Abstract

We report on the first experimental observation of dark-bright and dark-dark vector solitons in a highly birefringent cavity of all-normal-dispersion ytterbium-doped fiber laser. With the usage of different length of polarization maintaining fibers in the cavity, totally four types of vector solitons with different features were observed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. R. Menyuk, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(2), 174–176 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes,” Opt. Lett.12(8), 614–616 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. II. Arbitrary amplitudes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B5(2), 392–402 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. N. Islam, C. D. Poole, and J. P. Gordon, “Soliton trapping in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.14(18), 1011–1013 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and D. R. Andersen, “Phase-locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B12(3), 434–439 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics49(6), 5742–5754 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics51(4), 3547–3555 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 3988–3991 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(3), 354–372 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(3), 354–365 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Haelterman and A. P. Sheppard, “Polarization domain walls in diffractive or dispersive Kerr media,” Opt. Lett.19(2), 96–98 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. P. Sheppard and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarized dark solitons in isotropic Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(4), 4773–4782 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, “Vector solitons in birefringent nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Lett.13(1), 53–55 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. S. Kivshar, “Stable vector solitons composed of bright and dark pulses,” Opt. Lett.17(19), 1322–1324 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. S. Kivshar and S. K. Turitsyn, “Vector dark solitons,” Opt. Lett.18(5), 337–339 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express16(13), 9528–9533 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, “Induced solitons formed by cross-polarization coupling in a birefringent cavity fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.33(20), 2317–2319 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3059–3061 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, and X. Wu, “Polarization rotation locking of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express16(14), 10053–10058 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and R. J. Knize, “Vector dark domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express18(5), 4428–4433 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of polarization domain wall solitons in weakly birefringent cavity fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. B80(5), 052302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. H. Xu, Z. M. Yang, W. N. Zhang, X. M. Wei, Q. Qian, D. D. Chen, Q. Y. Zhang, S. X. Shen, M. Y. Peng, and J. R. Qiu, “400 mW ultrashort cavity low-noise single-frequency Yb3+-doped phosphate laser,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3708–3710 (2011).
  23. S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization locking in an isotropic, modelocked soliton Er/Yb fiber laser,” Opt. Express1(1), 12–21 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of polarization domain wall solitons in weakly birefringent cavity fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. B80(5), 052302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3059–3061 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. P. Sheppard and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarized dark solitons in isotropic Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(4), 4773–4782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization locking in an isotropic, modelocked soliton Er/Yb fiber laser,” Opt. Express1(1), 12–21 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics51(4), 3547–3555 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and D. R. Andersen, “Phase-locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B12(3), 434–439 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics49(6), 5742–5754 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Haelterman and A. P. Sheppard, “Polarization domain walls in diffractive or dispersive Kerr media,” Opt. Lett.19(2), 96–98 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

1987 (2)

C. R. Menyuk, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(2), 174–176 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes,” Opt. Lett.12(8), 614–616 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmediev, N.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics51(4), 3547–3555 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics49(6), 5742–5754 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmediev, N. N.

Andersen, D. R.

Ankiewicz, A.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics51(4), 3547–3555 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

Buryak, A. V.

Chen, D. D.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Collings, B. C.

Cundiff, S. T.

Gordon, J. P.

Haelterman, M.

Islam, M. N.

Joseph, R. I.

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. P. Sheppard and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarized dark solitons in isotropic Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(4), 4773–4782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Kivshar and S. K. Turitsyn, “Vector dark solitons,” Opt. Lett.18(5), 337–339 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Kivshar, “Stable vector solitons composed of bright and dark pulses,” Opt. Lett.17(19), 1322–1324 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knize, R. J.

Knox, W.

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Menyuk, C. R.

Peng, M. Y.

Poole, C. D.

Qian, Q.

Qiu, J. R.

Shen, S. X.

Sheppard, A. P.

A. P. Sheppard and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarized dark solitons in isotropic Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(4), 4773–4782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Haelterman and A. P. Sheppard, “Polarization domain walls in diffractive or dispersive Kerr media,” Opt. Lett.19(2), 96–98 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(3), 354–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(3), 354–372 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics51(4), 3547–3555 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and D. R. Andersen, “Phase-locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B12(3), 434–439 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics49(6), 5742–5754 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, H. Y.

Tang, D. Y.

Turitsyn, S. K.

Wei, X. M.

Wu, X.

Xiang, N.

Xu, S. H.

Yang, Z. M.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, Q. Y.

Zhang, W. N.

Zhao, L. M.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. R. Menyuk, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(2), 174–176 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (9)

S. H. Xu, Z. M. Yang, W. N. Zhang, X. M. Wei, Q. Qian, D. D. Chen, Q. Y. Zhang, S. X. Shen, M. Y. Peng, and J. R. Qiu, “400 mW ultrashort cavity low-noise single-frequency Yb3+-doped phosphate laser,” Opt. Lett.36(18), 3708–3710 (2011).

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, “Induced solitons formed by cross-polarization coupling in a birefringent cavity fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.33(20), 2317–2319 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3059–3061 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, “Vector solitons in birefringent nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Lett.13(1), 53–55 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Kivshar, “Stable vector solitons composed of bright and dark pulses,” Opt. Lett.17(19), 1322–1324 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Kivshar and S. K. Turitsyn, “Vector dark solitons,” Opt. Lett.18(5), 337–339 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Haelterman and A. P. Sheppard, “Polarization domain walls in diffractive or dispersive Kerr media,” Opt. Lett.19(2), 96–98 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Islam, C. D. Poole, and J. P. Gordon, “Soliton trapping in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.14(18), 1011–1013 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes,” Opt. Lett.12(8), 614–616 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of polarization domain wall solitons in weakly birefringent cavity fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. B80(5), 052302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (3)

N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics49(6), 5742–5754 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics51(4), 3547–3555 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Sheppard and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarized dark solitons in isotropic Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(4), 4773–4782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(20), 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configuration of fiber laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dual-peak bright GVLVS. (a) optical spectra, (b) output pulse train without PBS, (c) dark-bright pulse trains with PBS, (d) RF spectrum after PBS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sidebands dark PLVS. (a) optical spectra, (b) output pulse train without PBS, (c) dark-dark pulse trains with PBS, (d) RF spectrum after PBS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-peak bright PLVS. (a) optical spectra, (b) output pulse train without PBS, (c) dark-bright pulse trains with PBS, (d) RF spectrum after PBS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dual-peak dark GVLVS. (a) optical spectra of different length of intracavity PMFs, (b) total dark pulse train (unstable).

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