Abstract

Using direct multiexcitonic spectroscopy, we experimentally observe for the first time the non-Poissonian formation of multiple excitons by femtosecond nonresonant two-photon absorption process in semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QDs). Each of the multiple excitons is individually generated via the absorption of a pair of photons during the femtosecond pulse irradiation. The non-Poissonian distribution of the generated excitons is reflected as a non-quadratic dependence on the pulse intensity of the average number of excitons per QD. This is the main observation of the present work. It is explained by a multiexcitonic formation model that is based on the phenomenon of intrapulse state filling of the few quantum electronic states accessed by the two-photon transitions. The experiments are conducted with 3.9-nm CdTe QDs in room-temperature hexane solution using the femtosecond pump-probe transient absorption technique, where an intense pump pulse generates the excitons and a weak probe pulse measures their number via intraband one-photon absorption.

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  2. E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 3927 (1999).
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  3. D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo,” Science300, 1434 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, “Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in CdS quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B45, 3465–3468 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Tommasi, M. Lepore, M. Ferrara, and I. M. Catalano, “Observation of high-index states in CdS1−x Sex semi-conductor microcrystallites by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B46, 12261–12265 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. E. Schmidt, S. A. Blanton, M. A. Hines, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Size-dependent two-photon excitation spectroscopy of CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B53, 12629–12632 (1996).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Pan, N. Tamai, K. Kamada, and S. Deki, “Nonlinear optical properties of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots in nonresonant region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 051902 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Qu and W. Ji, “Two-photon absorption of quantum dots in the regime of very strong confinement: size and wavelength dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26, 1897 (2009).
  12. J. Khatei, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. S. R. Koteswara Rao, “Near-resonant two-photon absorption in luminescent CdTe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 081901 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. Ravindra Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043126 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.229, 317–322 (1994).
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  15. G. Xing, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 241114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. He, J. Mi, H. Li, and W. Ji, “Observation of Interband Two-Photon Absorption Saturation in CdS Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B109, 19184–19187 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Qu, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photon-excited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 133112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett.457, 3–11 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41, 1810 (2008).
  21. V. Kloper, R. Osovsky, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The growth of CdTe nanocrystals using in situ formed Cd0 crystalline particles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10336 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Osovsky, V. Kloper, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The Influience of small deviation from a spherical shape on the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10841 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Zhu, N Song, W. Rodriguez-Cordoba, and T. Lian, “Wave Function Engineering for Efficient Extraction of up to Nineteen Electrons from One CdSe/CdS Quasi-Type II Quantum Dot,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 4250–4257 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science287, 1011–1013 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, “Continuous-Wave Pumping of Multiexciton Bands in the Photoluminescence Spectrum of a Single CdTe-CdSe Core-Shell Colloidal Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 197401 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. L. Sewall, R. R. Cooney, E. A. Dias, P. Tyagi, and P. Kambhampati, “State-resolved observation in real time of the structural dynamics of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B84, 235304 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. R. Salvador, M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, “Exciton-bath coupling and inhomogeneous broadening in the optical spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.118, 9380–9388 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

J. Khatei, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. S. R. Koteswara Rao, “Near-resonant two-photon absorption in luminescent CdTe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, N Song, W. Rodriguez-Cordoba, and T. Lian, “Wave Function Engineering for Efficient Extraction of up to Nineteen Electrons from One CdSe/CdS Quasi-Type II Quantum Dot,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 4250–4257 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

S. L. Sewall, R. R. Cooney, E. A. Dias, P. Tyagi, and P. Kambhampati, “State-resolved observation in real time of the structural dynamics of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B84, 235304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, “Continuous-Wave Pumping of Multiexciton Bands in the Photoluminescence Spectrum of a Single CdTe-CdSe Core-Shell Colloidal Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett.457, 3–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. Ravindra Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Xing, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 241114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

