu, N.-N. Chu, Y. J. He, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, R.-S. Liu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Fast fabrication of a Ag nanostructure substrate using the femtosecond laser for broad-band and tunable plasmonic enhancement,” ACS Nano6(6), 5190–5197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-C. Peng, W.-C. Lin, C.-W. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and H.-P. Chiang, “Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using silver nanoparticles,” Plasmonics6(1), 29–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chu, C. D. Shiue, H. W. Cheng, M. L. Tseng, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Laser-induced phase transitions of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films used in optical and electronic data storage and in thermal lithography,” Opt. Express18(17), 18383–18393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lin, S.-H. Huang, C.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and H.-P. Chiang, “Controlling SERS intensity by tuning the size and height of a silver nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 185–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jen, C.-L. Chen, D.-F. Hwang, R. Chang, J.-S. Hwang, and H.-P. Chiang, “SERS study of tetrodotoxin (TTX) by using silver nanoparticle arrays,” Plasmonics4(2), 187–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. C.

T. C. Chong, M. H. Hong, and L. P. Shi, “Laser precision engineering: From microfabrication to nanoprocessing,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(1), 123–143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chou, A.

A. Chou, E. Jaatinen, R. Buividas, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, E. L. Izake, and P. M. Fredericks, “SERS substrate for detection of explosives,” Nanoscale4(23), 7419–7424 (2012).
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Senlik, S. S.

Shalaev, V. M.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. H. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, L. P.

T. C. Chong, M. H. Hong, and L. P. Shi, “Laser precision engineering: From microfabrication to nanoprocessing,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(1), 123–143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shiao, S. H.

Shin, D. M.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced raman nanoparticle tags,” Nat. Biotechnol.26(1), 83–90 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiue, C. D.

Shoji, S.

Stockburger, M.

P. Hildebrandt and M. Stockburger, “Surface-enhanced resonance raman-spectroscopy of rhodamine-6g adsorbed on colloidal silver,” J. Phys. Chem.88(24), 5935–5944 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Strelau, K. K.

K. K. Strelau, T. Schüler, R. Möller, W. Fritzsche, and J. Popp, “Novel bottom-up SERS substrates for quantitative and parallelized analytics,” ChemPhysChem11(2), 394–398 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiyama, M.

S. Inasawa, M. Sugiyama, and S. Koda, “Size controlled formation of gold nanoparticles using photochemical grwoth and photothermal size reduction by 308 nm laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(10), 6705–6712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suh, J. S.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. H. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, G.

M. L. Tseng, Y.-W. Huang, M.-K. Hsiao, H. W. Huang, H. M. Chen, Y. L. Chen, C. H. Chu, N.-N. Chu, Y. J. He, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, R.-S. Liu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Fast fabrication of a Ag nanostructure substrate using the femtosecond laser for broad-band and tunable plasmonic enhancement,” ACS Nano6(6), 5190–5197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takami, A.

A. Takami, H. Kurita, and S. Koda, “Laser-induced size reduction of noble metal particles,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(8), 1226–1232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Talley, C. E.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett.5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, F.

A. Barhoumi, D. Zhang, F. Tam, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of DNA,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(16), 5523–5529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

M. L. Tseng, Y.-W. Huang, M.-K. Hsiao, H. W. Huang, H. M. Chen, Y. L. Chen, C. H. Chu, N.-N. Chu, Y. J. He, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, R.-S. Liu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Fast fabrication of a Ag nanostructure substrate using the femtosecond laser for broad-band and tunable plasmonic enhancement,” ACS Nano6(6), 5190–5197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-C. Peng, W.-C. Lin, C.-W. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and H.-P. Chiang, “Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using silver nanoparticles,” Plasmonics6(1), 29–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Chang, C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, H. P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Local electrical characterization of laser-recorded phase-change marks on amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” Opt. Express19(10), 9492–9504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lin, S.-H. Huang, C.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and H.-P. Chiang, “Controlling SERS intensity by tuning the size and height of a silver nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 185–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chu, C. D. Shiue, H. W. Cheng, M. L. Tseng, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Laser-induced phase transitions of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films used in optical and electronic data storage and in thermal lithography,” Opt. Express18(17), 18383–18393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Lin, I. C. Lin, and D. P. Tsai, “Characterization of nano recorded marks at different writing strategies on phase-change recording layer of optical disks,” Opt. Express14(10), 4452–4458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. H. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, H.-L.

Tseng, M. L.

Tsu, D. V.

D. V. Tsu and T. Ohta, “Mechanism of properties of noble ZnS-SiO2 protection layer for phase change optical disk media,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6294–6307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Türker, B.

