Abstract

We demonstrate the concept of a merged nanoscale photonic crystal slot waveguide that acts as a bandpass filter in the near infrared region of the spectrum. The device is based on the integration of a photonic crystal cavity in a slot waveguide on a silicon on insulator substrate. The device is further embedded in amorphous titanium dioxide using atomic layer deposition, which allows to reduce two-photon absorption losses and creates the possibility to combine nonlinear guided-wave optics resulting from the strong field confinement in the slot region with slow light effects in the photonic crystal cavity. Our approach is fully compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology and opens up new perspectives for the integration of all-optical signal processing functionalities in hybrid silicon nanophotonics platforms.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Alasaarela, T. Saastamoinen, J. Hiltunen, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and its application in resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Opt.49, 4321–4325 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Adair, L. Chase, and S. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B39, 3337–3350 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Alasaarela, L. Karvonen, H. Jussila, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R.A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, I. Tittonen, and H. Lipsanen, “High quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2for waveguiding applications,” Opt. Lett. (In press 2013).
  25. J. D. B. Bradley, C. C. Evans, J. T. Choy, O. Reshef, P. B. Deotare, F. Parsy, K. C. Phillips, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “Submicrometer-wide amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2waveguides for microphotonic devices,” Opt. Express20, 23821–23831 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends,” J. App. Phys.113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Zhu, T. S. Deng, Y. Sun, Q. F. Zhang, and J. L. Wu, “Slow light property in ring-shape-hole slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Commun.290, 87–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Alasaarela, L. Karvonen, H. Jussila, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R.A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, I. Tittonen, and H. Lipsanen, “High quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2for waveguiding applications,” Opt. Lett. (In press 2013).

2012

J. D. B. Bradley, C. C. Evans, J. T. Choy, O. Reshef, P. B. Deotare, F. Parsy, K. C. Phillips, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “Submicrometer-wide amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2waveguides for microphotonic devices,” Opt. Express20, 23821–23831 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Y. N. Zhang, D. Wu, and Q. Wang, “Wideband slow light with large group index and low dispersion in slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol30, 2812–2817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Matres, C. Lacava, G. C. Ballesteros, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. M. Fédéli, J. Marti, and C. J. Oton, “Low TPA and free-carrier effects in silicon nanocrystal-based horizontal slot waveguides,” Opt. Express20, 23838–23845 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mongillo, P. Spathis, G. Katsaros, P. Gentile, and S. De Franceschi, “Multifunctional devices and logic gates with undoped silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 3074–3079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

T. Alasaarela, T. Saastamoinen, J. Hiltunen, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and its application in resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Opt.49, 4321–4325 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stöferle, N. Moll, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Ultracompact silicon/polymer laser with an absorption-insensitive nanophotonic resonator,” Nano Lett.10, 3675–3678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Narayanan and S. F. Preble, “Optical nonlinearities in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 8998–9005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

2007

2006

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature (London)438, 64–69 (2006).

2004

M. Soljačić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nature (London)3, 211–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. Adair, L. Chase, and S. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B39, 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. Chase, and S. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B39, 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alasaarela, T.

Alloatti, L.

Baba, T.

T. Baba and D. Mori, “Slow light engineering in photonic crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40, 2659–2665 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

Baida, F. I.

Ballesteros, G. C.

Bernal, M.-P.

Bettotti, P.

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

Blasco, J.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolten, J.

T. Stöferle, N. Moll, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Ultracompact silicon/polymer laser with an absorption-insensitive nanophotonic resonator,” Nano Lett.10, 3675–3678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, J. D. B.

Chase, L.

R. Adair, L. Chase, and S. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B39, 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Choy, J. T.

Cristiani, I.

Daldosso, N.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Franceschi, S.

M. Mongillo, P. Spathis, G. Katsaros, P. Gentile, and S. De Franceschi, “Multifunctional devices and logic gates with undoped silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 3074–3079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, T. S.

K. T. Zhu, T. S. Deng, Y. Sun, Q. F. Zhang, and J. L. Wu, “Slow light property in ring-shape-hole slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Commun.290, 87–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Deotare, P. B.

