Abstract

The usual configuration of uniaxial whispering gallery mode resonators is a disk shaped geometry where the optic axis points along the symmetry axis, a so called z-cut resonator. Recently x-cut resonators, where the optic axis lies in the equatorial plane, became of interest as they enable extremely broadband second harmonic generation. In this paper we report on the properties of a more generalized system, the so called angle-cut resonator, where the optic axis exhibits an arbitrary angle against the symmetry axis. We show experimentally that the modal structure and quality factors are similar to common resonators but that the polarization properties differ quite significantly: due to the asymmetry the polarization depends on the equatorial position and is, in general, elliptical.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Comm.4, 1818 (2013). PMID:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Junge, D. OShea, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Strong coupling between single atoms and nontransversal photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 213604 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

D. V. Strekalov, R. J. Thompson, L. M. Baumgartel, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, “Temperature measurement and stabilization in a birefringent whispering gallery mode resonator,” Opt. Express19, 14495–14501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ornigotti and A. Aiello, “Theory of anisotropic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A84, 013828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Alnis, A. Schliesser, C. Y. Wang, J. Hofer, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. W. Hänsch, “Thermal-noise-limited crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator for laser stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A84, 011804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic generation in a Whispering-Gallery-Mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hofer, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-Q crystalline microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A82, 031804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode-resonator-based ultranarrow linewidth external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.35, 2822–2824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sprenger, H. G. L. Schwefel, Z. H. Lu, S. Svitlov, and L. J. Wang, “CaF2 whispering-gallery-mode-resonator stabilized-narrow-linewidth laser,” Opt. Lett.35, 2870–2872 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

2006

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultra high Q crystalline microcavities,” Opt. Comm.265, 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature421, 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. B20, 333–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. N. Oraevsky, “Whispering-gallery waves,” Quantum Electronics32, 377–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. C. Simon and R. M. Echarri, “Inhibited reflection in uniaxial crystals,” Opt. Lett.14, 257–259 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Braginsky, M. Gorodetsky, and V. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1980

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett.44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, A.

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Comm.4, 1818 (2013). PMID:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ornigotti and A. Aiello, “Theory of anisotropic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A84, 013828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

J. Alnis, A. Schliesser, C. Y. Wang, J. Hofer, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. W. Hänsch, “Thermal-noise-limited crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator for laser stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A84, 011804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, U. L.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic generation in a Whispering-Gallery-Mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature421, 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barber, P. W.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett.44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baumgartel, L. M.

Beckmann, T.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benner, R. E.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett.44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

Braginsky, V.

V. Braginsky, M. Gorodetsky, and V. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Breunig, I.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buse, K.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byrd, J.

Chang, R. K.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett.44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chekhova, M. V.

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Comm.4, 1818 (2013). PMID:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collodo, M. C.

M. C. Collodo, F. Sedlmeir, B. Sprenger, S. Svitlov, L. J. Wang, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Sub-kHz lasing of a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator stabilized fiber ring laser,” arXiv:1208.0245 (2012).

de Boer, D. K. G.

Echarri, R. M.

Elser, D.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic generation in a Whispering-Gallery-Mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Förtsch, M.

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Comm.4, 1818 (2013). PMID:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fürst, J. U.

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Comm.4, 1818 (2013). PMID:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, “High-Q UV whispering gallery mode resonators made of angle-cut BBO crystals,” Opt. Express20, 21372–21378 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic generation in a Whispering-Gallery-Mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Broadband second harmonic generation in whispering gallery mode resonators,” arXiv:1303.3814 (2013).

Gorodetsky, M.

V. Braginsky, M. Gorodetsky, and V. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I. S.

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, “High-Q UV whispering gallery mode resonators made of angle-cut BBO crystals,” Opt. Express20, 21372–21378 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Strekalov, R. J. Thompson, L. M. Baumgartel, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, “Temperature measurement and stabilization in a birefringent whispering gallery mode resonator,” Opt. Express19, 14495–14501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultra high Q crystalline microcavities,” Opt. Comm.265, 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, G. Lin, and N. Yu, “Polarization conversion loss in birefringent crystalline resonators,” arXiv:1304.1046 (2013).

