Abstract

We show that a sponge-like structure of interconnected Si nanowires embedded in a dielectric matrix can be obtained by laser annealing of silicon rich oxides (SRO). Due to quantum confinement, the large bandgap displayed by these percolated nanostructures can be utilized as a tandem stage in 3rd generation thin-film solar cells. Well passivated by the SiO2 dielectric matrix, they are expected to overcome the difficulty of carrier separation encountered in the case of isolated crystalline quantum dots. In this study PECVD grown SRO were irradiated by a cw Ar+ laser. Raman spectroscopy has been used to assess the crystallinity of the Si nanostructures and thus to optimize the annealing conditions as dwell times and power densities. In addition, Si plasmon imaging in the transmission electron microscope was applied to identify the sponge-like structure of phase-separated silicon.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  20. D. Riabinina, C. Durand, J. Margot, M. Chaker, G. A. Botton, and F. Rosei, “Nucleation and growth of Si nanocrystals in an amorphous SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075334 (2006).
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  23. T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
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  24. T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, and W. Moller, “Size and location control of Si nanocrystals at ion beam synthesis in thin SiO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 3049–3052 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. S. Schamm, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, M. Carrada, G. Ben Assayag, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, and C. Colliex, “Imaging Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers by (S)TEM-EELS,” Ultramicroscopy108(4), 346–357 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. Y. Ritz, H. Stegmann, H.-J. Engelmann, and E. Zschech, “Target preparation of samples for 3D-TEM using micromanipulators,” Prakt. Metallogr.41, 180–189 (2004).
  36. C. M. M. Denisse, K. Z. Troost, J. B. Oude Elferink, F. H. P. M. Habraken, and M. Hendriks, “Plasma-enhanced growth and composition of silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.60(7), 2536–2542 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  37. F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3733 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

J. Cho, B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, K.-H. Kim, I. Ngo, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Sn-catalyzed silicon nanowire solar cells with 4.9% efficiency grown on glass,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.21(1), 77–81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Silicon nanowire solar cells grown by PECVD,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(17), 2299–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-R. Huang, Y.-K. Yang, T.-C. Lin, and W.-L. Yang, “A simple and low-cost technique for silicon nanowire arrays based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells98, 357–362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Barbagiovanni, D. J. Lockwood, P. J. Simpson, and L. V. Goncharova, “Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 034307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Carrillo-López, J. A. Luna-López, I. Vivaldo-De la Cruz, M. Aceves-Mijares, A. Morales-Sanchez, and G. García-Salgado, “UV enhancement of silicon solar cells using thin SRO films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells100, 39–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.11(3), 174–177 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon nanocrystals and laser-induced thermal effects',” J. Electrochem. Soc.159(1), K21–K26 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Z. Wan, S. Huang, M. A. Green, and G. Conibeer, “Rapid thermal annealing and crystallization mechanism study of Si-NCs in SiC matrix,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6, 129 (2011).

2010 (2)

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, P.-J. Alet, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “All-in-situ fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires on TCO/glass substrates for photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(11), 1855–1859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Khriachtchev, T. Nikitin, M. Rasanen, A. Domanskaya, S. Boninelli, F. Iacona, A. Engdahl, J. Juhanoja, and S. Novikov, “Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si[Single Bond]SiO2 phase separation,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Phase stabilization by rapid thermal annealing in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride film,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(9), 095010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Barba, F. Martin, and G. G. Ross, “Evidence of localized amorphous silicon clustering from Raman depth-probing of silicon nanocrystals in fused silica,” Nanotechnology19(11), 115707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schamm, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, M. Carrada, G. Ben Assayag, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, and C. Colliex, “Imaging Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers by (S)TEM-EELS,” Ultramicroscopy108(4), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Photovoltaic Measurements in Single-Nanowire Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(2), 710–714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kempa, B. Tian, D. R. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Single and Tandem Axial p-i-n Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, M. C. Putnam, D. B. Turner-Evans, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Predicted efficiency of Si wire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 032112 (2008).

2007 (4)

G. Conibeer, “Third-generation photovoltaics,” Mater. Today10(11), 42–50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Balberg, E. Savir, J. Jedrzejewski, A. G. Nassiopoulou, and S. Gardelis, “Fundamental tansport processes in ensembles of silicon quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Riabinina, C. Durand, J. Margot, M. Chaker, G. A. Botton, and F. Rosei, “Nucleation and growth of Si nanocrystals in an amorphous SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075334 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G. Conibeer, M. A. Green, R. Corkish, Y.-H. Cho, E.-C. Cho, and C.-W. Jiang, “Silicon nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films654, 511–512 (2005).

