Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for fault location in optical communication network. This method utilizes the traffic signal transmitted across the network as probe signal, and then locates the fault by correlation technique. Compared with conventional techniques, our method has a simple structure and low operation expenditure, because no additional device is used, such as light source, modulator and signal generator. The correlation detection in this method overcomes the tradeoff between spatial resolution and measurement range in pulse ranging technique. Moreover, signal extraction process can improve the location result considerably. Experimental results show that we achieve a spatial resolution of 8 cm and detection range of over 23 km with −8-dBm mean launched power in optical network based on synchronous digital hierarchy protocols.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: an OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. M. Rad, K. Fouli, H. A. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and M. Maier, “Passive optical network monitoring: challenges and requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49(2), S45–S52 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Mégret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Athens, Greece, 2008), Paper Tu.B1.1.
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. P. Temporão, G. Vilela de Faria, P. J. Urban, and J. P. von der Weid, “Fault location in passive optical networks using T-OTDR and wavelength-selective isolators,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), Paper NM2I.4.
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Y. Ren, S. Y. Gang, T. P. Chiong, T. T. Chin, Y. K. Shien, T. K. Leng, and A. L. L. Yen, “Development and characterization of tunable laser based optical time domain reflectometer,” in 2nd International Conference on Photonics (Kata Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2011), 1–3.
  6. M. Thollabandi, T. Y. Kim, S. Hann, and C. S. Park, “Tunable OTDR based on direct modulation of self-injection-locked RSOA for in-service monitoring of WDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1323–1325 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Enbutsu, N. Araki, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Individual fiber line testing technique for PON using wavelength assigned FBG termination and TLS-OTDR enhanced with reflected trace analysis method,” in Joint Conference of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (Sydney, Australia, 2008), 1–2.
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Park, J. Baik, and C. Lee, “Fault-detection technique in a WDM-PON,” Opt. Express15(4), 1461–1466 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. W. Lim, E. S. Son, K. H. Han, and Y. C. Chung, “Fault localization in WDM passive optical network by reusing downstream light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2691–2693 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Schmuck, J. Hehmann, M. Straub, and T. Pfeiffer, “Embedded OTDR techniques for cost-efficient fibre monitoring in optical access networks,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (Cannes, French, 2006), 1–2.
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Zoboli and P. Bassi, “High spatial resolution OTDR attenuation measurements by a correlation technique,” Appl. Opt.22(23), 3680–3681 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. C. Wang, B. J. Wang, and A. B. Wang, “Chaotic correlation optical time domain reflectometer utilizing laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1636–1638 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Biain, J. Dawson, and T. C. Tozer, “New technique for nonintrusive OTDR based on traffic data correlation,” Electron. Lett.30(17), 1443–1444 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Takushima and Y. C. Chung, “Optical reflectometry based on correlation detection and its application to the in-service monitoring of WDM passive optical network,” Opt. Express15(9), 5318–5326 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. De Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “Nonintrusive Fiber Monitoring of TDM Optical Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 305–317 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. ITU-T Recommendation G.957, Optical interfaces for equipments and systems relating to the synchronous digital hierarchy (2006).

2013 (1)

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: an OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. M. Rad, K. Fouli, H. A. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and M. Maier, “Passive optical network monitoring: challenges and requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49(2), S45–S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Thollabandi, T. Y. Kim, S. Hann, and C. S. Park, “Tunable OTDR based on direct modulation of self-injection-locked RSOA for in-service monitoring of WDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1323–1325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Wang, B. J. Wang, and A. B. Wang, “Chaotic correlation optical time domain reflectometer utilizing laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1636–1638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2005 (1)

K. W. Lim, E. S. Son, K. H. Han, and Y. C. Chung, “Fault localization in WDM passive optical network by reusing downstream light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2691–2693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Biain, J. Dawson, and T. C. Tozer, “New technique for nonintrusive OTDR based on traffic data correlation,” Electron. Lett.30(17), 1443–1444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Araki, N.

K. Enbutsu, N. Araki, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Individual fiber line testing technique for PON using wavelength assigned FBG termination and TLS-OTDR enhanced with reflected trace analysis method,” in Joint Conference of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (Sydney, Australia, 2008), 1–2.
[CrossRef]

Azuma, Y.

K. Enbutsu, N. Araki, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Individual fiber line testing technique for PON using wavelength assigned FBG termination and TLS-OTDR enhanced with reflected trace analysis method,” in Joint Conference of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (Sydney, Australia, 2008), 1–2.
[CrossRef]

Baik, J.

Bassi, P.

Bauwelinck, J.

Biain, G.