Y. Qu, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photon-excited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, “Spectral and Dynamical Properties of Multiexcitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58, 635 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pan, N. Tamai, K. Kamada, and S. Deki, “Nonlinear optical properties of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots in nonresonant region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 051902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Kloper, R. Osovsky, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The growth of CdTe nanocrystals using in situ formed Cd0 crystalline particles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Osovsky, V. Kloper, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The Influience of small deviation from a spherical shape on the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10841 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, K. -T. Yong, Q. Zheng, Y. Sahoo, A. Baev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, and P. N. Prasad, “Multi-photon excitation properties of CdSe quantum dots solutions and optical limiting behavior in infrared range,” Opt. Express15, 12818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. -C. Pu, M. -J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C. -W. Lai, C. -C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. -M. Cheng, and P. -T. Chou, “The Empirical Correlation Between Size and Two-Photon Absorption Cross Section of CdSe and CdTe Quantum Dots.” Small2, 1308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. He, J. Mi, H. Li, and W. Ji, “Observation of Interband Two-Photon Absorption Saturation in CdS Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B109, 19184–19187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. R. Salvador, M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, “Exciton-bath coupling and inhomogeneous broadening in the optical spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.118, 9380–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo,” Science300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 3927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. E. Schmidt, S. A. Blanton, M. A. Hines, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Size-dependent two-photon excitation spectroscopy of CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B53, 12629–12632 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.229, 317–322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, “Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in CdS quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B45, 3465–3468 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Tommasi, M. Lepore, M. Ferrara, and I. M. Catalano, “Observation of high-index states in CdS1−x Sex semi-conductor microcrystallites by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B46, 12261–12265 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1897 (1)

Y. Qu and W. Ji, “Two-photon absorption of quantum dots in the regime of very strong confinement: size and wavelength dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26, 1897 (2009).

1810 (1)

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41, 1810 (2008).

Baev, A.

Barbosa, L. C.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanton, S. A.

M. E. Schmidt, S. A. Blanton, M. A. Hines, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Size-dependent two-photon excitation spectroscopy of CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B53, 12629–12632 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.229, 317–322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bruchez, M. P.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo,” Science300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buso, D.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Catalano, I. M.

R. Tommasi, M. Lepore, M. Ferrara, and I. M. Catalano, “Observation of high-index states in CdS1−x Sex semi-conductor microcrystallites by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B46, 12261–12265 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cesar, C. L.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. -M.

S. -C. Pu, M. -J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C. -W. Lai, C. -C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. -M. Cheng, and P. -T. Chou, “The Empirical Correlation Between Size and Two-Photon Absorption Cross Section of CdSe and CdTe Quantum Dots.” Small2, 1308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheskis, D.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, “Continuous-Wave Pumping of Multiexciton Bands in the Photoluminescence Spectrum of a Single CdTe-CdSe Core-Shell Colloidal Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, P. -T.

S. -C. Pu, M. -J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C. -W. Lai, C. -C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. -M. Cheng, and P. -T. Chou, “The Empirical Correlation Between Size and Two-Photon Absorption Cross Section of CdSe and CdTe Quantum Dots.” Small2, 1308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, S. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo,” Science300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooney, R. R.

S. L. Sewall, R. R. Cooney, E. A. Dias, P. Tyagi, and P. Kambhampati, “State-resolved observation in real time of the structural dynamics of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B84, 235304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, C. H. B.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dehestani, A.

S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.229, 317–322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deki, S.

L. Pan, N. Tamai, K. Kamada, and S. Deki, “Nonlinear optical properties of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots in nonresonant region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 051902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dias, E. A.

S. L. Sewall, R. R. Cooney, E. A. Dias, P. Tyagi, and P. Kambhampati, “State-resolved observation in real time of the structural dynamics of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B84, 235304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, M.

R. Tommasi, M. Lepore, M. Ferrara, and I. M. Catalano, “Observation of high-index states in CdS1−x Sex semi-conductor microcrystallites by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B46, 12261–12265 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

M. E. Schmidt, S. A. Blanton, M. A. Hines, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Size-dependent two-photon excitation spectroscopy of CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B53, 12629–12632 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.229, 317–322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

He, J.

J. He, J. Mi, H. Li, and W. Ji, “Observation of Interband Two-Photon Absorption Saturation in CdS Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B109, 19184–19187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hines, M. A.

M. R. Salvador, M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, “Exciton-bath coupling and inhomogeneous broadening in the optical spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.118, 9380–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Schmidt, S. A. Blanton, M. A. Hines, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Size-dependent two-photon excitation spectroscopy of CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B53, 12629–12632 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. -C.