S. Ayas, H. Güner, B. Türker, O. O. Ekiz, F. Dirisaglik, A. K. Okyay, and A. Dâna, “Raman enhancement on a broadband meta-surface,” ACS Nano6(8), 6852–6861 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: A versatile nanofabrication tool for studies of size-dependent nanoparticle optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

W. Zhu, D. Wang, and K. B. Crozier, “Direct observation of beamed Raman scattering,” Nano Lett.12(12), 6235–6243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

D. He, B. Hu, Q.-F. Yao, K. Wang, and S.-H. Yu, “Large-scale synthesis of flexible free-standing SERS substrates with high sensitivity: electrospun PVA nanofibers embedded with controlled alignment of silver nanoparticles,” ACS Nano3(12), 3993–4002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M. D.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced raman nanoparticle tags,” Nat. Biotechnol.26(1), 83–90 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. H.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. H. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, H.

Xiao, J.

W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, L.

X. Ling, L. Xie, Y. Fang, H. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Kong, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Can graphene be used as a substrate for Raman enhancement?” Nano Lett.10(2), 553–561 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ling, L. Xie, Y. Fang, H. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Kong, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Can graphene be used as a substrate for Raman enhancement?” Nano Lett.10(2), 553–561 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, T.

Y. Nagai, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Kajikawa, “Angular-resolved polarized surface enhanced raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(17), 9716–9723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced raman nanoparticle tags,” Nat. Biotechnol.26(1), 83–90 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, Q.-F.

D. He, B. Hu, Q.-F. Yao, K. Wang, and S.-H. Yu, “Large-scale synthesis of flexible free-standing SERS substrates with high sensitivity: electrospun PVA nanofibers embedded with controlled alignment of silver nanoparticles,” ACS Nano3(12), 3993–4002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin-Goen, Q.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced raman nanoparticle tags,” Nat. Biotechnol.26(1), 83–90 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, A. N.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced raman nanoparticle tags,” Nat. Biotechnol.26(1), 83–90 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, S.-H.

D. He, B. Hu, Q.-F. Yao, K. Wang, and S.-H. Yu, “Large-scale synthesis of flexible free-standing SERS substrates with high sensitivity: electrospun PVA nanofibers embedded with controlled alignment of silver nanoparticles,” ACS Nano3(12), 3993–4002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

A. Barhoumi, D. Zhang, F. Tam, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of DNA,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(16), 5523–5529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

X. Ling, L. Xie, Y. Fang, H. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Kong, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Can graphene be used as a substrate for Raman enhancement?” Nano Lett.10(2), 553–561 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ling, L. Xie, Y. Fang, H. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Kong, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Can graphene be used as a substrate for Raman enhancement?” Nano Lett.10(2), 553–561 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, D. Wang, and K. B. Crozier, “Direct observation of beamed Raman scattering,” Nano Lett.12(12), 6235–6243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zong, C.

X. Liu, C. Zong, K. Ai, W. He, and L. Lu, “Engineering natural materials as surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy substrates for in situ molecular sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces4(12), 6599–6608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

X. Liu, C. Zong, K. Ai, W. He, and L. Lu, “Engineering natural materials as surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy substrates for in situ molecular sensing,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces4(12), 6599–6608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

A. J. Pasquale, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Concentric necklace nanolenses for optical near-field focusing and enhancement,” ACS Nano6(5), 4341–4348 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ayas, H. Güner, B. Türker, O. O. Ekiz, F. Dirisaglik, A. K. Okyay, and A. Dâna, “Raman enhancement on a broadband meta-surface,” ACS Nano6(8), 6852–6861 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. He, B. Hu, Q.-F. Yao, K. Wang, and S.-H. Yu, “Large-scale synthesis of flexible free-standing SERS substrates with high sensitivity: electrospun PVA nanofibers embedded with controlled alignment of silver nanoparticles,” ACS Nano3(12), 3993–4002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Tseng, Y.-W. Huang, M.-K. Hsiao, H. W. Huang, H. M. Chen, Y. L. Chen, C. H. Chu, N.-N. Chu, Y. J. He, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, R.-S. Liu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Fast fabrication of a Ag nanostructure substrate using the femtosecond laser for broad-band and tunable plasmonic enhancement,” ACS Nano6(6), 5190–5197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

W.-C. Lin, S.-H. Huang, C.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and H.-P. Chiang, “Controlling SERS intensity by tuning the size and height of a silver nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 185–189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

ChemPhysChem (1)

K. K. Strelau, T. Schüler, R. Möller, W. Fritzsche, and J. Popp, “Novel bottom-up SERS substrates for quantitative and parallelized analytics,” ChemPhysChem11(2), 394–398 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. Barhoumi, D. Zhang, F. Tam, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of DNA,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(16), 5523–5529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

P. Hildebrandt and M. Stockburger, “Surface-enhanced resonance raman-spectroscopy of rhodamine-6g adsorbed on colloidal silver,” J. Phys. Chem.88(24), 5935–5944 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: A versatile nanofabrication tool for studies of size-dependent nanoparticle optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Takami, H. Kurita, and S. Koda, “Laser-induced size reduction of noble metal particles,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(8), 1226–1232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

