Abstract

An experimental study about four optical setups used for developing a Focused IR Light Soldering System (FILSS) for Surface Mount Technology (SMT) lead-free electronic devices specifically for Ball Grid Arrays (BGA) is presented. An analysis of irradiance and infrared thermography at BGA surface is presented, as well as heat transfer by radiation and conduction process from the surface of the BGA to the solder balls. The results of this work show that the heating provided by our proposed optical setups, measured at the BGA under soldering process, meets the high temperature and uniform thermal distribution requirements, which are defined by the reflow solder method for SMT devices.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Strauss, SMT Soldering Handbook (Newnes, 1998) Chap. 1.
  2. C. Chun-Chi, Y. Li, H. Li, and C. Wang, “Fine pitch BGA solder joint split in SMT process,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taipei, 2009) 602–605.
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kangasvieri, J. Halme, J. Vahakangas, and M. Lahti, “Broadband BGA-Via transitions for reliable RF/microwave LTCC-SiP module packaging,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 18(1), 34–36 (2008).
  4. L. Nie, M. Osterman, F. Song, J. Lo, R. Lee, and M. Pecht, “Solder ball attachment assessment of reballed plastic ball grid array packages,” IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 901–908 (2009).
  5. P. L. Tu, Y. C. Chan, K. C. Hung, and J. K. L. Lai, “Comparative study of micro-BGA reliability under bending stress,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 750–756 (2000).
  6. J. Gao, Y. Wu, and H. Ding, “Micro-BGA package reliability and optimization of reflow soldering profile,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Asian Green Electronics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, China, 2005), 135–139.
  7. Y. L. Tzeng, E. Chen, J. Y. Lai, Y. P. Wang, and C. S. Hsiao, “Stress and thermal characteristic analyses for advanced FCBGA packages,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taiwan, 2006), 1–4.
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. L. Kanuparthi, J. E. Galloway, and S. McCain, “Impact of heatsink attach loading on FCBGA package thermal performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2012), 216–223.
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Y. Jung, J. Y. Gim, J. D. Kim, C. H. Lee, M. Jimares, N. Islam, and R. Darveaux, “Study of FCMBGA with low CTE core substrate,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2009), 301–304.
  10. A. Raj and T. Latha, VLSI Design (PHI, 2008), pp. 1–4.
  11. H. G. Sy, P. Arulvanan, and P. A. Collier, “Rework and reliability of QFP and BGA lead-free assemblies,” in Proceedings of Conference on Electronics Packaging Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore,2002), 194–199.
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Dusek, M. Novak, and A. Rudajevova, “Study of the components self aligment in surface mount technology,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Seminar on Electronics Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Bad Aussee, 2012), 197–200.
  13. M. Pecht, Soldering Process and Equipment (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993), Chap.4.
  14. N. Heilmann, “A comparison of vapor phase, infrared and hot gas soldering,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Neuilly sur Seine, 1988), 70–72.
    [CrossRef]
  15. N.-C. Lee, Reflow Soldering Processes and Troubleshooting: SMT, BGA, CSP and Flip Chip Technologies (Newnes, 2002), Chap. 4.
  16. R. H. Gibbs and D. J. Lowrie, Infra-red rework station, patent number: 4,843,216 (1989)