Di Falco, A.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

Evans, C. C.

Fedeli, J. M.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fédéli, J. M.

Freude, W.

T. Alasaarela, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, R. Palmer, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and S. Honkanen, “Reduced propagation loss in silicon strip and slot waveguides coated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express19, 11529–11538 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

Galan, J. V.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Ruperez, J.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrido, B.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gautier, P.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gentile, P.

M. Mongillo, P. Spathis, G. Katsaros, P. Gentile, and S. De Franceschi, “Multifunctional devices and logic gates with undoped silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 3074–3079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guider, R.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (Artech House, 2000).

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature (London)438, 64–69 (2006).

Hernandez, S.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiltunen, J.

Hiltunen, M.

Honkanen, S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Soljačić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nature (London)3, 211–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jordana, E.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jussila, H.

T. Alasaarela, L. Karvonen, H. Jussila, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R.A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, I. Tittonen, and H. Lipsanen, “High quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2for waveguiding applications,” Opt. Lett. (In press 2013).

Karvonen, L.

Katsaros, G.

M. Mongillo, P. Spathis, G. Katsaros, P. Gentile, and S. De Franceschi, “Multifunctional devices and logic gates with undoped silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 3074–3079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanna, A.

Kieu, K.

T. Alasaarela, L. Karvonen, H. Jussila, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R.A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, I. Tittonen, and H. Lipsanen, “High quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2for waveguiding applications,” Opt. Lett. (In press 2013).

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

Korn, D.

Krauss, T. F.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuittinen, M.

Lacava, C.

Lebour, Y.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leskelä, M.

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends,” J. App. Phys.113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

T. Alasaarela, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, R. Palmer, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and S. Honkanen, “Reduced propagation loss in silicon strip and slot waveguides coated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express19, 11529–11538 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

Liow, T.

Lipsanen, H.

T. Alasaarela, L. Karvonen, H. Jussila, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R.A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, I. Tittonen, and H. Lipsanen, “High quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2for waveguiding applications,” Opt. Lett. (In press 2013).

Lo, G.

Loncar, M.

Mahrt, R. F.

T. Stöferle, N. Moll, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Ultracompact silicon/polymer laser with an absorption-insensitive nanophotonic resonator,” Nano Lett.10, 3675–3678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marti, J.

J. Matres, C. Lacava, G. C. Ballesteros, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. M. Fédéli, J. Marti, and C. J. Oton, “Low TPA and free-carrier effects in silicon nanocrystal-based horizontal slot waveguides,” Opt. Express20, 23838–23845 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massari, M.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matres, J.

Mazur, E.

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature (London)438, 64–69 (2006).

Mehravar, S.

T. Alasaarela, L. Karvonen, H. Jussila, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R.A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, I. Tittonen, and H. Lipsanen, “High quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2for waveguiding applications,” Opt. Lett. (In press 2013).

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

Miikkulainen, V.

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends,” J. App. Phys.113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Minzioni, P.

Moll, N.

T. Stöferle, N. Moll, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Ultracompact silicon/polymer laser with an absorption-insensitive nanophotonic resonator,” Nano Lett.10, 3675–3678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mollenhauer, T.

T. Stöferle, N. Moll, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Ultracompact silicon/polymer laser with an absorption-insensitive nanophotonic resonator,” Nano Lett.10, 3675–3678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mongillo, M.

M. Mongillo, P. Spathis, G. Katsaros, P. Gentile, and S. De Franceschi, “Multifunctional devices and logic gates with undoped silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 3074–3079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mori, D.

T. Baba and D. Mori, “Slow light engineering in photonic crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40, 2659–2665 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Narayanan, K.

Niinistö, J.

M. Ritala and J. Niinistö, “Atomic layer deposition” in Chemical Vapour Deposition: Precursors, Processes and Applications, (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009), pp. 158–206.

Norwood, R.A.