Haertle, D.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

J. Alnis, A. Schliesser, C. Y. Wang, J. Hofer, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. W. Hänsch, “Thermal-noise-limited crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator for laser stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A84, 011804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, J.

J. Alnis, A. Schliesser, C. Y. Wang, J. Hofer, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. W. Hänsch, “Thermal-noise-limited crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator for laser stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A84, 011804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hofer, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-Q crystalline microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A82, 031804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V.

V. Braginsky, M. Gorodetsky, and V. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Junge, C.

C. Junge, D. OShea, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Strong coupling between single atoms and nontransversal photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 213604 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

J. Alnis, A. Schliesser, C. Y. Wang, J. Hofer, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. W. Hänsch, “Thermal-noise-limited crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator for laser stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A84, 011804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hofer, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-Q crystalline microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A82, 031804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature421, 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lassen, M.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic generation in a Whispering-Gallery-Mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

Leuchs, G.

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Comm.4, 1818 (2013). PMID:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic generation in a Whispering-Gallery-Mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Liang, W.

Lin, G.

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, “High-Q UV whispering gallery mode resonators made of angle-cut BBO crystals,” Opt. Express20, 21372–21378 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Broadband second harmonic generation in whispering gallery mode resonators,” arXiv:1303.3814 (2013).

I. S. Grudinin, G. Lin, and N. Yu, “Polarization conversion loss in birefringent crystalline resonators,” arXiv:1304.1046 (2013).

Linnenbank, H.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z. H.

Maleki, L.

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode-resonator-based ultranarrow linewidth external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.35, 2822–2824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical single-sideband modulator with complete sideband suppression,” Opt. Lett.34, 1300–1302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, J. Byrd, I. Solomatine, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Crystal quartz optical whispering-gallery resonators,” Opt. Lett.33, 1569–1571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Optical resonators with ten million finesse,” Opt. Express15, 6768–6773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, D. V. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, “Parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett.32, 157–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultra high Q crystalline microcavities,” Opt. Comm.265, 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. B20, 333–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, C.

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Comm.4, 1818 (2013). PMID:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic generation in a Whispering-Gallery-Mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsko, A. B.

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode-resonator-based ultranarrow linewidth external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.35, 2822–2824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Strekalov, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and N. Yu, “Efficient upconversion of subterahertz radiation in a high-Q whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett.34, 713–715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical single-sideband modulator with complete sideband suppression,” Opt. Lett.34, 1300–1302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, J. Byrd, I. Solomatine, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Crystal quartz optical whispering-gallery resonators,” Opt. Lett.33, 1569–1571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Optical resonators with ten million finesse,” Opt. Express15, 6768–6773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, D. V. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, “Parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett.32, 157–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultra high Q crystalline microcavities,” Opt. Comm.265, 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. B20, 333–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohageg, M.

Oraevsky, A. N.

A. N. Oraevsky, “Whispering-gallery waves,” Quantum Electronics32, 377–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ornigotti, M.

M. Ornigotti and A. Aiello, “Theory of anisotropic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A84, 013828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

OShea, D.

C. Junge, D. OShea, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Strong coupling between single atoms and nontransversal photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 213604 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, J. F.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett.44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

C. Junge, D. OShea, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Strong coupling between single atoms and nontransversal photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 213604 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savchenkov, A. A.