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, T.-W. Kim, N.-M. Park, G. Y. Sung, and S.-J. Park, “Photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots in silicon nitride grown by NH3 and SiH4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(9), 091908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

J. J. van Hapert, A. M. Vredenberg, E. E. van Faassen, N. Tomozeiu, W. M. Arnoldbik, and F. H. P. M. Habraken, “Role of spinodal decomposition in the structure of SiOx,” Phys. Rev. B69(24), 245202 (2004).

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Janotta, Y. Dikce, M. Schmidt, C. Eisele, M. Stutzmann, M. Luysberg, and L. Houben, “Light-induced modification of a-SiO[sub x] II: Laser crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys.95(8), 4060–4069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ritz, H. Stegmann, H.-J. Engelmann, and E. Zschech, “Target preparation of samples for 3D-TEM using micromanipulators,” Prakt. Metallogr.41, 180–189 (2004).

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. A. R. Oliveira, M. Ribeiro, I. Pereyra, and M. I. Alayo, “Silicon clusters in PECVD silicon-rich SiOxNy,” Mater. Charact.50(2-3), 161–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, and W. Moller, “Size and location control of Si nanocrystals at ion beam synthesis in thin SiO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 3049–3052 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Hinds, F. Wang, D. Wolfe, Hinkle, and G. Lucovsky, “Investigation of postoxidation thermal treatments of Si/SiO2 interface in relationship to the kinetics of amorphous Si suboxide decomposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16, 2171–2177 (1998).

1997 (1)

N. P. Barradas, C. Jeynes, and R. P. Webb, “Simulated annealing analysis of rutherford backscattering data,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 291–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. M. M. Denisse, K. Z. Troost, J. B. Oude Elferink, F. H. P. M. Habraken, and M. Hendriks, “Plasma-enhanced growth and composition of silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.60(7), 2536–2542 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aceves-Mijares, M.

J. Carrillo-López, J. A. Luna-López, I. Vivaldo-De la Cruz, M. Aceves-Mijares, A. Morales-Sanchez, and G. García-Salgado, “UV enhancement of silicon solar cells using thin SRO films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells100, 39–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alayo, M. I.

R. A. R. Oliveira, M. Ribeiro, I. Pereyra, and M. I. Alayo, “Silicon clusters in PECVD silicon-rich SiOxNy,” Mater. Charact.50(2-3), 161–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alet, P.-J.

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, P.-J. Alet, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “All-in-situ fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires on TCO/glass substrates for photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(11), 1855–1859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, D. T. L.

P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnoldbik, W. M.

J. J. van Hapert, A. M. Vredenberg, E. E. van Faassen, N. Tomozeiu, W. M. Arnoldbik, and F. H. P. M. Habraken, “Role of spinodal decomposition in the structure of SiOx,” Phys. Rev. B69(24), 245202 (2004).

Atwater, H. A.

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.11(3), 174–177 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, M. C. Putnam, D. B. Turner-Evans, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Predicted efficiency of Si wire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 032112 (2008).

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Photovoltaic Measurements in Single-Nanowire Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(2), 710–714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balberg, I.

I. Balberg, E. Savir, J. Jedrzejewski, A. G. Nassiopoulou, and S. Gardelis, “Fundamental tansport processes in ensembles of silicon quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balch, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barba, D.

D. Barba, F. Martin, and G. G. Ross, “Evidence of localized amorphous silicon clustering from Raman depth-probing of silicon nanocrystals in fused silica,” Nanotechnology19(11), 115707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbagiovanni, E. G.

E. G. Barbagiovanni, D. J. Lockwood, P. J. Simpson, and L. V. Goncharova, “Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 034307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barradas, N. P.

N. P. Barradas, C. Jeynes, and R. P. Webb, “Simulated annealing analysis of rutherford backscattering data,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 291–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ben Assayag, G.

S. Schamm, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, M. Carrada, G. Ben Assayag, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, and C. Colliex, “Imaging Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers by (S)TEM-EELS,” Ultramicroscopy108(4), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boccard, M.

P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonafos, C.

S. Schamm, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, M. Carrada, G. Ben Assayag, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, and C. Colliex, “Imaging Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers by (S)TEM-EELS,” Ultramicroscopy108(4), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bongiorno, C.

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boninelli, S.

L. Khriachtchev, T. Nikitin, M. Rasanen, A. Domanskaya, S. Boninelli, F. Iacona, A. Engdahl, J. Juhanoja, and S. Novikov, “Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si[Single Bond]SiO2 phase separation,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Botton, G. A.

D. Riabinina, C. Durand, J. Margot, M. Chaker, G. A. Botton, and F. Rosei, “Nucleation and growth of Si nanocrystals in an amorphous SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075334 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bugnon, G.

P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabarrocas, P. R.

