Abstract

We tackle the problem of information recovery and imaging through scattering microfluidic chips by means of digital holography (DH). In many cases the chip can become opalescent due to residual deposits settling down the inner channel faces, biofilm formation, scattering particle uptake by the channel cladding or its damaging by corrosive substances, or even by condensing effect on the exterior channels walls. In these cases white-light imaging is severely degraded and no information is obtainable at all about the flowing samples. Here we investigate the problem of counting and estimating velocity of cells flowing inside a scattering chip. Moreover we propose and test a method based on the recording of multiple digital holograms to retrieve improved phase-contrast images despite the strong scattering effect. This method helps, thanks to DH, to recover information which, otherwise, would be completely lost.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (4)

2012 (9)

P. Memmolo, M. Iannone, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, A. Finizio, M. Paturzo, and P. Ferraro, “On the holographic 3D tracking of in vitro cells characterized by a highly-morphological change,” Opt. Express20(27), 28485–28493 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Hong, M. Hegde, J. Kim, X. Wang, A. Jayaraman, and T. K. Wood, “Synthetic quorum-sensing circuit to control consortial biofilm formation and dispersal in a microfluidic device,” Nat. Commun.3(613), 613 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature491(7423), 232–234 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, D. Wang, D. Yang, L. Ouyang, J. Zhao, and P. Spozmai, “Microchannel detection of microfluidic chips with digital holography imaging system,” Proc. SPIE8418, 841816, 841816-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Greenbaum, U. Sikora, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable wide-field microscopy of dense samples using multi-height pixel super-resolution based lensfree imaging,” Lab Chip12(7), 1242–1245 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Pavillon, J. Kühn, C. Moratal, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Early cell death detection with digital holographic microscopy,” PLoS ONE7(1), e30912 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paturzo, A. Finizio, P. Memmolo, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and P. Ferraro, “Microscopy imaging and quantitative phase contrast mapping in turbid microfluidic channels by digital holography,” Lab Chip12(17), 3073–3076 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bianco, M. Paturzo, A. Finizio, D. Balduzzi, R. Puglisi, A. Galli, and P. Ferraro, “Clear coherent imaging in turbid microfluidics by multiple holographic acquisitions,” Opt. Lett.37(20), 4212–4214 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bianco, M. Paturzo, A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, and P. Memmolo, “Seeing through turbid fluids: a new perspective in microfluidics,” Opt. Photonics News23(12), 33 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Heimbeck, M. K. Kim, D. A. Gregory, and H. O. Everitt, “Terahertz digital holography using angular spectrum and dual wavelength reconstruction methods,” Opt. Express19(10), 9192–9200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, L. Jiang, W. Zheng, D. Li, S. Yao, and J. Y. Qu, “Quantitative imaging of mixing dynamics in microfluidic droplets using two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett.36(12), 2236–2238 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

D. Tseng, O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree microscopy on a cellphone,” Lab Chip10(14), 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, S. A. Lee, S. Yang, and C. Yang, “Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope for on-chip cell imaging,” Lab Chip10(22), 3125–3129 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, H. Zhu, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic opto-fluidic microscopy,” Opt. Express18(26), 27499–27510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kikuchi, D. Barada, T. Kiire, and T. Yatagai, “Doppler phase-shifting digital holography and its application to surface shape measurement,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1548–1550 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, R. Näsänen, T. J. Naughton, and P. Ferraro, “Synthesis and display of dynamic holographic 3D scenes with real-world objects,” Opt. Express18(9), 8806–8815 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paturzo, A. Pelagotti, A. Finizio, L. Miccio, M. Locatelli, A. Gertrude, P. Poggi, R. Meucci, and P. Ferraro, “Optical reconstruction of digital holograms recorded at 10.6 microm: route for 3D imaging at long infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 2112–2114 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Skolimowski, M. W. Nielsen, J. Emnéus, S. Molin, R. Taboryski, C. Sternberg, M. Dufva, and O. Geschke, “Microfluidic dissolved oxygen gradient generator biochip as a useful tool in bacterial biofilm studies,” Lab Chip10(16), 2162–2169 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (10)

F. Monroy, O. Rincon, Y. M. Torres, and J. Garcia-Sucerquia, “Quantitative assessment of lateral resolution improvement in digital holography,” Opt. Commun.281(13), 3454–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Picart and J. Leval, “General theoretical formulation of image formation in digital Fresnel holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(7), 1744–1761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pu, M. Centurion, and D. Psaltis, “Harmonic holography: a new holographic principle,” Appl. Opt.47(4), A103–A110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(23), 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hÿtch, F. Houdellier, F. Hüe, and E. Snoeck, “Nanoscale holographic interferometry for strain measurements in electronic devices,” Nature453(7198), 1086–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics2(3), 190–195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Lima, S. Wada, S. Tanaka, M. Takeda, T. Ishikawa, K. Tsubota, Y. Imai, and T. Yamaguchi, “In vitro blood flow in a rectangular PDMS microchannel: experimental observations using a confocal micro-PIV system,” Biomed. Microdevices10(2), 153–167 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging of nanoscale cell structure and dynamics,” Methods Cell Biol.90, 87–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (5)