  17. C. Anguiano, M. Félix, A. Medel, D. Salazar, and H. Márquez, “Heating capacity analysis of a focused infrared light soldering system,” in Proceedings of Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Melbourne, 2011), 2136–2140.
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Félix, C. Anguiano, A. Medel, M. Bravo, D. Salazar, H. Márquez, and J. Chacon, “Infrared thermography of integrated circuits heated by focused IR light soldering system,” in Conference of Latin America Optics and Photonics, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper LTC4.3.
  19. E. Bradley, C. Handwerker, J. Bath, R. Parker, and R. Gedney, Lead-Free Electronics (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2007), Chap. 1,5 and 10.
  20. E. P. Leng, M. Ding, W. T. Ling, N. Amin, A. I. M. Y. Lee, and A. S. M. A. Haseeb, “A study of SnAgNiCo vs Sn3.8AgO. 7Cu C5 lead free solder alloy on mechanical strength of BGA solder joint,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore, 2008), 588–594.
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Novak and F. Steiner, “Influence of intermetallic compounds growth on properties of lead-free solder joints,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Bad Aussee, 2012), 213–217.
    [CrossRef]
  22. Product information Bulletin, “64635 HLX Tungsten Halogen Lamp”.
  23. S. Bahaa and T. Malvin, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1991), Chap. 1.
  24. J. Carlton, Frames and Lenses (Slack incorporated, 2000), pp. 68.
  25. C. Pruss, E. Garbusi, and W. Osten, “Testing aspheres,” Opt. Photon. News19(4), 24–29 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Simmons and K. S. Potter, Optical Materials (Academic Press, 2000), pp. 175–176.
  27. N. A. Fomin, Speckle Photography for Fluid Mechanics Measurements (Springer-Verlag, 1998), Chap. 5.
  28. F. M. Dickey, S. C. Hoswade, and D. L. Shealy, Laser Beam Shapping Applications (Taylor & Francis, 2005), Chap. 8.
  29. Technical/ Sheet glasses, “optical-glass-n-bk7-b270-and-others-data-sheet,” http://www.crystran.co.uk/userfiles/files/optical-glass-n-bk7-b270-and-others-data-sheet.pdf
  30. R. N. Cox, Reflow Technology Handbook (Research Inc., 1992), Chap. 1.
  31. A. Locke, “Exploring Physical Optics Propagation in Zemax”, http://kb-en.radiantzemax.com/KnowledgebaseArticle50227.aspx , October 31, (2005).
  32. J. Bath, Lead-Free Soldering (Springer, 2007), Chap. 3 and 5.
  33. Edmund Optics, “Anti-Reflection (AR) Coatings,” http://www.edmundoptics.com/technical-resources-center/optics/anti-reflection-coatings/?&pagenum=2#coatingspec .
  34. W. Smith, Modern Optical Enginnering (McGraw-Hill, 2000), pp. 231.
  35. P. W. Baumeister, Optical Coating Technology (SPIE Press Monograph, 2004), chap. 1.
  36. R. R. Tummala, E. J. Rymaszewski, and A. G. Klopfenstein, Microelectronics Packaging Handbook (Springer, 1997), pp. I-322.
  37. N. F. Borrelli, “Efficiency of microlens arrays for projection LCD,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,Washington, DC,1994) 338–345.
    [CrossRef]
  38. K. Hauer and A. Höpe, “High-grade uniform light source for radiometric and photometric applications,” MAPAN24(3), 175–182 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  39. E. Bar-Kochba, S. Govil, J. P. Longtin, A. Gouldstone, and M. D. Frame, “Uniform-intensity, visible light source for in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024024 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. R. I. Rodriguez, D. Ibitayo, and P. O. Quintero, “Thermal stability characterization of the Au–Sn bonding for high-temperature applications,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging Manufacturing Technol.3(4), 549–557 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