G. Biain, J. Dawson, and T. C. Tozer, “New technique for nonintrusive OTDR based on traffic data correlation,” Electron. Lett.30(17), 1443–1444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Chin, T. T.

T. Y. Ren, S. Y. Gang, T. P. Chiong, T. T. Chin, Y. K. Shien, T. K. Leng, and A. L. L. Yen, “Development and characterization of tunable laser based optical time domain reflectometer,” in 2nd International Conference on Photonics (Kata Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2011), 1–3.

Chiong, T. P.

T. Y. Ren, S. Y. Gang, T. P. Chiong, T. T. Chin, Y. K. Shien, T. K. Leng, and A. L. L. Yen, “Development and characterization of tunable laser based optical time domain reflectometer,” in 2nd International Conference on Photonics (Kata Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2011), 1–3.

Chung, Y. C.

Y. Takushima and Y. C. Chung, “Optical reflectometry based on correlation detection and its application to the in-service monitoring of WDM passive optical network,” Opt. Express15(9), 5318–5326 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Lim, E. S. Son, K. H. Han, and Y. C. Chung, “Fault localization in WDM passive optical network by reusing downstream light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2691–2693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dahlfort, S.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: an OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, J.

G. Biain, J. Dawson, and T. C. Tozer, “New technique for nonintrusive OTDR based on traffic data correlation,” Electron. Lett.30(17), 1443–1444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

De Mulder, B.

Enbutsu, K.

K. Enbutsu, N. Araki, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Individual fiber line testing technique for PON using wavelength assigned FBG termination and TLS-OTDR enhanced with reflected trace analysis method,” in Joint Conference of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (Sydney, Australia, 2008), 1–2.
[CrossRef]

Fathallah, H. A.

M. M. Rad, K. Fouli, H. A. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and M. Maier, “Passive optical network monitoring: challenges and requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49(2), S45–S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fouli, K.

M. M. Rad, K. Fouli, H. A. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and M. Maier, “Passive optical network monitoring: challenges and requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49(2), S45–S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gang, S. Y.

T. Y. Ren, S. Y. Gang, T. P. Chiong, T. T. Chin, Y. K. Shien, T. K. Leng, and A. L. L. Yen, “Development and characterization of tunable laser based optical time domain reflectometer,” in 2nd International Conference on Photonics (Kata Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2011), 1–3.

Han, K. H.

K. W. Lim, E. S. Son, K. H. Han, and Y. C. Chung, “Fault localization in WDM passive optical network by reusing downstream light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2691–2693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hann, S.

M. Thollabandi, T. Y. Kim, S. Hann, and C. S. Park, “Tunable OTDR based on direct modulation of self-injection-locked RSOA for in-service monitoring of WDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1323–1325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Honda, N.

K. Enbutsu, N. Araki, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Individual fiber line testing technique for PON using wavelength assigned FBG termination and TLS-OTDR enhanced with reflected trace analysis method,” in Joint Conference of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (Sydney, Australia, 2008), 1–2.
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. Y.

M. Thollabandi, T. Y. Kim, S. Hann, and C. S. Park, “Tunable OTDR based on direct modulation of self-injection-locked RSOA for in-service monitoring of WDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1323–1325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Leng, T. K.

T. Y. Ren, S. Y. Gang, T. P. Chiong, T. T. Chin, Y. K. Shien, T. K. Leng, and A. L. L. Yen, “Development and characterization of tunable laser based optical time domain reflectometer,” in 2nd International Conference on Photonics (Kata Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2011), 1–3.

Lim, K. W.

K. W. Lim, E. S. Son, K. H. Han, and Y. C. Chung, “Fault localization in WDM passive optical network by reusing downstream light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2691–2693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

M. M. Rad, K. Fouli, H. A. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and M. Maier, “Passive optical network monitoring: challenges and requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49(2), S45–S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Medeiros, E.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: an OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. S.

M. Thollabandi, T. Y. Kim, S. Hann, and C. S. Park, “Tunable OTDR based on direct modulation of self-injection-locked RSOA for in-service monitoring of WDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1323–1325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Qiu, X. Z.

Rad, M. M.

M. M. Rad, K. Fouli, H. A. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and M. Maier, “Passive optical network monitoring: challenges and requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49(2), S45–S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, T. Y.

T. Y. Ren, S. Y. Gang, T. P. Chiong, T. T. Chin, Y. K. Shien, T. K. Leng, and A. L. L. Yen, “Development and characterization of tunable laser based optical time domain reflectometer,” in 2nd International Conference on Photonics (Kata Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2011), 1–3.

Rusch, L. A.

M. M. Rad, K. Fouli, H. A. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and M. Maier, “Passive optical network monitoring: challenges and requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49(2), S45–S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shien, Y. K.

