Abstract

We present two configurations (one with and another without a half-wave plate) of a Sagnac interferometer (SI) containing chiral optical elements where either the Sagnac loop mirror’s (SLM) reflectance is circular birefringence (CB) independent or polarization dependence/circular dichroism (CD) is canceled in both reflection and transmission. These schemes allow use of chiral components as feedback elements/filters in SLM of a laser and in switches/modulators and sensors requiring compensation of chiral media CD, as well as allowing calibration of CD measurements. We also compare/show the differences between SI containing devices with either CB or linear birefringence (LB).

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013

2012

H. Exir and I. Golub, “Polarization dependence compensation in transmission of chiral elements by use of a π-shifted Sagnac loop interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8412, 84121K, 84121K-5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

V. I. Kopp and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fibres: adding twist,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 470–472 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2007

2006

2005

2004

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

2001

2000

H. P. Chen, D. D. Katsis, J. C. Mastrangelo, S. H. Chen, S. D. Jacobs, and P. J. Hood, “Glassy liquid-crystal films with opposite chirality as high-performance optical notch filters and reflectors,” Adv. Mater.12(17), 1283–1286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

1988

D. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(7), 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

Bjarklev, A.

Broeng, J.

Cai, H.

Chao, N.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. P.

H. P. Chen, D. D. Katsis, J. C. Mastrangelo, S. H. Chen, S. D. Jacobs, and P. J. Hood, “Glassy liquid-crystal films with opposite chirality as high-performance optical notch filters and reflectors,” Adv. Mater.12(17), 1283–1286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. H.

H. P. Chen, D. D. Katsis, J. C. Mastrangelo, S. H. Chen, S. D. Jacobs, and P. J. Hood, “Glassy liquid-crystal films with opposite chirality as high-performance optical notch filters and reflectors,” Adv. Mater.12(17), 1283–1286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.

Churikov, V. M.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, and A. Z. Genack, “Synchronization of optical polarization conversion and scattering in chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett.31(5), 571–573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claus, R. O.

Cox, F. M.

Dashti, P. Z.

Decker, M.

Exir, H.

I. Golub and H. Exir, “Removing left-right asymmetry in a Sagnac interferometer applied to cancel its reflectance dependence on birefringence,” Opt. Lett.38(9), 1536–1538 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Exir and I. Golub, “Polarization dependence compensation in transmission of chiral elements by use of a π-shifted Sagnac loop interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8412, 84121K, 84121K-5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

Gan, J.

Genack, A. Z.

V. I. Kopp and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fibres: adding twist,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 470–472 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, and A. Z. Genack, “Synchronization of optical polarization conversion and scattering in chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett.31(5), 571–573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp and A. Z. Genack, “Double-helix chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1876–1878 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golub, I.

Hache, F.

Han, S. H.

Hermann, D.

Hood, P. J.

H. P. Chen, D. D. Katsis, J. C. Mastrangelo, S. H. Chen, S. D. Jacobs, and P. J. Hood, “Glassy liquid-crystal films with opposite chirality as high-performance optical notch filters and reflectors,” Adv. Mater.12(17), 1283–1286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. D.

H. P. Chen, D. D. Katsis, J. C. Mastrangelo, S. H. Chen, S. D. Jacobs, and P. J. Hood, “Glassy liquid-crystal films with opposite chirality as high-performance optical notch filters and reflectors,” Adv. Mater.12(17), 1283–1286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. Y.

J. Son, M. K. Lee, M. Y. Jeong, and C. S. Kim, “Polarization dependence suppression of optical fiber grating sensor in a π-shifted Sagnac loop interferometer,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4373–4380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, L.

J. Li, L. Jin, L. Li, and C. Li, “Bandgap separation and optical switching in nonlinear chiral photonic crystal with layered structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(11), 1261–1263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. W.

Katsis, D. D.

H. P. Chen, D. D. Katsis, J. C. Mastrangelo, S. H. Chen, S. D. Jacobs, and P. J. Hood, “Glassy liquid-crystal films with opposite chirality as high-performance optical notch filters and reflectors,” Adv. Mater.12(17), 1283–1286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

J. Son, M. K. Lee, M. Y. Jeong, and C. S. Kim, “Polarization dependence suppression of optical fiber grating sensor in a π-shifted Sagnac loop interferometer,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4373–4380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, Q. Li, P. Z. Dashti, and H. P. Lee, “Compensation of polarization-dependent loss in transmission fiber gratings by use of a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 20–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. J.

Klein, M. W.

Kopp, V. I.

V. I. Kopp and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fibres: adding twist,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 470–472 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, and A. Z. Genack, “Synchronization of optical polarization conversion and scattering in chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett.31(5), 571–573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp and A. Z. Genack, “Double-helix chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1876–1878 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Large, M. C. J.

Larsen, T.

Lee, H. P.

Lee, J. S.

Lee, M. K.

J. Son, M. K. Lee, M. Y. Jeong, and C. S. Kim, “Polarization dependence suppression of optical fiber grating sensor in a π-shifted Sagnac loop interferometer,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4373–4380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

J. Li, L. Jin, L. Li, and C. Li, “Bandgap separation and optical switching in nonlinear chiral photonic crystal with layered structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(11), 1261–1263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, L. Jin, L. Li, and C. Li, “Bandgap separation and optical switching in nonlinear chiral photonic crystal with layered structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(11), 1261–1263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Li, L. Jin, L. Li, and C. Li, “Bandgap separation and optical switching in nonlinear chiral photonic crystal with layered structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(11), 1261–1263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Linden, S.