R. I. Rodriguez, D. Ibitayo, and P. O. Quintero, “Thermal stability characterization of the Au–Sn bonding for high-temperature applications,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging Manufacturing Technol.3(4), 549–557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

K. Hauer and A. Höpe, “High-grade uniform light source for radiometric and photometric applications,” MAPAN24(3), 175–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Bar-Kochba, S. Govil, J. P. Longtin, A. Gouldstone, and M. D. Frame, “Uniform-intensity, visible light source for in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. Pruss, E. Garbusi, and W. Osten, “Testing aspheres,” Opt. Photon. News19(4), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amin, N.

E. P. Leng, M. Ding, W. T. Ling, N. Amin, A. I. M. Y. Lee, and A. S. M. A. Haseeb, “A study of SnAgNiCo vs Sn3.8AgO. 7Cu C5 lead free solder alloy on mechanical strength of BGA solder joint,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore, 2008), 588–594.
[CrossRef]

Anguiano, C.

C. Anguiano, M. Félix, A. Medel, D. Salazar, and H. Márquez, “Heating capacity analysis of a focused infrared light soldering system,” in Proceedings of Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Melbourne, 2011), 2136–2140.
[CrossRef]

Arulvanan, P.

H. G. Sy, P. Arulvanan, and P. A. Collier, “Rework and reliability of QFP and BGA lead-free assemblies,” in Proceedings of Conference on Electronics Packaging Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore,2002), 194–199.
[CrossRef]

Bar-Kochba, E.

E. Bar-Kochba, S. Govil, J. P. Longtin, A. Gouldstone, and M. D. Frame, “Uniform-intensity, visible light source for in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, E.

Y. L. Tzeng, E. Chen, J. Y. Lai, Y. P. Wang, and C. S. Hsiao, “Stress and thermal characteristic analyses for advanced FCBGA packages,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taiwan, 2006), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Chun-Chi, C.

C. Chun-Chi, Y. Li, H. Li, and C. Wang, “Fine pitch BGA solder joint split in SMT process,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taipei, 2009) 602–605.
[CrossRef]

Collier, P. A.

H. G. Sy, P. Arulvanan, and P. A. Collier, “Rework and reliability of QFP and BGA lead-free assemblies,” in Proceedings of Conference on Electronics Packaging Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore,2002), 194–199.
[CrossRef]

Darveaux, R.

B. Y. Jung, J. Y. Gim, J. D. Kim, C. H. Lee, M. Jimares, N. Islam, and R. Darveaux, “Study of FCMBGA with low CTE core substrate,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2009), 301–304.

Ding, H.

J. Gao, Y. Wu, and H. Ding, “Micro-BGA package reliability and optimization of reflow soldering profile,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Asian Green Electronics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, China, 2005), 135–139.

Ding, M.

E. P. Leng, M. Ding, W. T. Ling, N. Amin, A. I. M. Y. Lee, and A. S. M. A. Haseeb, “A study of SnAgNiCo vs Sn3.8AgO. 7Cu C5 lead free solder alloy on mechanical strength of BGA solder joint,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore, 2008), 588–594.
[CrossRef]

Dusek, K.

K. Dusek, M. Novak, and A. Rudajevova, “Study of the components self aligment in surface mount technology,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Seminar on Electronics Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Bad Aussee, 2012), 197–200.

Félix, M.

C. Anguiano, M. Félix, A. Medel, D. Salazar, and H. Márquez, “Heating capacity analysis of a focused infrared light soldering system,” in Proceedings of Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Melbourne, 2011), 2136–2140.
[CrossRef]

Frame, M. D.

E. Bar-Kochba, S. Govil, J. P. Longtin, A. Gouldstone, and M. D. Frame, “Uniform-intensity, visible light source for in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galloway, J. E.

S. L. Kanuparthi, J. E. Galloway, and S. McCain, “Impact of heatsink attach loading on FCBGA package thermal performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2012), 216–223.
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

J. Gao, Y. Wu, and H. Ding, “Micro-BGA package reliability and optimization of reflow soldering profile,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Asian Green Electronics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, China, 2005), 135–139.

Garbusi, E.

C. Pruss, E. Garbusi, and W. Osten, “Testing aspheres,” Opt. Photon. News19(4), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gim, J. Y.

B. Y. Jung, J. Y. Gim, J. D. Kim, C. H. Lee, M. Jimares, N. Islam, and R. Darveaux, “Study of FCMBGA with low CTE core substrate,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2009), 301–304.

Gouldstone, A.

E. Bar-Kochba, S. Govil, J. P. Longtin, A. Gouldstone, and M. D. Frame, “Uniform-intensity, visible light source for in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Govil, S.

E. Bar-Kochba, S. Govil, J. P. Longtin, A. Gouldstone, and M. D. Frame, “Uniform-intensity, visible light source for in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haseeb, A. S. M. A.

E. P. Leng, M. Ding, W. T. Ling, N. Amin, A. I. M. Y. Lee, and A. S. M. A. Haseeb, “A study of SnAgNiCo vs Sn3.8AgO. 7Cu C5 lead free solder alloy on mechanical strength of BGA solder joint,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore, 2008), 588–594.
[CrossRef]

Hauer, K.