J. Cho, B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, K.-H. Kim, I. Ngo, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Sn-catalyzed silicon nanowire solar cells with 4.9% efficiency grown on glass,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.21(1), 77–81 (2013).
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B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Silicon nanowire solar cells grown by PECVD,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(17), 2299–2302 (2012).
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L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, P.-J. Alet, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “All-in-situ fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires on TCO/glass substrates for photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(11), 1855–1859 (2010).
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S. Schamm, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, M. Carrada, G. Ben Assayag, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, and C. Colliex, “Imaging Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers by (S)TEM-EELS,” Ultramicroscopy108(4), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrillo-López, J.

J. Carrillo-López, J. A. Luna-López, I. Vivaldo-De la Cruz, M. Aceves-Mijares, A. Morales-Sanchez, and G. García-Salgado, “UV enhancement of silicon solar cells using thin SRO films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells100, 39–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

D. Riabinina, C. Durand, J. Margot, M. Chaker, G. A. Botton, and F. Rosei, “Nucleation and growth of Si nanocrystals in an amorphous SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075334 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cherkashin, N.

S. Schamm, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, M. Carrada, G. Ben Assayag, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, and C. Colliex, “Imaging Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers by (S)TEM-EELS,” Ultramicroscopy108(4), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-H.

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, T.-W. Kim, N.-M. Park, G. Y. Sung, and S.-J. Park, “Photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots in silicon nitride grown by NH3 and SiH4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(9), 091908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, E.-C.

G. Conibeer, M. A. Green, R. Corkish, Y.-H. Cho, E.-C. Cho, and C.-W. Jiang, “Silicon nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films654, 511–512 (2005).

Cho, J.

J. Cho, B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, K.-H. Kim, I. Ngo, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Sn-catalyzed silicon nanowire solar cells with 4.9% efficiency grown on glass,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.21(1), 77–81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-H.

G. Conibeer, M. A. Green, R. Corkish, Y.-H. Cho, E.-C. Cho, and C.-W. Jiang, “Silicon nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films654, 511–512 (2005).

Claverie, A.

S. Schamm, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, M. Carrada, G. Ben Assayag, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, and C. Colliex, “Imaging Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers by (S)TEM-EELS,” Ultramicroscopy108(4), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coffa, S.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coffin, H.

S. Schamm, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, M. Carrada, G. Ben Assayag, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, and C. Colliex, “Imaging Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers by (S)TEM-EELS,” Ultramicroscopy108(4), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Colliex, C.

S. Schamm, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, M. Carrada, G. Ben Assayag, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, and C. Colliex, “Imaging Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers by (S)TEM-EELS,” Ultramicroscopy108(4), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Wan, S. Huang, M. A. Green, and G. Conibeer, “Rapid thermal annealing and crystallization mechanism study of Si-NCs in SiC matrix,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6, 129 (2011).

G. Conibeer, “Third-generation photovoltaics,” Mater. Today10(11), 42–50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Conibeer, M. A. Green, R. Corkish, Y.-H. Cho, E.-C. Cho, and C.-W. Jiang, “Silicon nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films654, 511–512 (2005).

Corkish, R.

G. Conibeer, M. A. Green, R. Corkish, Y.-H. Cho, E.-C. Cho, and C.-W. Jiang, “Silicon nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films654, 511–512 (2005).

Cuony, P.

P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
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C. M. M. Denisse, K. Z. Troost, J. B. Oude Elferink, F. H. P. M. Habraken, and M. Hendriks, “Plasma-enhanced growth and composition of silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.60(7), 2536–2542 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
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A. Janotta, Y. Dikce, M. Schmidt, C. Eisele, M. Stutzmann, M. Luysberg, and L. Houben, “Light-induced modification of a-SiO[sub x] II: Laser crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys.95(8), 4060–4069 (2004).
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Domanskaya, A.

L. Khriachtchev, T. Nikitin, M. Rasanen, A. Domanskaya, S. Boninelli, F. Iacona, A. Engdahl, J. Juhanoja, and S. Novikov, “Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si[Single Bond]SiO2 phase separation,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durand, C.

D. Riabinina, C. Durand, J. Margot, M. Chaker, G. A. Botton, and F. Rosei, “Nucleation and growth of Si nanocrystals in an amorphous SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075334 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eisele, C.

A. Janotta, Y. Dikce, M. Schmidt, C. Eisele, M. Stutzmann, M. Luysberg, and L. Houben, “Light-induced modification of a-SiO[sub x] II: Laser crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys.95(8), 4060–4069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Engdahl, A.

L. Khriachtchev, T. Nikitin, M. Rasanen, A. Domanskaya, S. Boninelli, F. Iacona, A. Engdahl, J. Juhanoja, and S. Novikov, “Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si[Single Bond]SiO2 phase separation,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124301 (2010).
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Y. Ritz, H. Stegmann, H.-J. Engelmann, and E. Zschech, “Target preparation of samples for 3D-TEM using micromanipulators,” Prakt. Metallogr.41, 180–189 (2004).