F. Dubois, N. Callens, C. Yourassowsky, M. Hoyos, P. Kurowski, and O. Monnom, “Digital holographic microscopy with reduced spatial coherence for three-dimensional particle flow analysis,” Appl. Opt.45(5), 864–871 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature442(7101), 368–373 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Piao, C. C. Sze, O. Barysheva, K. Iida, and S. Yoshida, “Temperature-regulated formation of mycelial mat-like biofilms by Legionella pneumophila,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.72(2), 1613–1622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, J. A. H. Ramírez, and D. V. Prieto, “Reduction of speckle noise in digital holography by using digital image processing,” Optik (Stuttg.)116(1), 44–48 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Chung, L. A. Flanagan, S. W. Rhee, P. H. Schwartz, A. P. Lee, E. S. Monuki, and N. L. Jeon, “Human neural stem cell growth and differentiation in a gradient-generating microfluidic device,” Lab Chip5(4), 401–406 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Simonnet and A. Groisman, “Two-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing in a simple microfluidic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(114104), 1–3 (2005).

2004 (3)

R. Yokokawa, S. Takeuchi, T. Kon, M. Nishiura, K. Sutoh, and H. Fujita, “Unidirectional transport of kinesin-coated beads on microtubules oriented in a microfluidic device,” Nano Lett.4(11), 2265–2270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson and D. Li, “Integrated microfluidic devices,” Anal. Chim. Acta507(1), 11–26 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. C. H. Li, L. de Camprieu, J. Cai, and M. Sangar, “Transport, retention and fluorescent measurement of single biological cells studied in microfluidic chips,” Lab Chip4(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. P. Shelby, J. White, K. Ganesan, P. K. Rathod, and D. T. Chiu, “A microfluidic model for single-cell capillary obstruction by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(25), 14618–14622 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt.42(11), 1938–1946 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. Stoodley, K. Sauer, D. G. Davies, and J. W. Costerton, “Biofilms as complex differentiated communities,” Annu. Rev. Microbiol.56(1), 187–209 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

J. Westerweel, D. Dabiri, and M. Gharib, “The effect of a discrete window offset on the accuracy of cross-correlation analysis of digital PIV recordings,” Exp. Fluids23(1), 20–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. S. Lee, L. Jurkevich, P. Dewaele, P. Wambacq, and A. Oosterlinck, “Speckle filtering of synthetic aperture radar images: a review,” Remote Sens. Rev.8(4), 313–340 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, “Digital PIV,” Exp. Fluids10, 181–193 (1991).

Alexeenko, I.

Badizadegan, K.

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M. Paturzo, A. Finizio, P. Memmolo, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and P. Ferraro, “Microscopy imaging and quantitative phase contrast mapping in turbid microfluidic channels by digital holography,” Lab Chip12(17), 3073–3076 (2012).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Imaging through scattering microfluidics. (a) White-light image of a microfluidic chip with four channels. A salt deposit is settled only in the second channel (red dashed box), with opacity increasing from left to right. (b) White-light view of a different portion of the chip, with the maximum layer thickness. (c-d) Only the left part of a test target is placed behind a scattering channel imaged respectively by (c) white-light microscopy and (d) coherent laser microscopy at λ = 632,8μm. (e) Coherent laser microscopy of the target in absence of the scattering layer. (f-g) White-light images of the salt deposit inside the chip obtained with (f) 20x and (g) 50x magnification.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch of the experimental set-up. On the right side of the image a phase contrast map is shown of the cell flowing through the scattering channel along the x nominal direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase-contrast mapping of a sample cell flowing into a clear microfluidic channel. In the inset the top view is shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Derivative of the average phase-contrast vs. time. An example of mean velocity estimation employing four gates is shown. On the right the scattering channel is sketched showing in green, for each plot, the window where the average is performed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Holographic reconstructions of a sample cell flowing into a scattering channel. (a) (Media 1) SL phase-contrast map. (b) ML phase-contrast map.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase-contrast mapping of a sample cell flowing into a scattering microfluidic channel. A side-view is shown along the columns of the image at fixed row. (a) SL. (b) ML. (c) SL post-filtered. (d) ML post-filtered.

Equations (6)

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I( u,v,t )= | i=1 M | C h i ( u,v,t ) || O i ( u,v,t ) |exp{ j[ O i ( u,v,t )+C h i ( u,v,t ) ] } | 2 + + N g ( u,v,t )+ N ch ( u,v )= I s ( u,v,t )+ N g ( u,v,t )+ N ch ( u,v ) .
C SL ( x,y,t )=Fr{ I( u,v,t ) }Fr{ I S ( u,v,t ) }+Fr{ N ch ( u,v ) },
Δ ^ =[Δ x ^ ,Δ y ^ ]= argmax Δx,Δy { ρ( Δx,Δy ) }= = argmax Δx,Δy { E C ˜ MASTER ( x,y,t= T 0 )[ C ˜ SLAVE ( x,y,t )δ( xΔx,yΔy ) ] E C ˜ MASTER ( x,y,t= T 0 ) 2 E [ C ˜ SLAVE ( x,y,t )δ( xΔx,yΔy ) ] 2 },
C ˜ =| C SL || Fr{ N ch } || Fr{ I S } |
A ML ( x,y )= 1 N n=1 N [ C ˜ n ( x,y )δ( x-Δ x ^ n ,y-Δ y ^ n ) ] Φ ML ( x,y )= 1 N n=1 N [ Φ ˜ n ( x,y )δ( x-Δ x ^ n ,y-Δ y ^ n ) ]
v ¯ x = 1 N G ij D ij Δ T ij ,

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