Mastrangelo, J. C.

H. P. Chen, D. D. Katsis, J. C. Mastrangelo, S. H. Chen, S. D. Jacobs, and P. J. Hood, “Glassy liquid-crystal films with opposite chirality as high-performance optical notch filters and reflectors,” Adv. Mater.12(17), 1283–1286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milani, E.

Mortimore, D.

D. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(7), 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Neugroschl, D.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niezborala, C.

Pan, Z.

Picard, M. J.

Qiao, L.

Qu, R.

Shen, L.

Shin, Y. D.

Simova, E.

Singer, J.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Son, J.

J. Son, M. K. Lee, M. Y. Jeong, and C. S. Kim, “Polarization dependence suppression of optical fiber grating sensor in a π-shifted Sagnac loop interferometer,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4373–4380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Wu, J. W.

Ye, Q.

Adv. Mater.

H. P. Chen, D. D. Katsis, J. C. Mastrangelo, S. H. Chen, S. D. Jacobs, and P. J. Hood, “Glassy liquid-crystal films with opposite chirality as high-performance optical notch filters and reflectors,” Adv. Mater.12(17), 1283–1286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Li, L. Jin, L. Li, and C. Li, “Bandgap separation and optical switching in nonlinear chiral photonic crystal with layered structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(11), 1261–1263 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(7), 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photonics

V. I. Kopp and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fibres: adding twist,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 470–472 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

M. Decker, M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.32(7), 856–858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Ye, L. Qiao, J. Gan, H. Cai, and R. Qu, “Fiber Sagnac π-shifted interferometer for a polarization-independent PMNT high-speed electro-optic switch,” Opt. Lett.35(24), 4187–4189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Golub and H. Exir, “Removing left-right asymmetry in a Sagnac interferometer applied to cancel its reflectance dependence on birefringence,” Opt. Lett.38(9), 1536–1538 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, Q. Li, P. Z. Dashti, and H. P. Lee, “Compensation of polarization-dependent loss in transmission fiber gratings by use of a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 20–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Golub and E. Simova, “Ring resonator in a Sagnac interferometer as a birefringence magnifier,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 87–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, and A. Z. Genack, “Synchronization of optical polarization conversion and scattering in chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett.31(5), 571–573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Golub and E. Simova, “π-shifted Sagnac interferometer for characterization of femtosecond first- and second-order polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett.27(19), 1681–1683 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kopp and A. Z. Genack, “Double-helix chiral fibers,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1876–1878 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Fang and R. O. Claus, “Polarization-independent all-fiber wavelength-division multiplexer based on a Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2146–2148 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

H. Exir and I. Golub, “Polarization dependence compensation in transmission of chiral elements by use of a π-shifted Sagnac loop interferometer,” Proc. SPIE8412, 84121K, 84121K-5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Science

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, “Chiral fiber gratings,” Science305(5680), 74–75 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel)

J. Son, M. K. Lee, M. Y. Jeong, and C. S. Kim, “Polarization dependence suppression of optical fiber grating sensor in a π-shifted Sagnac loop interferometer,” Sensors (Basel)10(5), 4373–4380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. D. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity (Cambridge University, 2004).

N. Berova, K. Nakanishi, and R. W. Woody, eds., Circular Dichroism: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of a Sagnac interferometer with a DUT and an optional HWP in the loop.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of the chiral element for the right and left circularly polarized light without the SI.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of the π–shifted SI with a chiral element for the right and left circularly polarized light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CD of the chiral element when it is placed inside (solid curve) and outside (dashed curve) of the π-shifted SI.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Transmission and reflection of SI containing a device with a CB where Δ is the optical rotation and ρ is the orientation of the axes of the HWP.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Transmission and reflection of SI containing a device with LB where α is the orientation angle of the birefringence axes of the DUT, and δ is the birefringence of the DUT.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ J DUT ]=exp( αL 2 )[ cosh( η 4 +i Δ 2 ) isinh( η 4 +i Δ 2 ) isinh( η 4 +i Δ 2 ) cosh( η 4 +i Δ 2 ) ],
[ R( λ ) ]=[ K × ][ R ][ J DUT ][ J HWP ][ K ]+ [ K ] T [ J HWP ] T [ J DUT ] T [ R ] T [ K × ] T ,
[ T( λ ) ]=[ K ][ R ][ J DUT ][ J HWP ][ K ]+ [ K × ] T [ J HWP ] T [ J DUT ] T [ R ] T [ K × ] T ,
[ R ]=[ 1 0 0 1 ],[ J HWP4 ]=[ cos2ρ sin2ρ sin2ρ cos2ρ ], [ K ]=[ ( 1 k x ) 1/2 0 0 ( 1 k y ) 1/2 ],[ K × ]=[ i ( k x ) 1/2 0 0 i ( k y ) 1/2 ],
R r =exp( αL ) | cosh(A)sinh(A) | 2 R l =exp( αL ) | cosh(A)+sinh(A) | 2 ,
T r = T l =exp( αL ) | cosh(A)sin( 2ρ )+isinh(A)cos( 2ρ ) | 2 .
R r = R l =exp( αL ) | sinh(A)sin( 2ρ )+icosh(A)cos( 2ρ ) | 2 .
T r =exp( αL ) | cosh(A)sinh(A) | 2 T l =exp( αL ) | cosh(A)+sinh(A) | 2 .

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