Fang, Y.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filler, M. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Photovoltaic Measurements in Single-Nanowire Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(2), 710–714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foldyna, M.

B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Silicon nanowire solar cells grown by PECVD,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(17), 2299–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franzò, G.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fronheiser, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García-Salgado, G.

J. Carrillo-López, J. A. Luna-López, I. Vivaldo-De la Cruz, M. Aceves-Mijares, A. Morales-Sanchez, and G. García-Salgado, “UV enhancement of silicon solar cells using thin SRO films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells100, 39–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gardelis, S.

I. Balberg, E. Savir, J. Jedrzejewski, A. G. Nassiopoulou, and S. Gardelis, “Fundamental tansport processes in ensembles of silicon quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Phase stabilization by rapid thermal annealing in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride film,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(9), 095010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goncharova, L. V.

E. G. Barbagiovanni, D. J. Lockwood, P. J. Simpson, and L. V. Goncharova, “Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 034307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

Z. Wan, S. Huang, M. A. Green, and G. Conibeer, “Rapid thermal annealing and crystallization mechanism study of Si-NCs in SiC matrix,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6, 129 (2011).

G. Conibeer, M. A. Green, R. Corkish, Y.-H. Cho, E.-C. Cho, and C.-W. Jiang, “Silicon nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films654, 511–512 (2005).

Grimaldi, M. G.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Habraken, F. H. P. M.

J. J. van Hapert, A. M. Vredenberg, E. E. van Faassen, N. Tomozeiu, W. M. Arnoldbik, and F. H. P. M. Habraken, “Role of spinodal decomposition in the structure of SiOx,” Phys. Rev. B69(24), 245202 (2004).

C. M. M. Denisse, K. Z. Troost, J. B. Oude Elferink, F. H. P. M. Habraken, and M. Hendriks, “Plasma-enhanced growth and composition of silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.60(7), 2536–2542 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hébert, C.

P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinig, K.-H.

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
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T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, and W. Moller, “Size and location control of Si nanocrystals at ion beam synthesis in thin SiO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 3049–3052 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, M.

C. M. M. Denisse, K. Z. Troost, J. B. Oude Elferink, F. H. P. M. Habraken, and M. Hendriks, “Plasma-enhanced growth and composition of silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.60(7), 2536–2542 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hessler-Wyser, A.

P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinds, B.

B. Hinds, F. Wang, D. Wolfe, Hinkle, and G. Lucovsky, “Investigation of postoxidation thermal treatments of Si/SiO2 interface in relationship to the kinetics of amorphous Si suboxide decomposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16, 2171–2177 (1998).

Hinkle,

B. Hinds, F. Wang, D. Wolfe, Hinkle, and G. Lucovsky, “Investigation of postoxidation thermal treatments of Si/SiO2 interface in relationship to the kinetics of amorphous Si suboxide decomposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16, 2171–2177 (1998).

Houben, L.

A. Janotta, Y. Dikce, M. Schmidt, C. Eisele, M. Stutzmann, M. Luysberg, and L. Houben, “Light-induced modification of a-SiO[sub x] II: Laser crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys.95(8), 4060–4069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

T. J. Kempa, B. Tian, D. R. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Single and Tandem Axial p-i-n Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, B.-R.

B.-R. Huang, Y.-K. Yang, T.-C. Lin, and W.-L. Yang, “A simple and low-cost technique for silicon nanowire arrays based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells98, 357–362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

Z. Wan, S. Huang, M. A. Green, and G. Conibeer, “Rapid thermal annealing and crystallization mechanism study of Si-NCs in SiC matrix,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6, 129 (2011).

Iacona, F.

L. Khriachtchev, T. Nikitin, M. Rasanen, A. Domanskaya, S. Boninelli, F. Iacona, A. Engdahl, J. Juhanoja, and S. Novikov, “Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si[Single Bond]SiO2 phase separation,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janotta, A.

A. Janotta, Y. Dikce, M. Schmidt, C. Eisele, M. Stutzmann, M. Luysberg, and L. Houben, “Light-induced modification of a-SiO[sub x] II: Laser crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys.95(8), 4060–4069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jedrzejewski, J.

I. Balberg, E. Savir, J. Jedrzejewski, A. G. Nassiopoulou, and S. Gardelis, “Fundamental tansport processes in ensembles of silicon quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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N. P. Barradas, C. Jeynes, and R. P. Webb, “Simulated annealing analysis of rutherford backscattering data,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 291–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C.-W.