T. Alasaarela, L. Karvonen, H. Jussila, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R.A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, I. Tittonen, and H. Lipsanen, “High quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2for waveguiding applications,” Opt. Lett. (In press 2013).

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature (London)438, 64–69 (2006).

Oton, C. J.

Palmer, R.

Parsy, F.

Pavesi, L.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Riboli, P. Bettotti, and L. Pavesi, “Band gap characterization and slow light effects in one dimensional photonic crystals based on silicon slot-waveguides,” Opt. Express15, 11769–11775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, S.

R. Adair, L. Chase, and S. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B39, 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

T. Alasaarela, L. Karvonen, H. Jussila, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R.A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, I. Tittonen, and H. Lipsanen, “High quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2for waveguiding applications,” Opt. Lett. (In press 2013).

Phillips, K. C.

Preble, S. F.

Puurunen, R. L.

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends,” J. App. Phys.113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reshef, O.

Riboli, F.

Ritala, M.

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends,” J. App. Phys.113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ritala and J. Niinistö, “Atomic layer deposition” in Chemical Vapour Deposition: Precursors, Processes and Applications, (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009), pp. 158–206.

Romanato, F.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roussey, M.

Saastamoinen, T.

Sanchis, P.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Säynätjoki, A.

Scherf, U.

T. Stöferle, N. Moll, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Ultracompact silicon/polymer laser with an absorption-insensitive nanophotonic resonator,” Nano Lett.10, 3675–3678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, S. A.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scullion, M. G.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

M. Soljačić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nature (London)3, 211–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spano, R.

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spathis, P.

M. Mongillo, P. Spathis, G. Katsaros, P. Gentile, and S. De Franceschi, “Multifunctional devices and logic gates with undoped silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 3074–3079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenberg, P.

Stöferle, T.

T. Stöferle, N. Moll, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Ultracompact silicon/polymer laser with an absorption-insensitive nanophotonic resonator,” Nano Lett.10, 3675–3678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

K. T. Zhu, T. S. Deng, Y. Sun, Q. F. Zhang, and J. L. Wu, “Slow light property in ring-shape-hole slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Commun.290, 87–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (Artech House, 2000).

Tervonen, A.

Tittonen, I.

T. Alasaarela, L. Karvonen, H. Jussila, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R.A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, I. Tittonen, and H. Lipsanen, “High quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2for waveguiding applications,” Opt. Lett. (In press 2013).

Tu, X.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature (London)438, 64–69 (2006).

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

Wahlbrink, T.

T. Stöferle, N. Moll, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Ultracompact silicon/polymer laser with an absorption-insensitive nanophotonic resonator,” Nano Lett.10, 3675–3678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Y. Zhao, Y. N. Zhang, D. Wu, and Q. Wang, “Wideband slow light with large group index and low dispersion in slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol30, 2812–2817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Y. Zhao, Y. N. Zhang, D. Wu, and Q. Wang, “Wideband slow light with large group index and low dispersion in slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol30, 2812–2817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. L.

K. T. Zhu, T. S. Deng, Y. Sun, Q. F. Zhang, and J. L. Wu, “Slow light property in ring-shape-hole slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Commun.290, 87–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. F.

K. T. Zhu, T. S. Deng, Y. Sun, Q. F. Zhang, and J. L. Wu, “Slow light property in ring-shape-hole slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Commun.290, 87–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. N.

Y. Zhao, Y. N. Zhang, D. Wu, and Q. Wang, “Wideband slow light with large group index and low dispersion in slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol30, 2812–2817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Y. N. Zhang, D. Wu, and Q. Wang, “Wideband slow light with large group index and low dispersion in slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol30, 2812–2817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, K. T.

K. T. Zhu, T. S. Deng, Y. Sun, Q. F. Zhang, and J. L. Wu, “Slow light property in ring-shape-hole slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Commun.290, 87–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. J.

A. Di Falco, M. Massari, M. G. Scullion, S. A. Schulz, F. Romanato, and T. F. Krauss, “Propagation losses of slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 1536–1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. App. Phys.