K. Hauer and A. Höpe, “High-grade uniform light source for radiometric and photometric applications,” MAPAN24(3), 175–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heilmann, N.

N. Heilmann, “A comparison of vapor phase, infrared and hot gas soldering,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Neuilly sur Seine, 1988), 70–72.
[CrossRef]

Höpe, A.

K. Hauer and A. Höpe, “High-grade uniform light source for radiometric and photometric applications,” MAPAN24(3), 175–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, C. S.

Y. L. Tzeng, E. Chen, J. Y. Lai, Y. P. Wang, and C. S. Hsiao, “Stress and thermal characteristic analyses for advanced FCBGA packages,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taiwan, 2006), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Ibitayo, D.

R. I. Rodriguez, D. Ibitayo, and P. O. Quintero, “Thermal stability characterization of the Au–Sn bonding for high-temperature applications,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging Manufacturing Technol.3(4), 549–557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Islam, N.

B. Y. Jung, J. Y. Gim, J. D. Kim, C. H. Lee, M. Jimares, N. Islam, and R. Darveaux, “Study of FCMBGA with low CTE core substrate,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2009), 301–304.

Jimares, M.

B. Y. Jung, J. Y. Gim, J. D. Kim, C. H. Lee, M. Jimares, N. Islam, and R. Darveaux, “Study of FCMBGA with low CTE core substrate,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2009), 301–304.

Jung, B. Y.

B. Y. Jung, J. Y. Gim, J. D. Kim, C. H. Lee, M. Jimares, N. Islam, and R. Darveaux, “Study of FCMBGA with low CTE core substrate,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2009), 301–304.

Kanuparthi, S. L.

S. L. Kanuparthi, J. E. Galloway, and S. McCain, “Impact of heatsink attach loading on FCBGA package thermal performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2012), 216–223.
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. D.

B. Y. Jung, J. Y. Gim, J. D. Kim, C. H. Lee, M. Jimares, N. Islam, and R. Darveaux, “Study of FCMBGA with low CTE core substrate,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2009), 301–304.

Lai, J. Y.

Y. L. Tzeng, E. Chen, J. Y. Lai, Y. P. Wang, and C. S. Hsiao, “Stress and thermal characteristic analyses for advanced FCBGA packages,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taiwan, 2006), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. I. M. Y.

E. P. Leng, M. Ding, W. T. Ling, N. Amin, A. I. M. Y. Lee, and A. S. M. A. Haseeb, “A study of SnAgNiCo vs Sn3.8AgO. 7Cu C5 lead free solder alloy on mechanical strength of BGA solder joint,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore, 2008), 588–594.
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

B. Y. Jung, J. Y. Gim, J. D. Kim, C. H. Lee, M. Jimares, N. Islam, and R. Darveaux, “Study of FCMBGA with low CTE core substrate,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2009), 301–304.

Leng, E. P.

E. P. Leng, M. Ding, W. T. Ling, N. Amin, A. I. M. Y. Lee, and A. S. M. A. Haseeb, “A study of SnAgNiCo vs Sn3.8AgO. 7Cu C5 lead free solder alloy on mechanical strength of BGA solder joint,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore, 2008), 588–594.
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

C. Chun-Chi, Y. Li, H. Li, and C. Wang, “Fine pitch BGA solder joint split in SMT process,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taipei, 2009) 602–605.
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

C. Chun-Chi, Y. Li, H. Li, and C. Wang, “Fine pitch BGA solder joint split in SMT process,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taipei, 2009) 602–605.
[CrossRef]

Ling, W. T.

E. P. Leng, M. Ding, W. T. Ling, N. Amin, A. I. M. Y. Lee, and A. S. M. A. Haseeb, “A study of SnAgNiCo vs Sn3.8AgO. 7Cu C5 lead free solder alloy on mechanical strength of BGA solder joint,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore, 2008), 588–594.
[CrossRef]

Longtin, J. P.

E. Bar-Kochba, S. Govil, J. P. Longtin, A. Gouldstone, and M. D. Frame, “Uniform-intensity, visible light source for in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Márquez, H.