G. Conibeer, M. A. Green, R. Corkish, Y.-H. Cho, E.-C. Cho, and C.-W. Jiang, “Silicon nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films654, 511–512 (2005).

Juhanoja, J.

L. Khriachtchev, T. Nikitin, M. Rasanen, A. Domanskaya, S. Boninelli, F. Iacona, A. Engdahl, J. Juhanoja, and S. Novikov, “Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si[Single Bond]SiO2 phase separation,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kayes, B. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Photovoltaic Measurements in Single-Nanowire Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(2), 710–714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Photovoltaic Measurements in Single-Nanowire Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(2), 710–714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, M. C. Putnam, D. B. Turner-Evans, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Predicted efficiency of Si wire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 032112 (2008).

Kempa, T. J.

T. J. Kempa, B. Tian, D. R. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Single and Tandem Axial p-i-n Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, S. A.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Phase stabilization by rapid thermal annealing in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride film,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(9), 095010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khriachtchev, L.

L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon nanocrystals and laser-induced thermal effects',” J. Electrochem. Soc.159(1), K21–K26 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Khriachtchev, T. Nikitin, M. Rasanen, A. Domanskaya, S. Boninelli, F. Iacona, A. Engdahl, J. Juhanoja, and S. Novikov, “Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si[Single Bond]SiO2 phase separation,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-H.

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, T.-W. Kim, N.-M. Park, G. Y. Sung, and S.-J. Park, “Photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots in silicon nitride grown by NH3 and SiH4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(9), 091908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. R.

T. J. Kempa, B. Tian, D. R. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Single and Tandem Axial p-i-n Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-H.

J. Cho, B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, K.-H. Kim, I. Ngo, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Sn-catalyzed silicon nanowire solar cells with 4.9% efficiency grown on glass,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.21(1), 77–81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.-W.

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, T.-W. Kim, N.-M. Park, G. Y. Sung, and S.-J. Park, “Photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots in silicon nitride grown by NH3 and SiH4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(9), 091908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Korevaar, B. A.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Photovoltaic Measurements in Single-Nanowire Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(2), 710–714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, M. C. Putnam, D. B. Turner-Evans, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Predicted efficiency of Si wire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 032112 (2008).

Lieber, C. M.

T. J. Kempa, B. Tian, D. R. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Single and Tandem Axial p-i-n Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, T.-C.

B.-R. Huang, Y.-K. Yang, T.-C. Lin, and W.-L. Yang, “A simple and low-cost technique for silicon nanowire arrays based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells98, 357–362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lo Savio, R.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lockwood, D. J.

E. G. Barbagiovanni, D. J. Lockwood, P. J. Simpson, and L. V. Goncharova, “Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 034307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lucovsky, G.

B. Hinds, F. Wang, D. Wolfe, Hinkle, and G. Lucovsky, “Investigation of postoxidation thermal treatments of Si/SiO2 interface in relationship to the kinetics of amorphous Si suboxide decomposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16, 2171–2177 (1998).

Luna-López, J. A.

J. Carrillo-López, J. A. Luna-López, I. Vivaldo-De la Cruz, M. Aceves-Mijares, A. Morales-Sanchez, and G. García-Salgado, “UV enhancement of silicon solar cells using thin SRO films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells100, 39–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luysberg, M.

A. Janotta, Y. Dikce, M. Schmidt, C. Eisele, M. Stutzmann, M. Luysberg, and L. Houben, “Light-induced modification of a-SiO[sub x] II: Laser crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys.95(8), 4060–4069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Margot, J.

D. Riabinina, C. Durand, J. Margot, M. Chaker, G. A. Botton, and F. Rosei, “Nucleation and growth of Si nanocrystals in an amorphous SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075334 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, F.

D. Barba, F. Martin, and G. G. Ross, “Evidence of localized amorphous silicon clustering from Raman depth-probing of silicon nanocrystals in fused silica,” Nanotechnology19(11), 115707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miritello, M.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moller, W.

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, and W. Moller, “Size and location control of Si nanocrystals at ion beam synthesis in thin SiO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 3049–3052 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morales-Sanchez, A.

J. Carrillo-López, J. A. Luna-López, I. Vivaldo-De la Cruz, M. Aceves-Mijares, A. Morales-Sanchez, and G. García-Salgado, “UV enhancement of silicon solar cells using thin SRO films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells100, 39–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Muller, T.

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, and W. Moller, “Size and location control of Si nanocrystals at ion beam synthesis in thin SiO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 3049–3052 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nassiopoulou, A. G.

I. Balberg, E. Savir, J. Jedrzejewski, A. G. Nassiopoulou, and S. Gardelis, “Fundamental tansport processes in ensembles of silicon quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, I.

J. Cho, B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, K.-H. Kim, I. Ngo, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Sn-catalyzed silicon nanowire solar cells with 4.9% efficiency grown on glass,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.21(1), 77–81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nicotra, G.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, T.