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode-resonator-based ultranarrow linewidth external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett.35, 2822–2824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Strekalov, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and N. Yu, “Efficient upconversion of subterahertz radiation in a high-Q whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett.34, 713–715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical single-sideband modulator with complete sideband suppression,” Opt. Lett.34, 1300–1302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, J. Byrd, I. Solomatine, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Crystal quartz optical whispering-gallery resonators,” Opt. Lett.33, 1569–1571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Optical resonators with ten million finesse,” Opt. Express15, 6768–6773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, D. V. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, “Parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett.32, 157–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultra high Q crystalline microcavities,” Opt. Comm.265, 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. B20, 333–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schliesser, A.

J. Alnis, A. Schliesser, C. Y. Wang, J. Hofer, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. W. Hänsch, “Thermal-noise-limited crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator for laser stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A84, 011804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hofer, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-Q crystalline microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A82, 031804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schwefel, H. G. L.

B. Sprenger, H. G. L. Schwefel, Z. H. Lu, S. Svitlov, and L. J. Wang, “CaF2 whispering-gallery-mode-resonator stabilized-narrow-linewidth laser,” Opt. Lett.35, 2870–2872 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Collodo, F. Sedlmeir, B. Sprenger, S. Svitlov, L. J. Wang, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Sub-kHz lasing of a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator stabilized fiber ring laser,” arXiv:1208.0245 (2012).

Sedlmeir, F.

M. C. Collodo, F. Sedlmeir, B. Sprenger, S. Svitlov, L. J. Wang, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Sub-kHz lasing of a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator stabilized fiber ring laser,” arXiv:1208.0245 (2012).

Seidel, D.

Silberhorn, C.

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Comm.4, 1818 (2013). PMID:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, M. C.

Sluijter, M.

Solomatine, I.

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature421, 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprenger, B.

B. Sprenger, H. G. L. Schwefel, Z. H. Lu, S. Svitlov, and L. J. Wang, “CaF2 whispering-gallery-mode-resonator stabilized-narrow-linewidth laser,” Opt. Lett.35, 2870–2872 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Collodo, F. Sedlmeir, B. Sprenger, S. Svitlov, L. J. Wang, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Sub-kHz lasing of a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator stabilized fiber ring laser,” arXiv:1208.0245 (2012).

Steigerwald, H.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D.

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Comm.4, 1818 (2013). PMID:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultra high Q crystalline microcavities,” Opt. Comm.265, 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D. V.

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, “High-Q UV whispering gallery mode resonators made of angle-cut BBO crystals,” Opt. Express20, 21372–21378 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Strekalov, R. J. Thompson, L. M. Baumgartel, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, “Temperature measurement and stabilization in a birefringent whispering gallery mode resonator,” Opt. Express19, 14495–14501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic generation in a Whispering-Gallery-Mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Strekalov, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and N. Yu, “Efficient upconversion of subterahertz radiation in a high-Q whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett.34, 713–715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, D. V. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, “Parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett.32, 157–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Broadband second harmonic generation in whispering gallery mode resonators,” arXiv:1303.3814 (2013).

Sturman, B.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svitlov, S.

B. Sprenger, H. G. L. Schwefel, Z. H. Lu, S. Svitlov, and L. J. Wang, “CaF2 whispering-gallery-mode-resonator stabilized-narrow-linewidth laser,” Opt. Lett.35, 2870–2872 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Collodo, F. Sedlmeir, B. Sprenger, S. Svitlov, L. J. Wang, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Sub-kHz lasing of a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator stabilized fiber ring laser,” arXiv:1208.0245 (2012).

Thompson, R. J.

Vahala, K. J.

J. Li, H. Lee, K. Y. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Sideband spectroscopy and dispersion measurement in microcavities,” Opt. Express20, 26337–26344 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature421, 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volz, J.

C. Junge, D. OShea, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Strong coupling between single atoms and nontransversal photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 213604 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. Y.