S. -C. Pu, M. -J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C. -W. Lai, C. -C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. -M. Cheng, and P. -T. Chou, “The Empirical Correlation Between Size and Two-Photon Absorption Cross Section of CdSe and CdTe Quantum Dots.” Small2, 1308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. -C.

S. -C. Pu, M. -J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C. -W. Lai, C. -C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. -M. Cheng, and P. -T. Chou, “The Empirical Correlation Between Size and Two-Photon Absorption Cross Section of CdSe and CdTe Quantum Dots.” Small2, 1308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Y. Z.

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, “Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in CdS quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B45, 3465–3468 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 3927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

G. Xing, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 241114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qu, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photon-excited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. He, J. Mi, H. Li, and W. Ji, “Observation of Interband Two-Photon Absorption Saturation in CdS Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B109, 19184–19187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qu and W. Ji, “Two-photon absorption of quantum dots in the regime of very strong confinement: size and wavelength dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26, 1897 (2009).

Joo, J.

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41, 1810 (2008).

Joschko, M.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 3927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, K.

L. Pan, N. Tamai, K. Kamada, and S. Deki, “Nonlinear optical properties of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots in nonresonant region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 051902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kambhampati, P.

S. L. Sewall, R. R. Cooney, E. A. Dias, P. Tyagi, and P. Kambhampati, “State-resolved observation in real time of the structural dynamics of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B84, 235304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K. I.

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, “Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in CdS quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B45, 3465–3468 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 3927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khatei, J.

J. Khatei, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. S. R. Koteswara Rao, “Near-resonant two-photon absorption in luminescent CdTe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kiran, P. P.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. Ravindra Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov, “Spectral and Dynamical Properties of Multiexcitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58, 635 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41, 1810 (2008).

V. I. Klimov, Nanocrystal Quantum Dots (CRC, 2010).
[CrossRef]

Kloper, V.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, “Continuous-Wave Pumping of Multiexciton Bands in the Photoluminescence Spectrum of a Single CdTe-CdSe Core-Shell Colloidal Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osovsky, V. Kloper, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The Influience of small deviation from a spherical shape on the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10841 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Kloper, R. Osovsky, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The growth of CdTe nanocrystals using in situ formed Cd0 crystalline particles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, “Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in CdS quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B45, 3465–3468 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kolny-Olesiak, J.

R. Osovsky, V. Kloper, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The Influience of small deviation from a spherical shape on the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10841 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Kloper, R. Osovsky, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The growth of CdTe nanocrystals using in situ formed Cd0 crystalline particles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 3927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koontz, E. M.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 3927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

J. Khatei, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. S. R. Koteswara Rao, “Near-resonant two-photon absorption in luminescent CdTe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kroner, M.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, “Continuous-Wave Pumping of Multiexciton Bands in the Photoluminescence Spectrum of a Single CdTe-CdSe Core-Shell Colloidal Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lad, A. D.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. Ravindra Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. -W.

S. -C. Pu, M. -J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C. -W. Lai, C. -C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. -M. Cheng, and P. -T. Chou, “The Empirical Correlation Between Size and Two-Photon Absorption Cross Section of CdSe and CdTe Quantum Dots.” Small2, 1308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langlois, P.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 3927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larson, D. R.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo,” Science300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lepore, M.

R. Tommasi, M. Lepore, M. Ferrara, and I. M. Catalano, “Observation of high-index states in CdS1−x Sex semi-conductor microcrystallites by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B46, 12261–12265 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

J. He, J. Mi, H. Li, and W. Ji, “Observation of Interband Two-Photon Absorption Saturation in CdS Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B109, 19184–19187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lian, T.

H. Zhu, N Song, W. Rodriguez-Cordoba, and T. Lian, “Wave Function Engineering for Efficient Extraction of up to Nineteen Electrons from One CdSe/CdS Quasi-Type II Quantum Dot,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 4250–4257 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lifshitz, E.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, “Continuous-Wave Pumping of Multiexciton Bands in the Photoluminescence Spectrum of a Single CdTe-CdSe Core-Shell Colloidal Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osovsky, V. Kloper, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The Influience of small deviation from a spherical shape on the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10841 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Kloper, R. Osovsky, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The growth of CdTe nanocrystals using in situ formed Cd0 crystalline particles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. C.