V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, and R. L. Puurunen, “Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends,” J. App. Phys.113, 021301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol

Y. Zhao, Y. N. Zhang, D. Wu, and Q. Wang, “Wideband slow light with large group index and low dispersion in slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol30, 2812–2817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

T. Baba and D. Mori, “Slow light engineering in photonic crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40, 2659–2665 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

M. Mongillo, P. Spathis, G. Katsaros, P. Gentile, and S. De Franceschi, “Multifunctional devices and logic gates with undoped silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 3074–3079 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stöferle, N. Moll, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Ultracompact silicon/polymer laser with an absorption-insensitive nanophotonic resonator,” Nano Lett.10, 3675–3678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, J. Garcia-Ruperez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernandez, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Marti, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10, 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4, 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

M. Soljačić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nature (London)3, 211–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature (London)438, 64–69 (2006).

Opt. Commun.

K. T. Zhu, T. S. Deng, Y. Sun, Q. F. Zhang, and J. L. Wu, “Slow light property in ring-shape-hole slotted photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Commun.290, 87–91 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

J. D. B. Bradley, C. C. Evans, J. T. Choy, O. Reshef, P. B. Deotare, F. Parsy, K. C. Phillips, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “Submicrometer-wide amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2waveguides for microphotonic devices,” Opt. Express20, 23821–23831 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Säynätjoki, T. Alasaarela, A. Khanna, L. Karvonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Angled sidewalls in silicon slot waveguides: conformal filling and mode properties,” Opt. Express17, 21066–21075 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Riboli, P. Bettotti, and L. Pavesi, “Band gap characterization and slow light effects in one dimensional photonic crystals based on silicon slot-waveguides,” Opt. Express15, 11769–11775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Alasaarela, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, R. Palmer, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and S. Honkanen, “Reduced propagation loss in silicon strip and slot waveguides coated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express19, 11529–11538 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, T. Alasaarela, X. Tu, T. Liow, M. Hiltunen, A. Tervonen, G. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express19, 26275–26282 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Narayanan and S. F. Preble, “Optical nonlinearities in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 8998–9005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Matres, C. Lacava, G. C. Ballesteros, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. M. Fédéli, J. Marti, and C. J. Oton, “Low TPA and free-carrier effects in silicon nanocrystal-based horizontal slot waveguides,” Opt. Express20, 23838–23845 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

T. Alasaarela, L. Karvonen, H. Jussila, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R.A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, I. Tittonen, and H. Lipsanen, “High quality crystallinity controlled ALD TiO2for waveguiding applications,” Opt. Lett. (In press 2013).

Phys. Rev. B

R. Adair, L. Chase, and S. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Phys. Rev. B39, 3337–3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications ConferencePDP25 (2008).

Other

M. Ritala and J. Niinistö, “Atomic layer deposition” in Chemical Vapour Deposition: Precursors, Processes and Applications, (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009), pp. 158–206.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (Artech House, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the merged photonic crystal slot waveguide conformally coated with amorphous TiO2. The geometrical parameters are the slot width WS = 80 nm, the rail width WR = 200 nm, the period D, the length of the silicon nano block d, the cavity length LC, and the thickness t of the TiO2 layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results obtained by 3D-FDTD. Normalized transmission spectra as a function of the fill factor f (a), the cavity length LC (b) and the photonics crystal period D (c). (d), (e), (f): Group index corresponding to the transmission spectra for the same parameters. For fill factor variations, LC = D = 320 nm; for cavity length variations, f = 50 %, and D = 320 nm; for period variations f = 50 %, LC = D.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Field distribution in the photonic crystal slot waveguide on resonance (a). SEM images of the photonic crystal slot waveguide (b), the adiabatic coupler (c), transition from the slot waveguide to a merged photonic crystal slot waveguide (d), and the cavity of the photonic crystal (e).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum of the merged photonic crystal slot waveguide. Simulated by 3D-FDTD (a), measured for a 15 periods photonic crystal without the cavity (b), and measured for a 10 periods photonics crystal on each side with the cavity (c). All spectra were filtered using a Fourier transform band pass filter.

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