Abstract

We present the first demonstration of mid-IR supercontinuum generation directly pumped with picosecond pulses from a Thulium fiber-amplified gain-switched laser diode at 2 µm. We achieve more than two octaves of bandwidth from 750 – 4000 nm in step-index ZBLAN fiber with Watt-level average power and spectral flatness of less than 1.5 dB over a 1300 nm range in the mid-IR from 2450 - 3750 nm. The system offers high stability, power-scaling capability to the 10 W regime, and demonstrates an attractive route towards relatively inexpensive, versatile and practical sources of high power broadband mid-IR radiation.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the mid-infrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber with an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 91–93 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngsø, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers—detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Eckerle, C. Kieleck, J. Swiderski, S. D. Jackson, G. Mazé, and M. Eichhorn, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked Tm3+-doped silicate 2 μm fiber laser for supercontinuum generation in fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 512–514 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, and K. P. Hansen, “High average power supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun.228(1-3), 71–78 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. K. Chen, S.-U. Alam, J. H. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. Lin, A. Malinowski, C. Codemard, D. Ghosh, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, and D. J. Richardson, “Picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output power,” Opt. Express18(6), 5426–5432 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Chen, S. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Chen, and J. Hou, “35W high power all fiber supercontinuum generation in PCF with picosecond MOPA laser,” Opt. Commun.284(23), 5484–5487 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Modulation control and spectral shaping of optical fiber supercontinuum generation in the picosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 187–194 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Supercontinuum generation from ~1.9 to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fiber with high average power generation beyond 3.8 μm using a thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(10), 2486–2498 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Swiderski, M. Michalska, and G. Maze, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in a ZBLAN fiber pumped by a gain-switched mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser and amplifier system,” Opt. Express21(7), 7851–7857 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. M. Heidt, Z. Li, J. Sahu, P. C. Shardlow, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, M. Ibsen, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “100 kW peak power picosecond thulium-doped fiber amplifier system seeded by a gain-switched diode laser at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett.38(10), 1615–1617 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. http://www.thorlabs.de/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=7062 (accessed on 4 July 2013).
  17. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Stone and J. C. Knight, “From zero dispersion to group index matching: How tapering fibers offers the best of both worlds for visible supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 315–321 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Ramsay, S. Dupont, M. Johansen, L. Rishøj, K. Rottwitt, P. M. Moselund, and S. R. Keiding, “Generation of infrared supercontinuum radiation: spatial mode dispersion and higher-order mode propagation in ZBLAN step-index fibers,” Opt. Express21(9), 10764–10771 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W Time-Averaged Power Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation Extending Beyond 4 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

2012 (5)

J. M. Stone and J. C. Knight, “From zero dispersion to group index matching: How tapering fibers offers the best of both worlds for visible supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 315–321 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngsø, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers—detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(4), 635–645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Eckerle, C. Kieleck, J. Swiderski, S. D. Jackson, G. Mazé, and M. Eichhorn, “Actively Q-switched and mode-locked Tm3+-doped silicate 2 μm fiber laser for supercontinuum generation in fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 512–514 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Modulation control and spectral shaping of optical fiber supercontinuum generation in the picosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 187–194 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W Time-Averaged Power Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation Extending Beyond 4 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the mid-infrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber with an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 91–93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, and K. P. Hansen, “High average power supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun.228(1-3), 71–78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Agger, C.

Alam, S. U.

Alam, S.-U.

Alexander, V. V.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Supercontinuum generation from ~1.9 to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fiber with high average power generation beyond 3.8 μm using a thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(10), 2486–2498 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Becker, M.

Bhadra, S. K.

Brambilla, G.

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chan, A.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Supercontinuum generation from ~1.9 to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fiber with high average power generation beyond 3.8 μm using a thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(10), 2486–2498 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, S. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Chen, and J. Hou, “35W high power all fiber supercontinuum generation in PCF with picosecond MOPA laser,” Opt. Commun.284(23), 5484–5487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. K.

Chen, S.

H. Chen, S. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Chen, and J. Hou, “35W high power all fiber supercontinuum generation in PCF with picosecond MOPA laser,” Opt. Commun.284(23), 5484–5487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

H. Chen, S. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Chen, and J. Hou, “35W high power all fiber supercontinuum generation in PCF with picosecond MOPA laser,” Opt. Commun.284(23), 5484–5487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Codemard, C.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, J. M. O.

Dudley, J. M.

G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Modulation control and spectral shaping of optical fiber supercontinuum generation in the picosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 187–194 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, S.

Eckerle, M.

Eggleton, B. J.

G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Modulation control and spectral shaping of optical fiber supercontinuum generation in the picosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 187–194 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eichhorn, M.

Feng, X.

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. J.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Supercontinuum generation from ~1.9 to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fiber with high average power generation beyond 3.8 μm using a thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(10), 2486–2498 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W Time-Averaged Power Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation Extending Beyond 4 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Modulation control and spectral shaping of optical fiber supercontinuum generation in the picosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 187–194 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, D.

Hagen, C. L.

C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the mid-infrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber with an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 91–93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, K. P.

T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, and K. P. Hansen, “High average power supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun.228(1-3), 71–78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. R.

Heidt, A. M.

Horak, P.

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J.