S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.229, 317–322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

S. -C. Pu, M. -J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C. -W. Lai, C. -C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. -M. Cheng, and P. -T. Chou, “The Empirical Correlation Between Size and Two-Photon Absorption Cross Section of CdSe and CdTe Quantum Dots.” Small2, 1308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L. C.

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, “Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in CdS quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B45, 3465–3468 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mahamuni, S.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. Ravindra Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martucci, A.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McBranch, D. W.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGinnis, B. P.

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, “Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in CdS quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B45, 3465–3468 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, J. A.

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41, 1810 (2008).

Mi, J.

J. He, J. Mi, H. Li, and W. Ji, “Observation of Interband Two-Photon Absorption Saturation in CdS Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B109, 19184–19187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science287, 1011–1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

More, D.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. Ravindra Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, “Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in CdS quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B45, 3465–3468 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nozik, A. J.

A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett.457, 3–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osovsky, R.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, “Continuous-Wave Pumping of Multiexciton Bands in the Photoluminescence Spectrum of a Single CdTe-CdSe Core-Shell Colloidal Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osovsky, V. Kloper, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The Influience of small deviation from a spherical shape on the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10841 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Kloper, R. Osovsky, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The growth of CdTe nanocrystals using in situ formed Cd0 crystalline particles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Padilha, L. A.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, L.

L. Pan, N. Tamai, K. Kamada, and S. Deki, “Nonlinear optical properties of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots in nonresonant region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 051902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, “Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in CdS quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B45, 3465–3468 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Philip, R.

J. Khatei, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. S. R. Koteswara Rao, “Near-resonant two-photon absorption in luminescent CdTe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pietryga, J. M.

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41, 1810 (2008).

Prasad, P. N.

Pu, S. -C.

S. -C. Pu, M. -J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C. -W. Lai, C. -C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. -M. Cheng, and P. -T. Chou, “The Empirical Correlation Between Size and Two-Photon Absorption Cross Section of CdSe and CdTe Quantum Dots.” Small2, 1308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, Y.

Y. Qu, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photon-excited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qu and W. Ji, “Two-photon absorption of quantum dots in the regime of very strong confinement: size and wavelength dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26, 1897 (2009).

Ravindra Kumar, G.

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. Ravindra Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S. H.

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, “Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in CdS quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B45, 3465–3468 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Cordoba, W.

H. Zhu, N Song, W. Rodriguez-Cordoba, and T. Lian, “Wave Function Engineering for Efficient Extraction of up to Nineteen Electrons from One CdSe/CdS Quasi-Type II Quantum Dot,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 4250–4257 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryasnyanskiy, A. I.

Sahoo, Y.

Salvador, M. R.

M. R. Salvador, M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, “Exciton-bath coupling and inhomogeneous broadening in the optical spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.118, 9380–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon,

K. I. Kang, B. P. McGinnis, Sandalphon, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, N. Peyghambarian, A. Mysyrowicz, L. C. Liu, and S. H. Risbud, “Confinement-induced valence-band mixing in CdS quantum dots observed by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B45, 3465–3468 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sashchiuk, A.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, “Continuous-Wave Pumping of Multiexciton Bands in the Photoluminescence Spectrum of a Single CdTe-CdSe Core-Shell Colloidal Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osovsky, V. Kloper, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The Influience of small deviation from a spherical shape on the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10841 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Kloper, R. Osovsky, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The growth of CdTe nanocrystals using in situ formed Cd0 crystalline particles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R. D.

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41, 1810 (2008).

Schibli, T. R.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 3927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. E.

M. E. Schmidt, S. A. Blanton, M. A. Hines, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Size-dependent two-photon excitation spectroscopy of CdSe nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B53, 12629–12632 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scholes, G. D.

M. R. Salvador, M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, “Exciton-bath coupling and inhomogeneous broadening in the optical spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.118, 9380–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sewall, S. L.

S. L. Sewall, R. R. Cooney, E. A. Dias, P. Tyagi, and P. Kambhampati, “State-resolved observation in real time of the structural dynamics of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B84, 235304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, N

H. Zhu, N Song, W. Rodriguez-Cordoba, and T. Lian, “Wave Function Engineering for Efficient Extraction of up to Nineteen Electrons from One CdSe/CdS Quasi-Type II Quantum Dot,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 4250–4257 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suchand Sandeep, C. S.