C. Anguiano, M. Félix, A. Medel, D. Salazar, and H. Márquez, “Heating capacity analysis of a focused infrared light soldering system,” in Proceedings of Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Melbourne, 2011), 2136–2140.
[CrossRef]

McCain, S.

S. L. Kanuparthi, J. E. Galloway, and S. McCain, “Impact of heatsink attach loading on FCBGA package thermal performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2012), 216–223.
[CrossRef]

Medel, A.

C. Anguiano, M. Félix, A. Medel, D. Salazar, and H. Márquez, “Heating capacity analysis of a focused infrared light soldering system,” in Proceedings of Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Melbourne, 2011), 2136–2140.
[CrossRef]

Novak, M.

K. Dusek, M. Novak, and A. Rudajevova, “Study of the components self aligment in surface mount technology,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Seminar on Electronics Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Bad Aussee, 2012), 197–200.

Novak, T.

T. Novak and F. Steiner, “Influence of intermetallic compounds growth on properties of lead-free solder joints,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Bad Aussee, 2012), 213–217.
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

C. Pruss, E. Garbusi, and W. Osten, “Testing aspheres,” Opt. Photon. News19(4), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pruss, C.

C. Pruss, E. Garbusi, and W. Osten, “Testing aspheres,” Opt. Photon. News19(4), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quintero, P. O.

R. I. Rodriguez, D. Ibitayo, and P. O. Quintero, “Thermal stability characterization of the Au–Sn bonding for high-temperature applications,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging Manufacturing Technol.3(4), 549–557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, R. I.

R. I. Rodriguez, D. Ibitayo, and P. O. Quintero, “Thermal stability characterization of the Au–Sn bonding for high-temperature applications,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging Manufacturing Technol.3(4), 549–557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rudajevova, A.

K. Dusek, M. Novak, and A. Rudajevova, “Study of the components self aligment in surface mount technology,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Seminar on Electronics Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Bad Aussee, 2012), 197–200.

Salazar, D.

C. Anguiano, M. Félix, A. Medel, D. Salazar, and H. Márquez, “Heating capacity analysis of a focused infrared light soldering system,” in Proceedings of Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Melbourne, 2011), 2136–2140.
[CrossRef]

Steiner, F.

T. Novak and F. Steiner, “Influence of intermetallic compounds growth on properties of lead-free solder joints,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Bad Aussee, 2012), 213–217.
[CrossRef]

Sy, H. G.

H. G. Sy, P. Arulvanan, and P. A. Collier, “Rework and reliability of QFP and BGA lead-free assemblies,” in Proceedings of Conference on Electronics Packaging Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore,2002), 194–199.
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, Y. L.

Y. L. Tzeng, E. Chen, J. Y. Lai, Y. P. Wang, and C. S. Hsiao, “Stress and thermal characteristic analyses for advanced FCBGA packages,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taiwan, 2006), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

C. Chun-Chi, Y. Li, H. Li, and C. Wang, “Fine pitch BGA solder joint split in SMT process,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taipei, 2009) 602–605.
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. P.

Y. L. Tzeng, E. Chen, J. Y. Lai, Y. P. Wang, and C. S. Hsiao, “Stress and thermal characteristic analyses for advanced FCBGA packages,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taiwan, 2006), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

J. Gao, Y. Wu, and H. Ding, “Micro-BGA package reliability and optimization of reflow soldering profile,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Asian Green Electronics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, China, 2005), 135–139.

IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging Manufacturing Technol. (1)

R. I. Rodriguez, D. Ibitayo, and P. O. Quintero, “Thermal stability characterization of the Au–Sn bonding for high-temperature applications,” IEEE Trans. Components, Packaging Manufacturing Technol.3(4), 549–557 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

E. Bar-Kochba, S. Govil, J. P. Longtin, A. Gouldstone, and M. D. Frame, “Uniform-intensity, visible light source for in situ imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(2), 024024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MAPAN (1)

K. Hauer and A. Höpe, “High-grade uniform light source for radiometric and photometric applications,” MAPAN24(3), 175–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

C. Pruss, E. Garbusi, and W. Osten, “Testing aspheres,” Opt. Photon. News19(4), 24–29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (36)

J. Simmons and K. S. Potter, Optical Materials (Academic Press, 2000), pp. 175–176.

N. A. Fomin, Speckle Photography for Fluid Mechanics Measurements (Springer-Verlag, 1998), Chap. 5.

F. M. Dickey, S. C. Hoswade, and D. L. Shealy, Laser Beam Shapping Applications (Taylor & Francis, 2005), Chap. 8.

Technical/ Sheet glasses, “optical-glass-n-bk7-b270-and-others-data-sheet,” http://www.crystran.co.uk/userfiles/files/optical-glass-n-bk7-b270-and-others-data-sheet.pdf

R. N. Cox, Reflow Technology Handbook (Research Inc., 1992), Chap. 1.

A. Locke, “Exploring Physical Optics Propagation in Zemax”, http://kb-en.radiantzemax.com/KnowledgebaseArticle50227.aspx , October 31, (2005).

J. Bath, Lead-Free Soldering (Springer, 2007), Chap. 3 and 5.

Edmund Optics, “Anti-Reflection (AR) Coatings,” http://www.edmundoptics.com/technical-resources-center/optics/anti-reflection-coatings/?&pagenum=2#coatingspec .

W. Smith, Modern Optical Enginnering (McGraw-Hill, 2000), pp. 231.

P. W. Baumeister, Optical Coating Technology (SPIE Press Monograph, 2004), chap. 1.

R. R. Tummala, E. J. Rymaszewski, and A. G. Klopfenstein, Microelectronics Packaging Handbook (Springer, 1997), pp. I-322.

N. F. Borrelli, “Efficiency of microlens arrays for projection LCD,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,Washington, DC,1994) 338–345.
[CrossRef]

R. Strauss, SMT Soldering Handbook (Newnes, 1998) Chap. 1.

C. Chun-Chi, Y. Li, H. Li, and C. Wang, “Fine pitch BGA solder joint split in SMT process,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taipei, 2009) 602–605.
[CrossRef]

T. Kangasvieri, J. Halme, J. Vahakangas, and M. Lahti, “Broadband BGA-Via transitions for reliable RF/microwave LTCC-SiP module packaging,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 18(1), 34–36 (2008).

L. Nie, M. Osterman, F. Song, J. Lo, R. Lee, and M. Pecht, “Solder ball attachment assessment of reballed plastic ball grid array packages,” IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 901–908 (2009).

P. L. Tu, Y. C. Chan, K. C. Hung, and J. K. L. Lai, “Comparative study of micro-BGA reliability under bending stress,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 750–756 (2000).

J. Gao, Y. Wu, and H. Ding, “Micro-BGA package reliability and optimization of reflow soldering profile,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Asian Green Electronics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, China, 2005), 135–139.

Y. L. Tzeng, E. Chen, J. Y. Lai, Y. P. Wang, and C. S. Hsiao, “Stress and thermal characteristic analyses for advanced FCBGA packages,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taiwan, 2006), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Kanuparthi, J. E. Galloway, and S. McCain, “Impact of heatsink attach loading on FCBGA package thermal performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2012), 216–223.
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Jung, J. Y. Gim, J. D. Kim, C. H. Lee, M. Jimares, N. Islam, and R. Darveaux, “Study of FCMBGA with low CTE core substrate,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, Ca., 2009), 301–304.

A. Raj and T. Latha, VLSI Design (PHI, 2008), pp. 1–4.

H. G. Sy, P. Arulvanan, and P. A. Collier, “Rework and reliability of QFP and BGA lead-free assemblies,” in Proceedings of Conference on Electronics Packaging Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore,2002), 194–199.
[CrossRef]

K. Dusek, M. Novak, and A. Rudajevova, “Study of the components self aligment in surface mount technology,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Seminar on Electronics Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Bad Aussee, 2012), 197–200.