H. Chen, S. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Chen, and J. Hou, “35W high power all fiber supercontinuum generation in PCF with picosecond MOPA laser,” Opt. Commun.284(23), 5484–5487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

A. M. Heidt, Z. Li, J. Sahu, P. C. Shardlow, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, M. Ibsen, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “100 kW peak power picosecond thulium-doped fiber amplifier system seeded by a gain-switched diode laser at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett.38(10), 1615–1617 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Supercontinuum generation from ~1.9 to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fiber with high average power generation beyond 3.8 μm using a thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(10), 2486–2498 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W Time-Averaged Power Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation Extending Beyond 4 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, S. D.

Johansen, M.

Jung, Y.

Ke, K.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

Kelly, B.

Kieleck, C.

Kito, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

J. M. Stone and J. C. Knight, “From zero dispersion to group index matching: How tapering fibers offers the best of both worlds for visible supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 315–321 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, O. P.

Kumar, M.

Li, Z.

Liao, M.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, and K. P. Hansen, “High average power supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun.228(1-3), 71–78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D.

Loh, W. H.

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lyngsø, J. K.

Malinowski, A.

Mauricio, J.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W Time-Averaged Power Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation Extending Beyond 4 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maze, G.

Mazé, G.

Michalska, M.

Moselund, P. M.

Neelakandan, M.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Supercontinuum generation from ~1.9 to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fiber with high average power generation beyond 3.8 μm using a thulium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(10), 2486–2498 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pal, M.

Petersen, C.

Petropoulos, P.

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Petrovich, M.

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phelan, R.

Poletti, F.

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ponzo, G.

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Poulain, M.

Price, J. H.

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chen, S.-U. Alam, J. H. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. Lin, A. Malinowski, C. Codemard, D. Ghosh, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, and D. J. Richardson, “Picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output power,” Opt. Express18(6), 5426–5432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, G.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramsay, J.

Richardson, D. J.

Rishøj, L.

Rothhardt, M.

Rottwitt, K.

Rutt, H. N.

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J.

Sanders, S. T.

C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the mid-infrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber with an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 91–93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, T.

T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, and K. P. Hansen, “High average power supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun.228(1-3), 71–78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shardlow, P. C.

Shi, J.

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steffensen, H.

Stone, J. M.

J. M. Stone and J. C. Knight, “From zero dispersion to group index matching: How tapering fibers offers the best of both worlds for visible supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 315–321 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swiderski, J.

Terry, F.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W Time-Averaged Power Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation Extending Beyond 4 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Terry, F. L.

Thøgersen, J.

Thomsen, C. L.

Tünnermann, A.

T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, and K. P. Hansen, “High average power supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun.228(1-3), 71–78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walewski, J. W.

C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the mid-infrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber with an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 91–93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Chen, S. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Chen, and J. Hou, “35W high power all fiber supercontinuum generation in PCF with picosecond MOPA laser,” Opt. Commun.284(23), 5484–5487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, M. J.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xia, C.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W Time-Averaged Power Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation Extending Beyond 4 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W Time-Averaged Power Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation Extending Beyond 4 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zakel, A.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W Time-Averaged Power Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation Extending Beyond 4 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zellmer, H.

T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, and K. P. Hansen, “High average power supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun.228(1-3), 71–78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Modulation control and spectral shaping of optical fiber supercontinuum generation in the picosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 187–194 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W Time-Averaged Power Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation Extending Beyond 4 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(2), 422–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. L. Hagen, J. W. Walewski, and S. T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the mid-infrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber with an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 91–93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, and K. P. Hansen, “High average power supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun.228(1-3), 71–78 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, S. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Chen, and J. Hou, “35W high power all fiber supercontinuum generation in PCF with picosecond MOPA laser,” Opt. Commun.284(23), 5484–5487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (3)

J. M. Stone and J. C. Knight, “From zero dispersion to group index matching: How tapering fibers offers the best of both worlds for visible supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 315–321 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Price, X. Feng, A. M. Heidt, G. Brambilla, P. Horak, F. Poletti, G. Ponzo, P. Petropoulos, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Supercontinuum generation in non-silica fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 327–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, “Modulation instability initiated high power all-fiber supercontinuum lasers and their applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 349–374 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

http://www.thorlabs.de/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=7062 (accessed on 4 July 2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic experimental setup of the diode-seeded Thulium-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) pump system and the SC generation stage. LD: laser diode; FBG: fiber Bragg grating; LMA-TDF: large mode area Thulium-doped fiber; DM: dichroic mirror; HWP: half-wave plate; ISO: isolator. (b) Calculated dispersion profiles of the fundamental LP01 mode and the first three higher order modes of the ZBLAN fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Supercontinuum spectra generated with 185 nJ (black), 300 nJ (red), 600 nJ (green), and 1100 nJ (blue) input pulse energy (offset for clarity). Also shown are the calculated group indices of the fiber modes with identical colour code as in Fig. 1(b). The wavelength axis of the calculated group indices is shifted by about 100 nm with respect to the measurement, as indicated by the lower x-axis (blue). The insets show a magnification of the mid-IR part of the broadest spectrum (top right) and the far-field mode profile of the ZBLAN fiber output at visible wavelengths (top left).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power conversion efficiency (black) to selected mid-IR wavelengths regions and average power levels (red) in these regions at 1 MHz pump repetition rate as a function of pump pulse energy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Source stability over a 30-minute interval at a test wavelength of 3350 nm.

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