L. Khriachtchev, T. Nikitin, M. Rasanen, A. Domanskaya, S. Boninelli, F. Iacona, A. Engdahl, J. Juhanoja, and S. Novikov, “Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si[Single Bond]SiO2 phase separation,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, S.

L. Khriachtchev, T. Nikitin, M. Rasanen, A. Domanskaya, S. Boninelli, F. Iacona, A. Engdahl, J. Juhanoja, and S. Novikov, “Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si[Single Bond]SiO2 phase separation,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, B.

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, P.-J. Alet, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “All-in-situ fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires on TCO/glass substrates for photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(11), 1855–1859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O'Donnell, B.

J. Cho, B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, K.-H. Kim, I. Ngo, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Sn-catalyzed silicon nanowire solar cells with 4.9% efficiency grown on glass,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.21(1), 77–81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Silicon nanowire solar cells grown by PECVD,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(17), 2299–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, R. A. R.

R. A. R. Oliveira, M. Ribeiro, I. Pereyra, and M. I. Alayo, “Silicon clusters in PECVD silicon-rich SiOxNy,” Mater. Charact.50(2-3), 161–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oude Elferink, J. B.

C. M. M. Denisse, K. Z. Troost, J. B. Oude Elferink, F. H. P. M. Habraken, and M. Hendriks, “Plasma-enhanced growth and composition of silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.60(7), 2536–2542 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.-M.

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, T.-W. Kim, N.-M. Park, G. Y. Sung, and S.-J. Park, “Photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots in silicon nitride grown by NH3 and SiH4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(9), 091908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, T.-W. Kim, N.-M. Park, G. Y. Sung, and S.-J. Park, “Photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots in silicon nitride grown by NH3 and SiH4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(9), 091908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pereyra, I.

R. A. R. Oliveira, M. Ribeiro, I. Pereyra, and M. I. Alayo, “Silicon clusters in PECVD silicon-rich SiOxNy,” Mater. Charact.50(2-3), 161–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Wurfl, I.

P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.11(3), 174–177 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priolo, F.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, M. C. Putnam, D. B. Turner-Evans, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Predicted efficiency of Si wire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 032112 (2008).

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Photovoltaic Measurements in Single-Nanowire Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(2), 710–714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rand, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rasanen, M.

L. Khriachtchev, T. Nikitin, M. Rasanen, A. Domanskaya, S. Boninelli, F. Iacona, A. Engdahl, J. Juhanoja, and S. Novikov, “Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si[Single Bond]SiO2 phase separation,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riabinina, D.

D. Riabinina, C. Durand, J. Margot, M. Chaker, G. A. Botton, and F. Rosei, “Nucleation and growth of Si nanocrystals in an amorphous SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075334 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, M.

R. A. R. Oliveira, M. Ribeiro, I. Pereyra, and M. I. Alayo, “Silicon clusters in PECVD silicon-rich SiOxNy,” Mater. Charact.50(2-3), 161–166 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritz, Y.

Y. Ritz, H. Stegmann, H.-J. Engelmann, and E. Zschech, “Target preparation of samples for 3D-TEM using micromanipulators,” Prakt. Metallogr.41, 180–189 (2004).

Rosei, F.

D. Riabinina, C. Durand, J. Margot, M. Chaker, G. A. Botton, and F. Rosei, “Nucleation and growth of Si nanocrystals in an amorphous SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075334 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ross, G. G.

D. Barba, F. Martin, and G. G. Ross, “Evidence of localized amorphous silicon clustering from Raman depth-probing of silicon nanocrystals in fused silica,” Nanotechnology19(11), 115707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savir, E.

I. Balberg, E. Savir, J. Jedrzejewski, A. G. Nassiopoulou, and S. Gardelis, “Fundamental tansport processes in ensembles of silicon quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75(23), 235329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schamm, S.

S. Schamm, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, M. Carrada, G. Ben Assayag, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, and C. Colliex, “Imaging Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers by (S)TEM-EELS,” Ultramicroscopy108(4), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

A. Janotta, Y. Dikce, M. Schmidt, C. Eisele, M. Stutzmann, M. Luysberg, and L. Houben, “Light-induced modification of a-SiO[sub x] II: Laser crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys.95(8), 4060–4069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, P. J.

E. G. Barbagiovanni, D. J. Lockwood, P. J. Simpson, and L. V. Goncharova, “Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 034307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. P.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Phase stabilization by rapid thermal annealing in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride film,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(9), 095010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Söderström, T.

P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinella, C.

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, P.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Phase stabilization by rapid thermal annealing in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride film,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(9), 095010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegmann, H.