M. Pecht, Soldering Process and Equipment (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993), Chap.4.

N. Heilmann, “A comparison of vapor phase, infrared and hot gas soldering,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Neuilly sur Seine, 1988), 70–72.
[CrossRef]

N.-C. Lee, Reflow Soldering Processes and Troubleshooting: SMT, BGA, CSP and Flip Chip Technologies (Newnes, 2002), Chap. 4.

R. H. Gibbs and D. J. Lowrie, Infra-red rework station, patent number: 4,843,216 (1989)

C. Anguiano, M. Félix, A. Medel, D. Salazar, and H. Márquez, “Heating capacity analysis of a focused infrared light soldering system,” in Proceedings of Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Melbourne, 2011), 2136–2140.
[CrossRef]

M. Félix, C. Anguiano, A. Medel, M. Bravo, D. Salazar, H. Márquez, and J. Chacon, “Infrared thermography of integrated circuits heated by focused IR light soldering system,” in Conference of Latin America Optics and Photonics, (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper LTC4.3.

E. Bradley, C. Handwerker, J. Bath, R. Parker, and R. Gedney, Lead-Free Electronics (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2007), Chap. 1,5 and 10.

E. P. Leng, M. Ding, W. T. Ling, N. Amin, A. I. M. Y. Lee, and A. S. M. A. Haseeb, “A study of SnAgNiCo vs Sn3.8AgO. 7Cu C5 lead free solder alloy on mechanical strength of BGA solder joint,” in Proceedings of IEEE on Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Singapore, 2008), 588–594.
[CrossRef]

T. Novak and F. Steiner, “Influence of intermetallic compounds growth on properties of lead-free solder joints,” in Proceedings of IEEE on International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Bad Aussee, 2012), 213–217.
[CrossRef]

Product information Bulletin, “64635 HLX Tungsten Halogen Lamp”.

S. Bahaa and T. Malvin, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1991), Chap. 1.

J. Carlton, Frames and Lenses (Slack incorporated, 2000), pp. 68.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed optical setups for FILSS. (a) Basic optical setup. (b) Second optical setup with ground glass diffuser beam homogenizer. (c) Third optical setup with a non-imaging homogenizer. (d) Fourth optical setup based in imaging homogenizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Heat transfer modes of proposed optical setups for FILSS.(a)Infrared heat transfer mode. (b) Conduction heat transfer mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Irradiance at working distance of proposed setups obtained from simulation. (a) Basic optical setup. (b) Optical setup based in a non-imaging homogenizer. (c) Optical setup based with an imaging homogenizer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental irradiance at working distance of the proposed optical setups for FILS. (a) Basic optical setup. (b) Optical setup with ground glass diffuser homogenizer. (c) Optical setup based in a non-imaging homogenizer. (d) Optical setup based in an imaging homogenizer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical reflow soldering temperature profile for lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy [32].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Thermo-graphic images of BGA at the peak temperature of the reflow soldering profile. (a) Basic optical setup. (b) Optical setup with ground glass diffuser beam homogenizer. (c) Optical setup based in a non-imaging homogenizer. (d) Optical setup based in an imaging homogenizer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Thermo-graphic distribution of the proposed optical setups for FILSS. (a) Basic optical setup. (b) Optical setup with ground glass diffuser beam homogenizer. (c) Optical setup based in a non-imaging homogenizer. (d) Optical setup based in an imaging homogenizer.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the components used in the proposed optical setups

Tables Icon

Table 2 Distance between elements of the proposed optical setups

Tables Icon

Table 3 Statistical data obtained from thermal image analysis

Tables Icon

Table 4 Comparative temperatures between optical setups for FILSS for the addition of AR coatings

Tables Icon

Table 5 Heat transfer analysis for the four proposed optical setups for FILSS

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D FT =| P LA1 f FL f LA1 |.
D FT = P LA1 f FL f LA1 f LA2 [ ( f LA1 + f LA2 ) a 12 ].
Q IR =V* ε s * Γ i * Γ OE * α SMT *σ*( T s 4 T SMT 4 ).
Q C =A*k*( T 1 T 2 )/ΔX.
T S >( T SMT = T 1 )> T 2 .

Metrics