J. Khatei, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. S. R. Koteswara Rao, “Near-resonant two-photon absorption in luminescent CdTe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tamai, N.

L. Pan, N. Tamai, K. Kamada, and S. Deki, “Nonlinear optical properties of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots in nonresonant region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 051902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 3927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tommasi, R.

R. Tommasi, M. Lepore, M. Ferrara, and I. M. Catalano, “Observation of high-index states in CdS1−x Sex semi-conductor microcrystallites by two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B46, 12261–12265 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, P.

S. L. Sewall, R. R. Cooney, E. A. Dias, P. Tyagi, and P. Kambhampati, “State-resolved observation in real time of the structural dynamics of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B84, 235304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo,” Science300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo,” Science300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo,” Science300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, G.

G. Xing, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 241114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. -J.

S. -C. Pu, M. -J. Yang, C. -C. Hsu, C. -W. Lai, C. -C. Hsieh, S. H. Lin, Y. -M. Cheng, and P. -T. Chou, “The Empirical Correlation Between Size and Two-Photon Absorption Cross Section of CdSe and CdTe Quantum Dots.” Small2, 1308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ying, J. Y.

G. Xing, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 241114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qu, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photon-excited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yong, K. -T.

Zheng, Q.

Zheng, Y.

G. Xing, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 241114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qu, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photon-excited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, N Song, W. Rodriguez-Cordoba, and T. Lian, “Wave Function Engineering for Efficient Extraction of up to Nineteen Electrons from One CdSe/CdS Quasi-Type II Quantum Dot,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 4250–4257 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo,” Science300, 1434 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

J. A. McGuire, J. Joo, J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, “New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Acc. Chem. Res.41, 1810 (2008).

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

V. I. Klimov, “Spectral and Dynamical Properties of Multiexcitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58, 635 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

L. Pan, N. Tamai, K. Kamada, and S. Deki, “Nonlinear optical properties of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots in nonresonant region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 051902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Khatei, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. S. R. Koteswara Rao, “Near-resonant two-photon absorption in luminescent CdTe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 081901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Lad, P. P. Kiran, D. More, G. Ravindra Kumar, and S. Mahamuni, “Two-photon absorption in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 043126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Xing, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Two- and three-photon absorption of semiconductor quantum dots in the vicinity of half of lowest exciton energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 241114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qu, W. Ji, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photon-excited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 3927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett.229, 317–322 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett.457, 3–11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. Zhu, N Song, W. Rodriguez-Cordoba, and T. Lian, “Wave Function Engineering for Efficient Extraction of up to Nineteen Electrons from One CdSe/CdS Quasi-Type II Quantum Dot,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134, 4250–4257 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. R. Salvador, M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, “Exciton-bath coupling and inhomogeneous broadening in the optical spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys.118, 9380–9388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Y. Qu and W. Ji, “Two-photon absorption of quantum dots in the regime of very strong confinement: size and wavelength dependence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26, 1897 (2009).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. He, J. Mi, H. Li, and W. Ji, “Observation of Interband Two-Photon Absorption Saturation in CdS Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B109, 19184–19187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

V. Kloper, R. Osovsky, J. Kolny-Olesiak, A. Sashchiuk, and E. Lifshitz, “The growth of CdTe nanocrystals using in situ formed Cd0 crystalline particles,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 10336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Examples of experimental results for the average number of excitons per QD as a function of the pump-probe delay measured with different pump pulse energies. Each panel indicates the corresponding pump pulse energy and the value obtained for the average number of excitons per QD generated by the femtosecond pump pulse via nonresonant two-photon absorption, 〈N0〉. Note the different scale of the vertical axis in the different panels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results for the average number of excitons per QD generated by the femtosecond pump pulse, 〈N0〉, as a function of the pump pulse energy. Shown are: (i) the experimental results (circles), (ii) a line of quadratic intensity dependence corresponding to Poissonian multiexcitonic formation (MEF) (black line), and (iii–iv) the results calculated for the full model of non-Poissonian MEF based on intrapulse electronic state filling (red line) and for this model without the inclusion of multiexcitonic transition shift (blue line). See text for details.

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