Y. Ritz, H. Stegmann, H.-J. Engelmann, and E. Zschech, “Target preparation of samples for 3D-TEM using micromanipulators,” Prakt. Metallogr.41, 180–189 (2004).

Stutzmann, M.

A. Janotta, Y. Dikce, M. Schmidt, C. Eisele, M. Stutzmann, M. Luysberg, and L. Houben, “Light-induced modification of a-SiO[sub x] II: Laser crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys.95(8), 4060–4069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sulima, O.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sung, G. Y.

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, T.-W. Kim, N.-M. Park, G. Y. Sung, and S.-J. Park, “Photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots in silicon nitride grown by NH3 and SiH4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(9), 091908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tence, M.

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tencé, M.

S. Schamm, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, M. Carrada, G. Ben Assayag, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, and C. Colliex, “Imaging Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers by (S)TEM-EELS,” Ultramicroscopy108(4), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, B.

T. J. Kempa, B. Tian, D. R. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Single and Tandem Axial p-i-n Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomozeiu, N.

J. J. van Hapert, A. M. Vredenberg, E. E. van Faassen, N. Tomozeiu, W. M. Arnoldbik, and F. H. P. M. Habraken, “Role of spinodal decomposition in the structure of SiOx,” Phys. Rev. B69(24), 245202 (2004).

Troost, K. Z.

C. M. M. Denisse, K. Z. Troost, J. B. Oude Elferink, F. H. P. M. Habraken, and M. Hendriks, “Plasma-enhanced growth and composition of silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.60(7), 2536–2542 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tsakalakos, L.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, D. B. Turner-Evans, B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Photovoltaic Measurements in Single-Nanowire Silicon Solar Cells,” Nano Lett.8(2), 710–714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, M. C. Putnam, D. B. Turner-Evans, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Predicted efficiency of Si wire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 032112 (2008).

van Faassen, E. E.

J. J. van Hapert, A. M. Vredenberg, E. E. van Faassen, N. Tomozeiu, W. M. Arnoldbik, and F. H. P. M. Habraken, “Role of spinodal decomposition in the structure of SiOx,” Phys. Rev. B69(24), 245202 (2004).

van Hapert, J. J.

J. J. van Hapert, A. M. Vredenberg, E. E. van Faassen, N. Tomozeiu, W. M. Arnoldbik, and F. H. P. M. Habraken, “Role of spinodal decomposition in the structure of SiOx,” Phys. Rev. B69(24), 245202 (2004).

Vijaya Prakash, G.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Phase stabilization by rapid thermal annealing in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride film,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(9), 095010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vivaldo-De la Cruz, I.

J. Carrillo-López, J. A. Luna-López, I. Vivaldo-De la Cruz, M. Aceves-Mijares, A. Morales-Sanchez, and G. García-Salgado, “UV enhancement of silicon solar cells using thin SRO films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells100, 39–42 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vredenberg, A. M.

J. J. van Hapert, A. M. Vredenberg, E. E. van Faassen, N. Tomozeiu, W. M. Arnoldbik, and F. H. P. M. Habraken, “Role of spinodal decomposition in the structure of SiOx,” Phys. Rev. B69(24), 245202 (2004).

Wan, Z.

Z. Wan, S. Huang, M. A. Green, and G. Conibeer, “Rapid thermal annealing and crystallization mechanism study of Si-NCs in SiC matrix,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6, 129 (2011).

Wang, F.

B. Hinds, F. Wang, D. Wolfe, Hinkle, and G. Lucovsky, “Investigation of postoxidation thermal treatments of Si/SiO2 interface in relationship to the kinetics of amorphous Si suboxide decomposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16, 2171–2177 (1998).

Webb, R. P.

N. P. Barradas, C. Jeynes, and R. P. Webb, “Simulated annealing analysis of rutherford backscattering data,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 291–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, D.

B. Hinds, F. Wang, D. Wolfe, Hinkle, and G. Lucovsky, “Investigation of postoxidation thermal treatments of Si/SiO2 interface in relationship to the kinetics of amorphous Si suboxide decomposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16, 2171–2177 (1998).

Yang, W.-L.

B.-R. Huang, Y.-K. Yang, T.-C. Lin, and W.-L. Yang, “A simple and low-cost technique for silicon nanowire arrays based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells98, 357–362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.-K.

B.-R. Huang, Y.-K. Yang, T.-C. Lin, and W.-L. Yang, “A simple and low-cost technique for silicon nanowire arrays based solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells98, 357–362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

J. Cho, B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, K.-H. Kim, I. Ngo, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Sn-catalyzed silicon nanowire solar cells with 4.9% efficiency grown on glass,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.21(1), 77–81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Silicon nanowire solar cells grown by PECVD,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids358(17), 2299–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, P.-J. Alet, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “All-in-situ fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires on TCO/glass substrates for photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(11), 1855–1859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanchi, G.