J. Alnis, A. Schliesser, C. Y. Wang, J. Hofer, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. W. Hänsch, “Thermal-noise-limited crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator for laser stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A84, 011804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

B. Sprenger, H. G. L. Schwefel, Z. H. Lu, S. Svitlov, and L. J. Wang, “CaF2 whispering-gallery-mode-resonator stabilized-narrow-linewidth laser,” Opt. Lett.35, 2870–2872 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Collodo, F. Sedlmeir, B. Sprenger, S. Svitlov, L. J. Wang, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Sub-kHz lasing of a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator stabilized fiber ring laser,” arXiv:1208.0245 (2012).

Wittmann, C.

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Comm.4, 1818 (2013). PMID:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, K. Y.

Yu, N.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. B

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. B20, 333–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Comm.

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Comm.4, 1818 (2013). PMID:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature421, 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Comm.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultra high Q crystalline microcavities,” Opt. Comm.265, 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

V. Braginsky, M. Gorodetsky, and V. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A137, 393–397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

M. Ornigotti and A. Aiello, “Theory of anisotropic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A84, 013828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hofer, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-Q crystalline microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A82, 031804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Alnis, A. Schliesser, C. Y. Wang, J. Hofer, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. W. Hänsch, “Thermal-noise-limited crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator for laser stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A84, 011804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Junge, D. OShea, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Strong coupling between single atoms and nontransversal photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 213604 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett.44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic generation in a Whispering-Gallery-Mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 153901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-Threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 263904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electronics

A. N. Oraevsky, “Whispering-gallery waves,” Quantum Electronics32, 377–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. S. Grudinin, G. Lin, and N. Yu, “Polarization conversion loss in birefringent crystalline resonators,” arXiv:1304.1046 (2013).

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Broadband second harmonic generation in whispering gallery mode resonators,” arXiv:1303.3814 (2013).

M. C. Collodo, F. Sedlmeir, B. Sprenger, S. Svitlov, L. J. Wang, and H. G. L. Schwefel, “Sub-kHz lasing of a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator stabilized fiber ring laser,” arXiv:1208.0245 (2012).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) shows a picture of the MgF2 resonator mounted on a brass rod and b) illustrates the schematical cross section through the resonator with the optic axis tilted by 20°. c) Schematic of the setup: the incoupling port provides full control over the polarization state of the input beam and the cavity spectrum is measured in reflection. The outcoupling prism and the whole Stokes measurement line on the transmission side can be rotated around the symmetry axis of the resonator by an angle ϕ over a range of 100° from 125° – 225°. An infrared CCD camera can be optionally mounted to observe the farfield of the outcoupled modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) An overview spectrum from a reflection measurement is shown: the resonator exhibits a dense spectrum with different coupling contrast and slightly varying linewidths. The inset shows a single Q-factor measurement with sidebands for frequency calibration. b) shows the measurement of the coupling behavior of a mode which exhibits neither ordinary nor extraordinary properties. The relative coupling efficiency is plotted against the angle of the fast axis of the incoupling quarter-waveplate ranging from −45° (left handed circular polarized) over 0° (linearly horizontal polarized) to 45° (right handed circular polarized). The comparison with theory (straight line) indicates that the light within the resonator at the coupling position is nearly right handed circularly polarized.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The Stokes parameters of the transmitted light in the farfield are plotted against the outcoupling position (see also Fig. 1(c)). The pictures show for both, extraordinary (a) and (c) and ordinary (b) and (d) polarization, a fundamental and a higher order mode respectively (see camera pictures). One can see that the lm mode number does not influence the polarization behavior in a qualitative way. The handedness of the polarization ellipses of the two families is different which is reflected by the different signs of S3. For illustration Jones polarization ellipses are plotted at five outcoupling points for the fundamental modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Angles of the Jones polarization ellipses derived from the Stokes vector set of the fundamental ordinary (black) and extraordinary (red) modes. The straight lines show position dependent angles of actual extraordinary (red) and ordinary (black) linear eigenpolarizations within the resonators bulk material. Those angles vary due to alternation of orientation of k-vector and optic axis while the light travels around the rim.

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