Y. Nagai, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Kajikawa, “Angular-resolved polarized surface enhanced raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(17), 9716–9723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. V. Tsu and T. Ohta, “Mechanism of properties of noble ZnS-SiO2 protection layer for phase change optical disk media,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6294–6307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Inasawa, M. Sugiyama, and S. Koda, “Size controlled formation of gold nanoparticles using photochemical grwoth and photothermal size reduction by 308 nm laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(10), 6705–6712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

T. C. Chong, M. H. Hong, and L. P. Shi, “Laser precision engineering: From microfabrication to nanoprocessing,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(1), 123–143 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

X. Ling, L. Xie, Y. Fang, H. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Kong, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Can graphene be used as a substrate for Raman enhancement?” Nano Lett.10(2), 553–561 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced raman scattering from individual au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett.5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, D. Wang, and K. B. Crozier, “Direct observation of beamed Raman scattering,” Nano Lett.12(12), 6235–6243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (2)

A. J. Chung, Y. S. Huh, and D. Erickson, “Large area flexible SERS active substrates using engineered nanostructures,” Nanoscale3(7), 2903–2908 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chou, E. Jaatinen, R. Buividas, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, E. L. Izake, and P. M. Fredericks, “SERS substrate for detection of explosives,” Nanoscale4(23), 7419–7424 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, “In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced raman nanoparticle tags,” Nat. Biotechnol.26(1), 83–90 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

A. Kocabas, G. Ertas, S. S. Senlik, and A. Aydinli, “Plasmonic band gap structures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Opt. Express16(17), 12469–12477 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lin, L. Jiang, Y.-H. Chai, H. Xiao, S.-J. Chen, and H.-L. Tsai, “One-step fabrication of nanostructures by femtosecond laser for surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Opt. Express17(24), 21581–21589 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Chu, C. D. Shiue, H. W. Cheng, M. L. Tseng, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Laser-induced phase transitions of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films used in optical and electronic data storage and in thermal lithography,” Opt. Express18(17), 18383–18393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Malinauskas, P. Danilevičius, and S. Juodkazis, “Three-dimensional micro-/nano-structuring via direct write polymerization with picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express19(6), 5602–5610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, and M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express19(8), 6990–6998 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Chang, C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, H. P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Local electrical characterization of laser-recorded phase-change marks on amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” Opt. Express19(10), 9492–9504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Masui, S. Shoji, K. Asaba, T. C. Rodgers, F. Jin, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Laser fabrication of Au nanorod aggregates microstructures assisted by two-photon polymerization,” Opt. Express19(23), 22786–22796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-L. Huang, C. F. Chou, S. H. Shiao, Y.-C. Liu, J.-J. Huang, S. U. Jen, and H.-P. Chiang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of DCJTB by using silver nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express21(S5), A901–A908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Lin, I. C. Lin, and D. P. Tsai, “Characterization of nano recorded marks at different writing strategies on phase-change recording layer of optical disks,” Opt. Express14(10), 4452–4458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. H. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (2)

W.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jen, C.-L. Chen, D.-F. Hwang, R. Chang, J.-S. Hwang, and H.-P. Chiang, “SERS study of tetrodotoxin (TTX) by using silver nanoparticle arrays,” Plasmonics4(2), 187–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Peng, W.-C. Lin, C.-W. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and H.-P. Chiang, “Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using silver nanoparticles,” Plasmonics6(1), 29–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.57(3), 783–826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical reflection image of laser-generated Ag nanostructures made with laser powers 21 mW, 11 mW, 7 mW, respectively and (b) the corresponding Raman intensity map of R6G on the Ag nanostructures. The Raman intensity map is obtained from integrating spectral intensity of the R6G Raman peak ranging from 598 to 623 cm−1. The two images are shown on the same scale. (c) Raman spectra of R6G adsorbed on various zones of laser-processed AgOx thin film. The up insert shows the molecular structure of R6G molecule, and the button insert is the magnified Raman spectrum of R6G molecules obtained from the region of unprocessed AgOx thin film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)-(c) 2D AFM images of laser-generated Ag nanostructures with processing laser powers 21 mW, 11 mW, and 7 mW, respectively. The three images are shown on the same scale. (d)-(f) are the corresponding 3D AFM images, and (g)-(i) are the corresponding histograms of Ag NP diameters generated with various laser powers. The height scales in the 2D- and 3D- AFM images are properly adjusted for clearly demonstrating the differences of the surface morphologies between the three Ag nanostructures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electric-filed energy slice contour (E* D / 2) at the interface of Ag-BK7 under the illumination of wavelength 532 nm calculated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) for the laser-generated Ag nanostructures with processing laser powers (a) 21 mW and (b) 7 mW, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectra of R6G molecules obtained from the laser-generated Ag nanostructure and as-deposited AgOx thin film on optical transparent and flexible substrate. The Raman image of intensity map shows the spatial distribution of Raman intensity integrated over the peak in the regime of 598-623 cm−1

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