T. Y. Ren, S. Y. Gang, T. P. Chiong, T. T. Chin, Y. K. Shien, T. K. Leng, and A. L. L. Yen, “Development and characterization of tunable laser based optical time domain reflectometer,” in 2nd International Conference on Photonics (Kata Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2011), 1–3.

Son, E. S.

K. W. Lim, E. S. Son, K. H. Han, and Y. C. Chung, “Fault localization in WDM passive optical network by reusing downstream light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2691–2693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takushima, Y.

Thollabandi, M.

M. Thollabandi, T. Y. Kim, S. Hann, and C. S. Park, “Tunable OTDR based on direct modulation of self-injection-locked RSOA for in-service monitoring of WDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1323–1325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tozer, T. C.

G. Biain, J. Dawson, and T. C. Tozer, “New technique for nonintrusive OTDR based on traffic data correlation,” Electron. Lett.30(17), 1443–1444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Urban, P. J.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: an OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vall-llosera, G.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: an OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vandewege, J.

Wang, A. B.

Y. C. Wang, B. J. Wang, and A. B. Wang, “Chaotic correlation optical time domain reflectometer utilizing laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1636–1638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B. J.

Y. C. Wang, B. J. Wang, and A. B. Wang, “Chaotic correlation optical time domain reflectometer utilizing laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1636–1638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. C.

Y. C. Wang, B. J. Wang, and A. B. Wang, “Chaotic correlation optical time domain reflectometer utilizing laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1636–1638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yen, A. L. L.

T. Y. Ren, S. Y. Gang, T. P. Chiong, T. T. Chin, Y. K. Shien, T. K. Leng, and A. L. L. Yen, “Development and characterization of tunable laser based optical time domain reflectometer,” in 2nd International Conference on Photonics (Kata Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2011), 1–3.

Zoboli, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Biain, J. Dawson, and T. C. Tozer, “New technique for nonintrusive OTDR based on traffic data correlation,” Electron. Lett.30(17), 1443–1444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: an OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Rad, K. Fouli, H. A. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and M. Maier, “Passive optical network monitoring: challenges and requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49(2), S45–S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Thollabandi, T. Y. Kim, S. Hann, and C. S. Park, “Tunable OTDR based on direct modulation of self-injection-locked RSOA for in-service monitoring of WDM-PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1323–1325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Lim, E. S. Son, K. H. Han, and Y. C. Chung, “Fault localization in WDM passive optical network by reusing downstream light sources,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2691–2693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Wang, B. J. Wang, and A. B. Wang, “Chaotic correlation optical time domain reflectometer utilizing laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(19), 1636–1638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Other (6)

ITU-T Recommendation G.957, Optical interfaces for equipments and systems relating to the synchronous digital hierarchy (2006).

H. Schmuck, J. Hehmann, M. Straub, and T. Pfeiffer, “Embedded OTDR techniques for cost-efficient fibre monitoring in optical access networks,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (Cannes, French, 2006), 1–2.
[CrossRef]

K. Enbutsu, N. Araki, N. Honda, and Y. Azuma, “Individual fiber line testing technique for PON using wavelength assigned FBG termination and TLS-OTDR enhanced with reflected trace analysis method,” in Joint Conference of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (Sydney, Australia, 2008), 1–2.
[CrossRef]

K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Mégret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Athens, Greece, 2008), Paper Tu.B1.1.
[CrossRef]

G. P. Temporão, G. Vilela de Faria, P. J. Urban, and J. P. von der Weid, “Fault location in passive optical networks using T-OTDR and wavelength-selective isolators,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), Paper NM2I.4.
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Ren, S. Y. Gang, T. P. Chiong, T. T. Chin, Y. K. Shien, T. K. Leng, and A. L. L. Yen, “Development and characterization of tunable laser based optical time domain reflectometer,” in 2nd International Conference on Photonics (Kata Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2011), 1–3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment setup. OLT: optical line terminal; FC: fiber coupler; OC: optical circulator; APD: avalanche photo detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time series of reference signal (a) and its cross-correlation curve with echoed probe signal of fiber fault at the distance of about 9.8 km (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The flow chart of random signal extraction with the diagrammatic sketches of step 1 (a) and step 3 (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The time series (a) and auto-correlation trace (b) of the extracted random signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)-(c) Experimental detection results of faults at 730.21, 9877.88 and 23521.89 m, (d) the magnified correlation peaks in (a) and (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The results of dual-fault events exist in the fiber line without (a) and with (b) the extraction process.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The peak noise level (PNL) of the cross-correlation as a function of the ranging distance.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The result of dirty connector and breakpoint detection.

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