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

T. J. Kempa, B. Tian, D. R. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Single and Tandem Axial p-i-n Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zschech, E.

Y. Ritz, H. Stegmann, H.-J. Engelmann, and E. Zschech, “Target preparation of samples for 3D-TEM using micromanipulators,” Prakt. Metallogr.41, 180–189 (2004).

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. Cuony, D. T. L. Alexander, I. Perez-Wurfl, M. Despeisse, G. Bugnon, M. Boccard, T. Söderström, A. Hessler-Wyser, C. Hébert, and C. Ballif, “Silicon filaments in silicon oxide for next-generation photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1182–1186 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. D. Kelzenberg, M. C. Putnam, D. B. Turner-Evans, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Predicted efficiency of Si wire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 032112 (2008).

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B.-H. Kim, C.-H. Cho, T.-W. Kim, N.-M. Park, G. Y. Sung, and S.-J. Park, “Photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots in silicon nitride grown by NH3 and SiH4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(9), 091908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, W. Moller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Ben Assayag, S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tence, and C. Colliex, “Multi-dot floating-gates for nonvolatile semiconductor memories: Their ion beam synthesis and morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2373–2376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Muller, K.-H. Heinig, and W. Moller, “Size and location control of Si nanocrystals at ion beam synthesis in thin SiO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 3049–3052 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barradas, C. Jeynes, and R. P. Webb, “Simulated annealing analysis of rutherford backscattering data,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 291–293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

A. Janotta, Y. Dikce, M. Schmidt, C. Eisele, M. Stutzmann, M. Luysberg, and L. Houben, “Light-induced modification of a-SiO[sub x] II: Laser crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys.95(8), 4060–4069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Khriachtchev, T. Nikitin, M. Rasanen, A. Domanskaya, S. Boninelli, F. Iacona, A. Engdahl, J. Juhanoja, and S. Novikov, “Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si[Single Bond]SiO2 phase separation,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 124301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, M. Miritello, S. Boninelli, R. Lo Savio, M. G. Grimaldi, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, and S. Coffa, “Microstructural evolution of SiOx films and its effect on the luminescence of Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.104(9), 094306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. M. M. Denisse, K. Z. Troost, J. B. Oude Elferink, F. H. P. M. Habraken, and M. Hendriks, “Plasma-enhanced growth and composition of silicon oxynitride films,” J. Appl. Phys.60(7), 2536–2542 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, “Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films,” J. Appl. Phys.95(7), 3723–3733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Barbagiovanni, D. J. Lockwood, P. J. Simpson, and L. V. Goncharova, “Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures,” J. Appl. Phys.111(3), 034307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

L. Khriachtchev, “Optical and structural properties of silicon nanocrystals and laser-induced thermal effects',” J. Electrochem. Soc.159(1), K21–K26 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

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Mater. Charact. (1)

R. A. R. Oliveira, M. Ribeiro, I. Pereyra, and M. I. Alayo, “Silicon clusters in PECVD silicon-rich SiOxNy,” Mater. Charact.50(2-3), 161–166 (2003).
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Mater. Today (1)

G. Conibeer, “Third-generation photovoltaics,” Mater. Today10(11), 42–50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. J. Kempa, B. Tian, D. R. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Single and Tandem Axial p-i-n Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3456–3460 (2008).
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Nanotechnology (1)

D. Barba, F. Martin, and G. G. Ross, “Evidence of localized amorphous silicon clustering from Raman depth-probing of silicon nanocrystals in fused silica,” Nanotechnology19(11), 115707 (2008).
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J. Cho, B. O'Donnell, L. Yu, K.-H. Kim, I. Ngo, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Sn-catalyzed silicon nanowire solar cells with 4.9% efficiency grown on glass,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.21(1), 77–81 (2013).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical microscope image of a laser scanned line on a SRO thin film on quartz substrate with the surface depth profile data and normalized Raman peak intensity of selected spots superimposed (the red curve is a guide for the eye).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Optical microscope image of a laser-scanned square on a SiO0.79N0.04C0.08H0.18 sample (laser power density 500 kW/cm2, scan speed 0.05 mm/s), b) SEM image of the scanned zone.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman signal from the as-grown region and the annealed square on the SiO0.79N0.04C0.08H0.18 sample. Polarization selection method has been used to eliminate the signal from the Si substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Cross-sectional Si plasmon EFTEM image of the SRO-substrate interface region of the laser-annealed area recorded at an energy loss of Eloss = 17 eV with an energy slit width of 5 eV, b) magnified Si plasmon EFTEM image of the area marked in a), c) cross-sectional zero-loss filtered HRTEM image of the same field of view as in b).

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